Rhea Seren Phillips Welsh Poetic Form and Metre- a History

Rhea Seren Phillips: Ffurf & Mesur Barddonol Cymraeg: Hanes / Welsh Poetic Form & Metre: A History

Yn Barddoniaeth yng Nghymru gyda Rhea Seren/Ffurfiol

Mae Rhea Seren Phillips yn fyfyriwr PhD ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe sy’n ymchwilio i sut y gellir defnyddio ffurfiau a mesurydd barddonol Cymraeg i ailystyried hunaniaeth ddiwylliannol Gymreig gyfoes ac i ennyn diddordeb yn hon. Yma, mae’n esbonio cynghanedd a cherdd dafod, safle beirdd yn y gymdeithas ganoloesol, a sut y mae’n dehongli gwaith y beirdd ar gyfer y rheini nad ydynt yn siarad Cymraeg…

Rhea Seren Phillips is a PhD student at Swansea University, who is investigating how the Welsh poetic forms and meter can be used to reconsider and engage with contemporary Welsh cultural identity. Here, she takes us through an explanation of cynghanedd and cerdd dafod, the position of poets in medieval society and how she is interpreting their work for those who don’t speak Welsh…

Ymddangosodd y fersiwn Saesneg o’r erthygl hon yn wreiddiol yn The Luxembourg Review.
The English version of this article originally appeared in The Luxembourg Review.

Hanes ac ychydig mwy
Mae’r Gymraeg yn iaith liwgar a bywiog. Ei chlywed hi’n cael ei defnyddio yw gwrando ar gerddoriaeth, a’i deall hi yw bod yn rhan o ddiwylliant sy’n bodoli ers canrifoedd. Mae mwy i Gymru nag ei hiaith (a dydw i ddim yn sôn am fwyd), mae barddoniaeth Gymraeg wedi’i dylanwadu gan, ac wedi’i hysgrifennu gan ddefnyddio, cerdd dafod a chynghanedd er y bumed ganrif o leiaf. Mae’n rhan o’n diwylliant sy wedi datblygu’n uniongyrchol dan ddylanwad yr iaith Cymraeg.
History and a Little Bit More
The language of Wales is vivid and vivacious. To hear it spoken is to listen to music and to understand it is to be part of a culture that has existed for centuries. There is more to Wales than its language (and I’m not talking about food), Welsh poetry has been influenced and written in the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd since at least the fifth century. It is a part of our culture that has evolved directly under the influence of the Welsh language.
Mae cerdd dafod (ffurfiau barddonol Cymraeg) a chynghanedd (mesur Cymraeg) yn dal i gael eu defnyddio ledled Cymru heddiw, yn enwedig yn yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol flynyddol, er enghraifft. Mae’r gerdd dafod yn cynnwys pedair ffurf farddonol ar hugain sy’n defnyddio odl fewnol a diweddawdl gyda llawer o bennill yn amrywio o ddwy i bedair llinell. Mae i gynghanedd bedwar mesur sy’n defnyddio cyflythreniad, odli, a chytgord rhwng y cytseiniaid i gyfantoli seiniau oddi mewn i linell. Mae’r wyth ffurf farddonol ar hugain hyn, yn ogystal â’r mesur, yn ôl-ddyddio i’r cyfnod pan fu Cymru’n genedl annibynnol, a pan gafodd llysiau Tywysogion Cymru eu hysbrydoli gan leisiau barddol meistri ar eu crefft.The cerdd dafod (Welsh poetic forms) and cynghanedd (Welsh metre) remains in use throughout modern Wales, with the most notably example being the annual Eisteddfod. The cerdd dafod comprises of twenty-four poetic forms that involve internal and end rhyme with many stanzas ranging from two to four lines. The cynghanedd is made up of four metres that use alliteration, rhyme and consonantal harmony to balance the sounds within a line. These twenty-eight poetic forms and metre date back to when Wales was an independent nation and the courts of the Princes of Wales were informed by the poetic voices of master craftsmen.
Roedd un o’r esiamplau enwocaf a chynharaf o’r gerdd dafod a chynghanedd mewn barddoniaeth ganoloesol Gymraeg yn ystod y bumed a’r chweched ganrif pan oedd beirdd megis Aneirin a Taliesin, beirdd mawr Cymru, yn ysgrifennu yn y ffurfiau a mesurau hyn. Nid ydym ni’n gwybod pryd y cychwynnodd y gerdd dant a chynghanedd ond mae’n siŵr mai wrth i’r iaith Gymraeg ddatblygu, fe ddatblygodd barddoniaeth Cymraeg ochr yn ochr â hi. Yn ystod y canrifoedd canlynol, trawsnewidiwyd y gerdd dant a chynghanedd yn hanfodol ond nid cyfundrefnwyd hyn yn ffurfiol nes y drydedd ganrif ar ddeg.One of the most famous and earliest examples of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd in Welsh medieval poetry was during the fifth and sixth century where poets such as Aneirin and Taliesin, the great bards of Wales, wrote in these forms and metre. There is no known beginning of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd but it is certain that as the Welsh language evolved Welsh poetry matured alongside it. During the following centuries the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd underwent a critical transformation but it wasn’t to be formally codified until the thirteenth century.
