The Old Red Tongue: Colofn unigryw gan Gwyn Griffiths

The Old Red Tongue: Cyflwyno’r gorau o lenyddiaeth Gymraeg mewn un gyfrol / Presenting the finest Welsh literature in one volume

In Articles/Literary

Mae The Old Red Tongue yn flodeugerdd bwysig sy’n cynnwys mwy na 300 o destunau Cymraeg — cerddi, dramâu, cofiannau, traethodau, detholiadau o nofelau a straeon byrion, emynau, molawdau, marwnadau, rhyddiaith ganoloesol, sylwebaeth wleidyddol a diwinyddol — gan tua 200 o ysgrifenwyr sy’n dod o bob cyfnod o’r 6ed ganrif i’r dydd heddiw. Yn ogystal â bod yn antholeg gynhwysfawr, mae’n unigryw am mai i bob eitem y mae cyfieithiad Saesneg ynghyd â chyflwyniad i’r awdur a’r cyd-destun. Mae’n gyflwyniad perffaith i lenyddiaeth Gymraeg ar gyfer darllenwyr parallel.cymru. Yma, mae Gwyn Griffiths, un o’r cyd-olygyddion, yn disgrifio’r prosiect, gan roi arolwg ar ei gwmpas a sut y dygwyd i fywyd.

The Old Red Tongue is a major anthology of over 300 Welsh texts – poems, plays, memoirs, essays, extracts from novels and short stories, hymns, eulogies, elegies, medieval prose, political and theological commentaries – from nearly 200 writers covering every period from the 6th century to the present day. As well as being a comprehensive anthology, it is unique in that every item has an English translation plus an introduction to the author and context. It is a perfect introduction to Welsh literature for parallel.cymru readers. Here, Gwyn Griffiths, one of the co-editors, describes the project, an overview of its scope and how it came to be brought to life.


Yn anffodus mae Gwyn a Meic wedi huno bellach, ond dysgwyr Cymraeg, ac mewn gwirionedd pawb sydd â diddordeb o unrhyw fath mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg, a fydd wastad yn ddiolchgar iddynt am y detholiad dwyieithog ardderchog hwn. Roeddem yn sefyll y tu allan, gan dybio, ac fe’n gwahoddasant i mewn a rhoi inni’r allweddi i lawer o ddrysau.

Gwyn and Meic have now sadly passed on, but Welsh learners, and indeed anyone with any kind of interest in Welsh literature, will always be grateful to them for this wonderful dual-language anthology. We stood outside, wondering, and they invited us in and gave us the keys to many doors.

Er cof am Meic Stephens, 1938 – 2018 & Gwyn Griffiths, 1941 – 2018


Roedd yr The Old Red Tongue yn brosiect uchelgeisiol a gymerodd tua phedair blynedd i’w gwblhau. I wlad fach gydag iaith na fu ganddi erioed fwy na miliwn o siaradwyr mae iddi draddodiad llenyddol rhyfeddol gyfoethog. Bûm yn gyd-olygydd cyfrol gyntaf cyfres Francis Boutle o antholegau o ieithoedd lleiafrifol Ewrop – sef y flodeugerdd Lydaweg, The Turn of the Ermine. Hon sefydlodd y patrwm i’r antholegau eraill. Cymerais ddiddordeb yn y cyfrolau ddaeth wedyn – Manaweg, Galego, Malteg, Ocsitaneg ac yn y blaen – a’r un pryd cawn fy atgoffa gan y cyhoeddwr ei bod yn hen bryd i’r Gymraeg gael ei lle yn y gyfres. The Old Red Tongue was an ambitious project that took four years to complete. For a small country with a language that may never have been spoken by more than a million people it has a phenomenally rich literary tradition. I was joint editor of the first volume in the Francis Boutle series of anthologies from Europe’s lesser used languages – the Breton anthology, The Turn of the Ermine. This became a template for the other anthologies. I took an interest in those ensuing volumes – Manx, Galician, Maltese, Occitan and so on – while being reminded from time to time by the publisher that the Welsh language deserved an anthology.
Cytunais, ond roeddwn i’n ymwybodol ei fod yn brosiect brawychus. Roedd y Gymraeg yn wahanol i’r lleill – ag eithrio Ocsitaneg efallai – gan fod iddi gymaint o gyfoeth a byddai’r dewisiadau’n anodd. Ffenest siop fyddai’r Old Red Tongue i’n traddodiad llenyddol, ond gyda’r cynllun o gyflwyniadau Saesneg, testun gwreiddiol a chyfieithiad o’r testun hwnnw, byddai yma olwg o hanes Cymru hefyd. Golwg weithiau’n wahanol i’r hyn yr ydym yn gyfarwydd ag e, a weithiau’n cynnig gwybodaeth anghyfarwydd i’r darllenydd cyffredin.I agreed, but I knew that it was a terrifying project. Welsh was different from the others – with the exception, perhaps, of Occitan – in that it had an embarrassment of riches and difficult choices would have to be made. The Old Red Tongue would be a shop window to our literary tradition, but with its format of English introductions, original text followed by a translation of that text we had the opportunity to present a view of Welsh history, too. A view that is sometimes different from what we may be familiar with, and sometimes offering information unfamiliar to the ordinary reader.
Ased mwyaf y prosiect oedd Meic Stephens. Mae ei wybodaeth o lenyddiaeth Cymru’n rhyfeddod ac y mae ei lyfrgell enfawr, wedi’i threfnu’n ofalus, bron cyn bwysiced. Yn ogystal, roedd gennym Clive Boutle o gwmni cyhoeddi Francis Boutle, gŵr amyneddgar, llawn hiwmor a brwdfrydedd i’n tywys a’n hannog i ben y daith. The greatest asset for the project was Meic Stephens. His knowledge is formidable and his vast, carefully catalogued library equally important. Added to that we had Clive Boutle of Francis Boutle Publishers, whose patience, good humour and enthusiasm saw us through to the end.
Caf fy synnu’n aml fod Cymry, hyd yn oed, yn anwybodus ynglŷn ag oed yr iaith Gymraeg a bod y farddoniaeth gynharaf ynddi wedi’i ysgrifennu yn yr ‘Hen Ogledd’ gan Aneirin a Taliesin oddeutu’r 5ed a’r 6ed ganrif. Dilynwyd hynny gan gorff o farddoniaeth a ysgrifennwyd yn yr hyn sydd bellach yn Orllewin Canolbarth Lloegr, gweithiau a briodolir i Lywarch Hen, a chylch ‘Heledd’ o gerddi. Os, fel yr ydym yn ei amau, yr ysgrifennwyd cerddi ‘Heledd’, sy’n galaru’r golled a dinistr Neuadd Cynddylan, gan ferch, yna yn y Gymraeg y cafwyd y farddoniaeth gynharaf gan ferch mewn unrhyw iaith Ewropeaidd sy’n parhau i gael ei siarad heddiw. I am often surprised that people even within Wales don’t know that the Welsh language is very old and that the earliest Welsh poetry was written in the ‘Old North’ of Scotland and England by Aneirin and Taliesin around the 5th and 6th centuries. That was followed by a body of poetry written in what is today the West Midlands of England, some of it attributed to Llywarch Hen, and the ‘Heledd’ cycle. If, as we suspect, the ‘Heledd’ poems grieving the loss and devastation of the Hall of Cynddylan were written by a woman then the Welsh language has the oldest poetry written by a woman in any living European language.