Digwyddodd y newid mwyaf trawiadol yn ystod y ddeuddegfed ganrif a’r drydedd ganrif ar ddeg ymhlith y frwydr dros annibyniaeth Gymreig. Cyn i’r Tywysog Llywelyn ap Gruffudd farw ym 1282, cafodd beirdd y fraint o fod yn aelodau parchedig y llys. ‘Beirdd y Tywysogion’ oedd enw ar y beirdd hyn.The most striking transformation took place during the twelfth and thirteenth century amidst the battle for Welsh independence. Prior to the death of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1282, poets were afforded the privilege of being a respected member of court. These poets were known as the Poets of the Princes (Beirdd y Tywysogion).
Y safle uchaf y gallai bardd ei dal yn y teulu brenhinol oedd Pencerdd, sy’n golygu’n llythrennol ‘meistr yn ei grefft’. Roedd yn anrhydedd mawr i fardd canoloesol, a byddai’r safle wedi dod â llawer o fanteision yn ogystal â llawer o gyfrifoldebau: trwy nawdd ei dywysog, gallai bardd yn ymddiried y derbyniai strwythur talu ffurfiol, cleddyfau ac arfau eraill ond, yn gwrthbwyso’r moethusrwydd mawr hwn, fe ddisgwylid ganddo gymryd rhan mewn brwydrau fel rhyfelwr yn brwydro ar ochr ei dywysog. Nid yw’n rhyfedd iawn bod barddoniaeth ganoloesol yn ystod y canrifoedd hyn yn canolbwyntio gan amlaf ar wirioneddau maes y gad, gan ddisgrifio’n aml sgil y rhyfel yn fanwl arswydus.The highest position that a poet could hold in a royal household was that of the Pencerdd, a literal translation would be ‘master craftsman’. It was a great honour for a medieval poet and the position would have brought with it many benefits as well as responsibilities: through the patronage of his prince, a poet could trust to receive a formal pay structure, swords and other weaponry but, counterbalancing this great luxury, he would have been expected to participate in battles as a warrior fighting by his prince’s side. It is of little surprise that medieval poetry during these centuries focused predominately on the reality of the battlefield, often describing the aftermath with horrific accuracy.
Pan nad oedd e’n rhyfela, eisteddodd y ‘Pencerdd’ yn llythrennol ar gadair arbennig yn y llys. Awdurdodai crefydd ac ofergoel y bardd yn y llys canoloesol: credid eu bod yn gallu rhagddweud y dyfodol (proffwydoliaeth) ac mai ganddynt gysylltiad cryf â Duw. Defnyddiai’r ‘Pencerdd’ ei safle i gynghori’r tywysog: cyn brwydr byddai’n adrodd cerdd i Dduw, ac un arall a fyddai’n anrhydeddu’r tywysog neu’i gyndadau. Ystyrid gwaed brenhinol yng Nghymru ganoloesol yn bwysig iawn. Roedd llawer yn credu bod tywysog yn cael ei ddewis gan awdurdod Dwyfol ac mai trwy gyfansoddi cerdd a ganmolai’i gyndadau, byddai’r bardd yn anrhydeddu’r tywysog byw o hyd. Mae’r ffurf hon o farddoniaeth yn gyffredin yng Nghymru ganoloesol ac roedd ei harfer yn ennyn parch sylweddol. Ni ddylwn gasglu bod ‘Pencerdd’ yn berson llygredig, mewn gwirionedd roedd llawer yn eithriadol o ffyddlon i’w noddwyr, gan ddewis i beryglu’u bywyd ar faes y gad. Defnyddiwyd y ffurf farddonol o’r enw marwnad yn aml yn ystod y cyfnod hwn. Byddai’n dangos galar llwyr am golled noddwr. Ysgrifennwyd yr esiampl harddaf o farwnad gan Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch, sef Llywelyn ein Llyw OlafWhen battles were not being waged the Pencerdd held a chair in court. Religion and superstition empowered the medieval court poet: they were believed to be able to predict the future (prophecy) as well have a strong connection with God. The Pencerdd would use his position to advise the prince; before battle he would declaim a poem to God and another that would honour the prince or his ancestors’. Royal blood in medieval Wales was cherished. Many held the belief that a prince was chosen by Divine rule and by composing verse that praised his ancestors’, the poet was still honouring the living prince. This form of praise poetry is common in medieval Wales with its practise commanding a great deal of respect. That is not to infer that a Pencerdd was a corrupt figure, indeed, many were fiercely loyal to their patrons choosing to risk their life on the battlefield. The elegy was a widely used poetic form during this time. It depicted absolute grief at the loss of a patron. The most beautiful example of an elegy poem was written by Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch entitled, Llywelyn ein Llyw Olaf.