Roedd i’r bardd le pwysig yn llysoedd brenhinoedd a thywysogion Cymru, fel ag yr oedd gan y Trwbadwriaid yn llysoedd de Ffrainc, y Sgald yn Norwy ac Ynys yr Iâ a beirdd Iwerddon.The poet played an important role in the courts of the Welsh kings and princes, much like that of the Troubadours in the courts of southern France, the Skald poets of Norway and Iceland and the Irish poets.
Nod yr Old Red Tongue yw cyflwyno naws a blas yr hyn sydd orau mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg, o’r cyfnod cynnar i ddatblygiadau gwych heddiw. Yn unigryw ymhlith antholegau o lenyddiaeth Gymraeg mewn cyfieithiad, mae’n cynnwys rhyddiaith yn ogystal â barddoniaeth.The Old Red Tongue has aimed to give a taste of all that is best in Welsh language literature, from the very earliest times to the flourishing renaissance of today. Unique among anthologies of Welsh language literature in translation, it includes prose as well as poetry.
Mae Beirdd y Tywysogion a Beirdd yr Uchelwyr yn rhoi cipolwg o fywyd yn y cyfnodau cyffrous a pheryglus hynny. Mae Dafydd ap Gwilym yn cael y sylw haeddiannol un o feirdd mwyaf Ewrop ei gyfnod. Ysgrifennodd Iolo Goch yn ystod cyfnod cynnar Owain Glyndwr, ac mae gennym feirdd yn ysgrifennu tra ar ffo wedi diwedd gwrthryfel Owain Glyndwr. Mae yma feirdd a ganmolodd y Tuduriaid ac a fu’n allweddol i achos y Tuduriaid, a rhai a surodd wrth y Tuduriaid. The Poets of the Princes and the Poets of the Gentry give insight into what life was like in those turbulent times. Dafydd ap Gwilym gets all the attention due to one of Europe’s greatest poets of his time. Iolo Goch wrote in the time of Owain Glyndwr, and we have poets who wrote while in hiding after the Owain Glyndwr uprising had burned itself out. We have poets who wrote in praise of the Tudors and were vital to the Tudor cause, and those who became disillusioned with the Tudors.
Yn gefndir i’r cerddi hyn y mae datblygiad y ffurf ryfeddol hwnnw o ganu caeth – y gynghanedd. Nodwedd o draddodiad barddol gogledd Ewrop yw cyflythreniad ac y mae odl fewnol yn nodwedd bwysig o farddoniaeth trwbadwriaid de Ewrop. Ai cyfuniad o’r ddau draddodiad yna roddodd i ni berffeithrwydd cymhleth a swynol y gynghanedd. Ai dylanwadau allanol roddodd gychwyn i ddatblygiad y gynghanedd? A background to these poems is poetic embellishments such as alliteration – a feature of the northern European poetic tradition – and internal rhyme – a feature of the poetry of the southern troubadours evolving into the intricate and the musical perfection of cynghanedd. Were there external influences on the development of cynghanedd?
Mae rheswm dros gredu i draddodiad llenyddol Cymru greu argraff ar y Normaniaid. Awgrymodd W. J. Gruffydd na fyddai’r Mabinogi wedi goroesi i’n dyddiau ni, oni bai am chwaeth dda’r Normaniaid. Awgrymodd Bobi Jones y gallai ffynonellau’r Tair Rhamant – Peredur / Perceval, Iarlles y Ffynnon / Owein neu The Lady of the Fountain, a Geraint fab Erbin fod wedi dablygu yr un pryd yn y Gymraeg a’r Ffrangeg mewn cymdeithas ddwyieithog.There is reason to believe that the Normans were impressed by the literary tradition of Wales. W. J. Gruffydd suggested that the Mabinogi may not have come down to us today were it not for the good taste of the Normans. Bobi Jones suggested that the sources of the Three Romances – Peredur / Perceval, Iarlles y Ffynnon / Owein or the Lady of the Fountain, and Geraint son of Erbin may have evolved simultaneously in Welsh and French in a bilingual society.
Mentrwyd cynnwys ambell gyfieithiad – ceir dau ddarn byr o gyfieithiadau o’r Beibl sy’n hŷn na William Morgan a cheir darn byr o gyfieithiad gorchestol William Morgan oherwydd ei ddylanwad mawr ar yr iaith lenyddol Gymraeg. Rydyn ni wedi cynnwys Ystorya Trystan ac Esyllt, stori Gymraeg mewn cerdd a rhyddiaith sy’n annhebyg i stori Trystan ac Esyllt fel yr ydym ni’n gyfarwydd â hi. Ceir darnau o gynghorion Meddygon Myddfai, sy’n awgrymu cysylltiadau meddyginiaethol ledled Ewrop. Ceir darn o Historia Gruffudd vab Kenan sy’n disgrifio Brwydr Mynydd Carn. In prose we included translations from other languages – there are two short snippets of translations of the Bible into Welsh pre-dating William Morgan. There is a short extract from William Morgan’s magisterial translation of the Bible, because of its huge influence on literary Welsh. We have included Ystorya Trystan ac Esyllt, a Welsh tale in prose and verse that bears little resemblance to the story of Trystan and Esyllt as we know it. There are extracts from the Physicians of Myddfai, who must have been part of some pan-European medicinal tradition. There is an extract from Historia Gruffudd vab Kenan, about the Battle of Mynydd Carn.