“Poni welwch chwi hynt y gwynt a'r glaw?
Poni welwch chwi'r deri'n ymdaraw?
...
Poni welwch chwi'r haul yn hwyliaw - 'r awyr?
Poni welwch chwi'r sŷr wedi r' syrthiaw?
Poni chredwch chwi i Dduw, ddyniadon ynfyd?
“See you not the way of the wind and the rain?
See you not the oak trees buffet together?
...
See you not the sun hurtling through the sky,
And that the stars are fallen?
Do you not believe God, demented mortals?”
Roedd dwy safle ar gael mewn llys i fardd oedd eto’n dysgu’i grefft. Y Bardd Teulu, y cyfieithiad llythrennol fyddai’n ‘bardd i’r tŷ’, yr un isaf oedd Cerddor, fyddai’r cyfieithiad llythrennol wedi bod yn syml iawn yn ‘rhywun sy’n gwneud cerddoriaeth’. Byddai wedi bod i bob safle yn y teulu ddyletswyddau ffurfiol ac anffurfiol, er nad ydym yn gwybod yn llwyr am rôl Cerddor ond diogel yw derbyn y byddai wedi bod yn rhaid iddynt ganu’r delyn neu’r delyn fach. Roedd y Bardd Teulu yn un o bedwar swyddog ar hugain yn y llys. Disgwylid iddo berfformio’i farddoniaeth cyn brwydrau, a difyrru’r Frenhines. Byddai dyletswyddau beirdd yn y llys canoloesol wedi cynnwys rôl croniclwr, archifydd llafar, a digrifwr, tri chyfrifoldeb hollbwysig i gymdeithas a ddibynnai ar draddodiadau llafar am ei grefydd, ei hanes, a’i adloniant (a fyddai wedi bod yn debycaf yn gymysgedd o foliant, hanes, a moesoldeb).There were two lower positions within a royal court for a poet still learning his craft. The Bardd Teulu- the literal translation would be ‘poet of the household’; the lowest was that of the Cerddor, the literal translation would be quite simple ‘musician’. All positions within the household would have had formal and informal duties, although the role of Cerddor is not completely known but it is safe to assume that they would have required the ability to play the harp or lyre. The ‘Bardd Teulu’ was one of twenty-four officers at court. He was expected to perform his poetry before battles and to entertain the Queen. The duties of medieval court poets would have included the role of chronicler, oral archivist and entertainer, three vital responsibilities to a society that depended on oral traditions for its religion, history and entertainment (which would have most likely been a concoction of praise poetry, history and morality).
Nid oedd bardd llys yn dod o safle breintiedig er y byddent wedi bod yn ddynion bonheddig. Roedd eu hyfforddiant yn hir ac yn llafurus. Petasent yn datblygu agwedd o hunanbwysigrwydd prin y gallent gael eu beio. Cymerai hi naw mlynedd i feistroli’r sgiliau angenrheidiol er mwyn dod yn fardd llys a phan gwblhaodd ei hyfforddiant byddai Pencerdd yn mynnu pedair ceiniog ar hugain, ac yn hawlio cael ‘amobr’ merch y Cerddor. Byddai raid i fardd llys adrodd darnau o’r Beibl ac o gerddi hysbys o’r cof; disgwylid iddo hefyd fod yn feistr mewn cyfansoddi barddoniaeth wedi’i hysgrifennu yn y gerdd dant a chynghanedd o'i ben a'i bastwn ei hun, ar fympwy ei dywysog. Er gwaethaf ei holl ofynion a galwadau, roedd y bardd llys yn dal safle cheinachod mewn cymdeithas Gymreig ganoloesol.A court poet did not originate from a position of privilege although they would have been of noble birth. Their training was long and arduous. If they did develop an attitude of self-importance then they could hardly be blamed. It would take nine years to master the necessary skills to become a court poet and upon completion of training a Pencerdd would demand twenty-four pence and the right to the ‘amobr’ (the virginity of the Cerddor’s daughter). A court poet would be required to recite extracts from the Bible and famous verses from memory; he was also expected to be a master at composing verse written in the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd within his head and at the whim of his prince. For all its requirements and demands, a court poet still held an enviably position within medieval Welsh society.