Ni ddylid anghofio rhai o ddisgynyddion y rheini a ddaeth i Gymru yn sgil y Normaniaid. Daethant i ysbeilio, ond daethant o hyd i draddodiad llenyddol y daeth rhai ohonynt i’w fwynhau a daeth rhai o’u disgynyddion yn well Cymry na’r Cymry eu hunain. William Salesbury, er enghraifft, a sylweddolodd bwysigrwydd y wasg argraffu ac onibai amdano ef mae’n debygol na fyddai’r iaith Gymraeg wedi goroesi i’n dyddiau ni. Mae ei ddatganiad yn ei gyflwyniad i’r diarhebion Cymraeg a gasglwyd gan Gruffydd Hiraethog yn faniffesto dros oroesiad yr iaith, yn apêl i’w chyweirio a’i pherffeithio i’w gwneud yn gymwys ar gyfer pob defnydd a phob pwnc. Mae Gruffydd Robert Milan yma, Sion Dafydd Rhys, Cyflwyniad Richard Davies i gyfieithiad William Salesbury o’r Testament Newydd. Syniadau Dyneiddiol cain mewn rhyddiaith ardderchog...Let us not forget some of the descendants of those who came in the wake of the Normans. They came to plunder, but found a literary tradition which some came to enjoy and their descendants became better Welshmen than the Welsh themselves. William Salesbury, for example, who realised the importance of the printing press and without whom the Welsh language may not have survived to this day. His preface to the Welsh proverbs collected by Gruffydd Hiraethog is a manifesto for the survival of the language, an appeal to repair and perfect the language to make it suitable for all uses and all subjects. Gruffydd Robert Milan is here, Sion Dafydd Rhys, Richard Davies’s Introduction to Wiliam Salesbury’s translation of the New Testament. Fine Humanist ideas in splendid prose...
Awn rhagom drwy’r canrifoedd yng nghwmni Morgan Llwyd, Elis Wyn, y Ficer Rhys Prichard at yr emynwyr mawr, Williams Pantycelyn ac Ann Griffiths. Wedyn daeth radicaliaid a heddychwyr 19eg ganrif – Samuel Roberts, Gwilym Hiraethog a Henry Richard. Yn yr 20fed ganrif gwelwyd adfywiad rhyfeddol a adlewyrchir yn y ffaith bod hanner y llyfr wedi’i neilltuo i’r ganrif honno. T. Gwynn Jones, O. M. Edwards, Saunders Lewis, Waldo Williams, Gwenallt, Parry-Williams, Williams Parry – mae’n rhestr ddiddiwedd. And on through the centuries with Morgan Llwyd, Elis Wyn, the Vicar Rhys Prichard to the great hymn writers, Williams Pantycelyn and Ann Griffiths. The hymn writers and the Revivals were followed by the radical writers and pacifists of the 19th century – Samuel Roberts, Gwilym Hiraethog and Henry Richard. The 20th century saw an astonishing renaissance which is reflected in the fact that half the book is devoted to that century. T. Gwynn Jones, O. M. Edwards, Saunders Lewis, Waldo Williams, Gwenallt, Parry-Williams, Williams Parry – it is an endless list.
Lle mae cyfieithiadau da yn bodoli fe’u defnyddiwyd. Y tri meistr mwyaf diwyd o gyfieithwyr o’r Gymraeg i’r Saesneg yn yr 20fed ganrif oedd Gwyn Williams, Tony Conran a Joseph Clancy. Ychwanegaf enw Meic Stephens at y tri nodedig yna am ei gyfraniad enfawr fel cyfieithydd llawer o awduron yr 20fed ganrif, yn eu plith Saunders Lewis, Islwyn Ffowc Elis a Rhydwen Williams. Yr ydym wedi cynnwys cyfieithiadau gan eraill, y cynharaf mae’n debyg oedd Ieuan Brydydd Hir yn y 18fed ganrif. Roeddent yn bwysig er mwyn i’r darllenydd gael blas o gyfieithiadau o ganrifoedd eraill.Where fine translations exist they have been used. The three masters of translations from Welsh into English in the 20th century were Gwyn Williams, Tony Conran and Joseph Clancy. I shall add the name of Meic Stephens to that distinguished trio for his huge contribution as translator of many of our 20th century writers including Saunders Lewis, Islwyn Ffowc Elis and Rhydwen Williams. We have included translations by others, the earliest I think was Ieuan Brydydd Hir in the 18th century. We thought it important that readers should have a taste of translations from other centuries.
Ac eithrio rhai testunau Lladin, yn arbennig er mwyn bwrw golwg ar hanes cynnar yr Eglwys Geltaidd, ac ychydig o ddarnau byr gan Gildas, Nennius, Sieffre o Fynwy a Gerallt Gymro, rydym wedi osgoi cynnwys testunau o unrhyw iaith heblaw’r Gymraeg. With the exception of some Latin texts notably those casting light on the history of the Celtic Church, and a few short extracts from Gildas, Nennius, Geoffrey of Monmouth and Gerald of Wales we have avoided including texts from any other language but Welsh.
Gwyn Griffiths, mis Tachwedd 2017.Gwyn Griffiths, November 2017.

Nod yr Old Red Tongue yw cyflwyno naws a blas yr hyn sydd orau mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg, o’r cyfnod cynnar i ddatblygiadau gwych heddiw.

Cyhoeddir The Old Red Tongue (golygyddion: Gwyn Griffiths a Meic Stephens) gan Francis Boutle, Llundain, pris £30
The Old Red Tongue (editors: Gwyn Griffiths and Meic Stephens) is published by Francis Boutle, London, price £30.

Gwyn Griffiths (ar y chwith) a Meic Stephens (ar y dde).

Gwyn Griffiths a Meic Stephens
Lawrlwythwch yr erthygl fel PDF / Download the article as PDF

Rhestr o gynnwys / List of contents

The Celtic Church and the Age of Saints
Anonymous:
Liber Landavensis/Lyvr Teilo
Rhygyfarch:
Buchedd Dewi/Life of St David

The Chroniclers
Gildas:
De Excidio Britanniae/On the destruction of Britain
Nennius:
Historia Brittonum/History of the Britons

Early poetry
Aneirin:
Y Gododdin/The Gododdin
Taliesin:
I Urien Rheged/In praise of Urien Rheged
Gweith Argoet Llwyfein/The Battle of Argoed Llwyfain
Anonymous:
Claf Abercuawg/The Leper of Aber Cuawg
Anonymous
Galargan Llywarch Hen/The Complaint in Old Age
Anonymous:
Stafell Gynddylan/ The Hall of Cynddylan
Eryr Pengwern/The Eagle of Pengwern
Englynion y Beddau/Stanzas of the Graves
Anonymous:
Armes Prydein/The Prophecy of Britain
Anonymous:
Peis Dinogad/Song for a Small Boy
Anonymous:
Preidau Annwn/The Spoils of Annwn
Anonymous:
Moliant Dinbych Penfro/Praise of Tenby
Anonymous:
Tristwch yn y Gwanwyn/Sadness in Springtime
Anonymous:
Gogoneduac Argluit/Benediction
Anonymous
Boddi Maes Gwyddneu/The Drowning of Maes Gwyddno
Anonymous:
Gwirebau/Gnomic Stanzas

Triads of the Isle of Britain
Anonymous:
Enweu Ynys Prydein/Names for the Isle of Britain
Detholiad o Drioedd/A selection of Triads
Trioedd y Meirch/Triads of Horses
Pedwar Marchog ar Hugain Llys Arthur/The Twenty-four Knights of Arthur’s Court
Variations on the Triads

Medieval Prose
Anonymous:
Pedair Cainc y Mabinogi/The Four Branches of the Mabinogi
Anonymous:
Y Tair Rhamant/The Three Romances
Anonymous:
Trystan ac Esyllt/Trystan and Esyllt
Geoffrey of Monmouth:
Historia Regum Britanniae/A History of the Kings of Britain
Gerald of Wales:
Itinerarium Kambriae/Itinerary through Wales
Descriptio Kambriae/Description of Wales
Anonymous:
The Laws of Hywel Dda
Anonymous:
Early translations of the Bible
Meddygon Myddfai/The Physicians of Myddfai
Brwydr Mynydd Carn/The Battle of Mynydd Carn

Poets of the Princes
The Bardic Order
A note on cynghanedd
Meilyr Brydydd:
Marwysgafyn veilyr brydyt/Deathbed poem
Owain Cyfeiliog:
Hirlas Owain/Owain’s Drinking Horn
Gwalchmai ap Meilyr:
Arwyrain Owain Gwynedd/The Battle of Tâl Moelfre
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd:
Gorhoffet/Exultation
Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr:
Maruned Madawc fil Maredut/Lament for Madawg ap Maredudd
Peryf ap Cedifor:
Marwnad Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd/Lament for Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd
Einion ap Gwalchmai:
I Nest ferch Hywel/Lament for Nest
Madog ap Gwallter:
I Grist/The Nativity
Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch:
Marwnad Llywelyn ap Gruffudd/Lament for Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Gruffudd ap Dafydd ap Tudur:
I Ferch/To a Girl

Dafydd ap Gwilym
Offeren y Llwyn/The Woodland Mass
Y Deildy/The House of Leaves
Y Bardd a’r Brawd Llwyd/The Poet and the Grey Friar
Merched Llanbadarn/The Girls of Llanbadarn
Y Gwynt/The Wind
Trafferth mewn Tafarn/In a Tavern
Cywydd y Gal/Reproach to his Penis

Poets of the Gentry
Gruffudd Gryg:
Yr Ywen uwchben bedd Dafydd ap Gwilym/The Yew Tree (above Dafydd ap Gwilym’s grave)
Llywelyn Goch ap Meurig Hen:
Marwnad Lleucu Llwyd/Lament for Lleucu Llwyd
Dafydd Bach ap Madog Wladaidd (Sypyn Cyfeiliog):
Croeso mewn llys/Welcome at a great house
Iolo Goch:
I Syr Hywel y Fwyall/To Sir Hywel of the Axe
Cywydd y Llafurwr/The Ploughman
Llys Owain Glyndŵr/Owain Glyndŵr’s Court at Sycharth
Gruffudd Llwyd ap Dafydd ab Einion Llygliw:
I Owain Glyndŵr/To Owain Glyndŵr
Llywelyn ap Moel y Pantri:
I frwydr Waun Gaseg/The Battle of Waun Gaseg
Rhys Goch Eryri:
I’r Llwynog/To the Fox
Ieuan Tew:
Kowydd i’r Herwyr/Cywydd to the Outlaws
Dafydd Nanmor:
Marwnad Merch/Lament for Gwen
Siôn Cent:
I Wagedd ac Oferedd y Byd/The Vanity of the World
Ieuan ap Gruffydd Leiaf:
Dafydd ap Siencyn/To Dafydd ap Siencyn
Tudur Penllyn:
Cywydd Moliant i Ddafydd ap Siencyn/In Praise of Dafydd ap Siencyn
I Saison Flint/The Englishmen of Flint
Dafydd Llwyd ap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd:
Cywydd i’r Brenin Richard/Cywydd to King Richard
Cywydd i’r Brenin Harri’r Seithfed/Cywydd to King Henry VII
Guto’r Glyn:
Moliant i Fathau Goch o Faelor/In Praise of Matthew Gough of Maelor
Moliant i Syr Rhisiart Gethin/In praise of Sir Richard Gethin
Cywydd Gofyn am Gorn Hela/A Cywydd to request a Hunting Horn
Marwnad i Lywelyn ab y Moel/Lament for Llywelyn ab y Moel
Robert ap Gruffudd Leia:
Cywydd i Galais a’i Milwyr/Cywydd to Calais and its Soldiers
Dafydd ab Edmwnd:
I Wallt Merch/To a Girl’s Hair
Marwnad Siôn Eos/Lament for Siôn Eos
Tudur Aled:
I Ofyn March/To ask for a Stallion
Cywydd cymod/A Plea for Peace
Lewys Glyn Cothi (Llywelyn y Glyn):
Marwnad Siôn y Glyn/Lament for Siôn y Glyn
Dychan i Wŷr Gaer/Satire on the Men of Chester
Gwerful Mechain:
Cywydd y Cedor/The Female Genitals
Llywelyn ap Hywel:
Cwyn yn erbyn Harri VII/Complaint to Henry VII

The 16th and 17th centuries
Anonymous:
Coed Glyn Cynon/The Woods of Cynon
Richard Davies:
Rhagait i Gyfieith/Preface to William Salesbury’s translation of the New Testament
John Prys:
Yn y Llyvyr hwnn…/In this Book…
Lewys Morgannwg:
Cywydd Illtud Sant/Cywydd to St. Illtud
Awdl Foliant i Lleision, Abad Nedd/Ode in praise of Lleision, Abbot of Neath
Moliant Mair o Ben-rhys/In Praise of the Virgin Mary of Pen-rhys
William Salesbury:
Oll Synnwr y Pen Kembero Ygyd/All the Wisdom in a Welshman’s Head
Siôn Tudur:
Cywydd i’r Beirdd/Warning to the Poets
Gruffydd Robert:
Dosbarth byrr…/A Short Petition…
Siôn Dafydd Rhys (John Davies):
Cambrobrytannicae Cymraeccaeve Linguae Institutiones et Rudimenta/The Principles and Essence of the Welsh Language
Edmwnd Prys:
Balet Cymraeg/A Welsh Ballad
William Morgan:
Psalm Dafydd/The Twenty-third Psalm
Rhys Prichard (Yr Hen Ficer):
Dyledswydd Plant i’w Rhieni/The Duty of Children to their Parents
Awn i Fethlem/Let us go to Bethlehem
Wiliam Phylip:
Ffarwel i Hendre Fechan/A Leave-taking
Wiliam Cynwal:
O Blaid y Gwragedd/In Defence of Woman
Morgan Llwyd:
Llyfr y Tri Aderyn/Book of the three birds
Huw Morus (Eos Ceiriog):
I Hyfawl Rian/In Praise of a Girl
Anonymous:
Stanzas for the harp

The 18th century
Ellis Wynne:
Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc/Vision of the World
Lewis Morris (Llywelyn Ddu o Fôn):
Cywydd y Rhew a’r Eira/Poem of the Frost and Snow
Caniad y Gog i Feirionnydd/The Cuckoo’s Song for Meirionnydd
Dafydd Jones:
Mae plant y byd yn holi/Men of the world are asking
Morgan Rhys :
Beth sydd imi yn y byd?/What have I in all my life?
Pan sycho’r moroedd dyfnion maith/When oceans vast their depths reveal
Pantycelyn (William Williams):
Arglwydd, arwain trwy’r anialwch/Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah
Rwy’n edrych dros y bryniau pell/I look across the distant hills
Pererin wyf mewn anial dir/Pilgrim
Mi dafla’ ’maich oddi ar fy ngwar/I’ll throw my burden from my back
Dafydd Wiliam:
Yn y dyfroedd mawr a’r tonnau/In the waves and mighty waters
Goronwy Owen (Goronwy Ddu o Fôn):
Unig Ferch y Bardd/The Poet’s Only Daughter
Cywydd y Farn Fawr/Domesday
Evan Evans (Ieuan Fardd, Ieuan Brydydd Hir):
Llys Ifor Hael/The Hall of Ifor Hael
Twm o’r Nan (Thomas Edwards):
Cyfoeth a Thlodi/Riches and Poverty
Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams):
Cywydd i Yrru yr Haf i Annerch Morganwg/To Send the Summer to Address Glamorgan
Cân y Fronfraith/Song of the Thrush
Hugh Jones:
O! tyn y gorchudd yn y mynydd hyn/O pull aside the veil
Thomas William Bethesda’r Fro:
’Rwyf innau’n un o’r lliaws mawr/I also, like so many more
David Charles:
Rhagluniaeth fawr y nef/Great providence of heaven
Mae ffrydiau’n gorfoledd yn tarddu/From life’s dreary desert ascending
Jac Glan-y-gors (John Jones):
Seren tan Gwmwl/The Morning Star of Liberty
Pedr Fardd (Peter Jones):
Cyn llunio’r byd, cyn lledu’r nefoedd wen/Far before time, beyond creation’s dawn
Ann Griffiths:
Er mai gwbwl groes i nattur/Though altogether against nature
Wele’n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd/There he stands between the myrtles
O am gael ffydd i edrych/O to have faith to look

The 19th century
Ieuan Glan Geirionydd (Evan Evans):
Ysgoldy Rhad Llanrwst/The Free School-house, Llanrwst
Alun (John Blackwell):
Cathl i’r Eos/Song to the Nightingale
Samuel Roberts (S.R.):
Credo Heddychwr/A Pacifist’s Credo
Eben Fardd (Ebenezer Thomas):
Dinistr Jerusalem/Jerusalem destroyed
Gwilym Hiraethog (William Rees):
Llythyr ’Rhen Ffarmwr/To the Editors of Yr Amserau
Cariad fel y moroedd/Love vast as the ocean
Ieuan ap Iago (Evan James):
Hen Wlad fy Nhadau/Land of my Fathers
Lewis Edwards:
Barddoniaeth y Cymry/The Poetry of the Welsh
Llenyddiaeth a Gwyddiant/Literature and Science
Talhaiarn (John Jones):
Plygeingân/A Morning Song
Henry Richard:
Echryslonrwydd Rhyfel/The Atrocity of War
R. J. Derfel:
Pethau a wnawn pe gallwn/What I would do if I could
Cyhoeddi yn y Gymraeg/Welsh publishing
Glasynys (Owen Wynne Jones):
Noson yn yr Hafod/A Merry Evening at the Hafod
Islwyn (William Thomas):
Y Storm/The Storm
Gwel, uwchlaw cymylau amser/Hymn
John Ceiriog Hughes:
Alun Mabon
Nant y Mynydd/Mountain Brook
Daniel Owen:
Wil Bryan ar y Seiat/Will Bryan on the Fellowship
Dydd o Brofedigaeth/Day of Tribulation
Glanffrwd (William Thomas):
Guto Nythbran/A Champion Runner
Emrys ap Iwan (Robert Ambrose Jones):
Breuddwyd Pabydd wrth ei Ewyllys/A Catholic’s Dream
Homiliau/Keep Yourselves a Nation
Anonymous:
Tanchwa Arall yng Nglofa y Morfa/Another explosion at Morfa Colliery
Llosgiad corff Dr Price/Cremation of Dr Price

The 20th century and early 21st centuries
O. M. Edwards:
Hen Gapel Llwyd/The Old Chapel
Ysgol y Pentref/The Village School
Enaid Cenedl/The Soul of a Nation
Elfed (Howell Elvet Lewis):
Cofia’n gwlad/Remember our country
John Morris-Jones:
Cwyn y Gwynt/The Wind’s Lament
Eifion Wyn (Eliseus Williams):
Cantref y Gwaelod/The Lowland Hundred
Eluned Morgan:
Arswyd y Môr/Fear of the Sea
T. Gwynn Jones:
Ystrad Fflur
Argoed
Crwys (William Williams):
Dysgub y Dail/Gathering Leaves
T. E. Nicholas:
Hiraeth am Forgannwg/Hiraeth for Glamorgan
Dewi Emrys (David Emrys James)
Pwllderi
W. J. Gruffydd:
Yr Ieuainc wrth yr Hen/The Young to the Old
Ywen Llanddeiniolen/The Yew of Llanddeiniolen
R. Williams Parry:
Y Llwynog/Fox
Eifionydd
D. J. Williams:
Yr Hen Dŷ Fferm/The Old Farm House
Tŷ Lodjin/In Lodgings
Hedd Wyn (Ellis Humphrey Evans):
Rhyfel/War
T. H. Parry-Williams:
Tŷ’r Ysgol/The School House
Yr Esgyrn Hyn/These Bones
Hon/This Country
Dychwelyd/Return
Kate Roberts:
Dim llythyr gan Twm/No Letter from Twm
Te yn y Grug /Tea in the Heather
Saunders Lewis:
Y Dilyw, 1939/The Deluge, 1939
Buchedd Garmon
Siwan
Cynan (Albert Evans-Jones):
Anfon y Nico/A Message Home
B. T. Hopkins:
Rhos Helyg
D. Gwenallt Jones:
Y Meirwon/The Dead
Y Dirwasgiad/The Depression
Sir Forgannwg a Sir Gaerfyrddin/Glamorgan and Carmarthenshire
E. Prosser Rhys:
Atgof/Memory
Iorwerth C. Peate:
Nant-yr-eira
Carol y Crefftwr/The Craftsman’s Carol
J. Kitchener Davies:
Sŵn y Gwynt sy’n Chwythu/The Sound of the Wind that is Blowing
T. Rowland Hughes:
Emyn/Hymn
Bwrw i’r Afon/Thrown in the river
Y nefoedd, dyma le!/Heavens, here’s a place!
Waldo Williams:
Geneth Ifanc/A Young Girl
Mewn Dau Gae/In Two Fields
Preseli
Pa Beth yw Dyn?/What is Man?
Wedi’r Canrifoedd Mudan/After Silent Centuries
Caradog Prichard:
Y Fargen/The Bargain
Un Nos Ola’ Leuad/One Moonlit Night
Thomas Parry:
Llywelyn Fawr/Llywelyn the Great
John Gwilym Jones:
Y Goeden Eirin/The Plum Tree
Euros Bowen:
Danadl ym Mai/Nettles in May
Pŵer y Gerdd/The Power of Song
Hyn sy’n Fawl/This is Praise
T. J. Morgan:
Defaid yn y Rhondda/Sheep in the Rhondda
Aneirin Talfan Davies:
Yr Artist yng Nghymru /The Artist in Wales
J. R. Jones:
Protestio protestio/Protest protest
Pennar Davies:
Cathl i’r Almonwydden/A Song for the Almond Tree
Nicé Adeiniog Samothrace/The Winged Niké of Samothrace
Disgyrchiant/Gravity
J. Gwyn Griffiths:
Yr Hen Iaith/The Old Language
Abw Simbel/Abu Simbel
Selyf Roberts:
Fioledau a Chlychau/Of Violets and Bells
Alun Llywelyn-Williams:
Cofio’r Tridegau/Remembering the Thirties
Y Gwrth-Gyrch/The Counter-Attack
Ar Ymweliad/On a Visit
D. Tecwyn Lloyd:
Bore da, Lloyd/Good morning, Lloyd
J. G. Williams:
Fy niwrnod olaf yn y carchar/A bloody rebel
Rhydwen Williams:
Y Ffynhonnau/Mountain Streams
Dyfnallt Morgan:
Y Llen/The Curtain
Emyr Humphreys:
Poughkeepsie
W. S. Jones:
Preifet Enterpryis/On Private Enterprise
Marion Eames:
Y Stafell Ddirgel/The Inner Light
I Hela Cnau/The Golden Road
Robin Williams:
Cusan Sanctaidd/An Holy Kiss
Islwyn Ffowc Elis:
Harri’n dod adref/A Homecoming
Hen Wraig y Bala/The Old Woman of Bala
Y Rhaid Sydd Arnaf/The Imperative upon Me
T. Glynne Davies:
Yr Hwsmon/The Bailiff
Nwy yn y Ffosydd/Gas in the Trenches
Gareth Alban Davies:
Caer Bwlch-y-Clawdd
Gwerin Chile/The Chilean People
Bobi Jones (R. M. Jones):
Gyrrwr Trên/Engine Driver
Menyw Feichiog/A Pregnant Woman
Yn yr Hwyr/In the Evening
Dafydd Rowlands:
Llifo’i Wraig yn Ddwy/Sawing his Wife in Half
Sgidiau Bach Llandeilo/The Little Llandeilo Boots
Gwenlyn Parry:
Y Saer Doliau/The Doll Doctor
R. Cyril Hughes:
Y Frenhines yn Siarad Cymraeg/The Queen Speaks Welsh
Harri Pritchard Jones:
Y Wyrth/The Miracle
Bryan Martin Davies:
Glas/Blue
Fioled/Violet
R. Gerallt Jones:
Y Gwrandawr/The Listener
Yasnaya Polyana
Dic Jones (Richard Lewis Jones):
Gofyn am Godiad Cyflog/Petition for a Pay-rise
Medi/Reaping
Galarnad/Lamentation
T. James Jones:
Iau/Thursday
Sul/Sunday
T. Arfon Williams:
Y Llechfaen/Quarry
Mis Mai/The Month of May
Gwyn Thomas:
Hen Beth/An Old Thing
Ceffylau/Horses
Wedi Byw/Lived a Life
John Rowlands:
Y tanciau Sofietaidd/The Soviet invasion
Jane Edwards:
Blind Dêt/Only for a walk
Gareth Miles:
Cenhadon Hedd/Keepers of the Peace
Eigra Lewis Roberts:
Gormod o Haul/An Overdose of Sun
Donald Evans:
Diwrnod Lladd Mochyn/Pig Killing Day
Gwerin/The People
Derec Llwyd Morgan:
Helynt Cofrestru’r Fechan/Trouble Registering the Little One
Meirion Pennar:
Ceinciau Mabinogi/Branches of a Mabinogi
Gerallt Lloyd Owen:
Etifeddiaeth/Inheritance
I’r Farwolaeth/To the Death
Fy Ngwlad/My Country
Nesta Wyn Jones:
Cae o Wenith/A Field of Wheat
Heini Gruffudd:
Cymru Sicstinein/Wales Sixty-nine
D. Cyril Jones:
Dolenni/Links
Manon Rhys:
Cwtsho/Cwtshing
Alan Llwyd:
Y Gymraeg/The Welsh Language
Yr Hebog uwch Felindre/The Hawk above Felindre
Dafydd Huws (Goronwy Jones)
Ar y Clwt/Down-and-out
Geraint Jarman:
Dad a minne/Dad and me
Menna Elfyn:
Byw, Benywod, Byw/Live, Sisters, Live
Misglwyf – Mis-y-clwyf/Bleedings
Tony Bianchi:
Eric ’n’ Ernie
Aled Islwyn:
Stori Linda/Linda’s Story
Mihangel Morgan:
Ymddiddan/Conversation
Te gyda’r Frenhines/Tea with the Queen
Christine James:
Disgwyl: Aber-fan, Hydref 2006/in expectation: Aberfan, October 2006
Myrddin ap Dafydd:
Y Cabinet Rhyfel/The War Cabinet
Gwenllian
Iwan Llwyd
Iawn, gei di ofyn cwestiwn personol/Sure, you can ask me a personal question
Far Rockaway
Emyr Lewis:
Molawd Gwleidyddion Ffrainc/In Praise of French Politicians
Taliesin
Robin Llywelyn:
Amser y Gwcw yw Ebrill a Mai/The Cuckoo’s Time is April and May
Angharad Tomos:
Dyddiadur Carchar/A Prison Diary
Gwyneth Lewis:
Cyfweliad â’r Bardd/Interview with the Poet
Y Munudau Olaf/The Final Minutes
Jon Gower:
Breision/Bunting
Wiliam Owen Roberts:
Y Pla/Pestilence
Ifor ap Glyn:
Ciwcymbars Wolverhampton/The Cucumbers of Wolverhampton
Sonia Edwards
Prynhawn Gwyn/A White Afternoon
Aled Lewis Evans:
Cyffes/A Confession
Elin ap Hywel:
Cawl/Soup
Meirion MacIntyre Huws:
Cydwybod/Conscience
Gerwyn Wiliams:
Washington
Grahame Davies:
Coch/Red
Mererid Hopwood:
Tacsi/Taxi
Ceri Wyn Jones:
Galwad Ffôn/A Phone call
Meleri Wyn James:
Stripio/The Stripper