Ar ôl 1282 pan gollodd Cymru ei hannibyniaeth, byddai Beirdd y Tywysogion yn dioddef sarhad mawr: diwreiddiwyd nhw ac fe’u gwasgarwyd, wedi’u gyrru allan o’u trigleoedd brenhinol ac i oes ‘Beirdd yr Uchelwyr’. Er mwyn goroesi, dechreusant draddodiad o’r enw ‘clera’, oedd yn gofyn iddynt fentro, gan grwydro o faenor i blasty i gael hyd i fwyd, arian a beth bynnag arall a fyddai’n eu helpu i oroesi. Galluogai’r ymdeithiau hyn nhw i barhau i dderbyn nawdd eu tywysogion, erbyn hynny wedi’u diraddio’n foneddigion dan reolaeth Seisnig, gan gadw arfer y gerdd dafod a chynghanedd yn ffynnu mewn diwylliant Cymreig. Os sefydlu arferion y gerdd dant a chynghanedd a wnâi’r ddeuddegfed ganrif, diffinio nhw a wnâi’r drydedd ganrif ar ddeg.After 1282 and the loss of Welsh independence, the Poets of the Princes suffered a great indignation: they became uprooted and dispersed, thrown out of their royal residencies and into the age of the Poets of the Gentry (Beirdd yr Uchelwyr). To survive they began a tradition known as ‘clera’; this demanded that the poet undergo an expedition, wandering from manor to mansion seeking food, coin and anything else that would assist in their survival. These expeditions enabled them to continue receiving the patronage of their princes, now demoted to gentry by English rule, keeping the practise of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd flourishing within Welsh culture. If the twelfth century established the practises of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd, then the thirteenth century defined them.
Ychydig Mwy...
Mae traddodiad y gerdd dafod a chynghanedd yn dal yn fywiog ledled Cymru. Mae’n bell o gael ei anghofio, fel y gellir ei weld o boblogrwydd parhaol yr Eisteddfod. Mae f’astudiaeth i, o’r enw Translations: a poetry project, yn ymchwilio sut y gallai ffurfiau barddonol a mesurau Cymraeg gael eu defnyddio i ailystyried, cysylltu â, a chynrychioli’n fanwl, hunaniaeth ddiwylliannol gyfnewidiol Cymru gyfoes. Mae’n gwneud hyn drwy ystyried dau beth, yn gyntaf, dadansoddiad critigol o dair perthynas: tirwedd arfordirol a diwydiannol Cymru; beirdd Cymraeg, Eingl-Gymreig, a Saesneg; a chyhoeddi prif ffrwd a llawr gwlad. Yn ail, mae’r ymateb creadigol yn cyfieithu’r gerdd dafod a chynghanedd i Saesneg ac yn defnyddio’r trawsffurfiant yn ymarferol ar ffurf dau gasgliad o gerddi, y ddau hefyd yn cynnwys cerdd arwrol o hyd sylweddol.
A Little Bit More...
The tradition of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd remains vibrant throughout Wales. It is far from being forgotten, evidenced by the continued popularity of the Eisteddfod. My study, entitled Translations: a poetry project, researches how Welsh poetic forms and metre could be used to reconsider, engage and accurately represent the changing cultural identity of modern Wales. It does this through two considerations, firstly, a critical analysis of three relationships: the coastal and industrial landscapes of Wales; Welsh, Anglo-Welsh and English speaking poets; and, mainstream and grassroots publishing. Secondly, the creative response translates the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd into the English language and applies that translation practically in the shape of two poetry collections each with an accompanying epic poem of substantial length.
Mae i’r prosiect tri nod:
- Ennyn diddordeb amrywiaeth helaeth o ddarllenwyr trwy hybu defnydd o’r gerdd dafod a chynghanedd gennyf fi fy hunan a beirdd cyfoes;
- Darganfod y lleisiau i gyd sy’n diffinio’r hunaniaeth ddiwylliannol Gymreig gyfoes;
- Herio cyhoeddi prif ffrwd a llawr gwlad ac o ganlyniad, sefydlu llwyfan genedlaethol lle y caiff lleisiau oll Cymru gyfoes eu cynrychioli’n gyfartal.
The project has three aims:
- To engage with a wide readership by promoting the use of the cerdd dafod and cynghanedd through myself and modern poets;
- To discover all the voices that define the modern Welsh cultural identity;
- To challenge mainstream and grassroots publishing and by doing so establish a national platform where all the voices of modern Wales have an equal representation.
Mae’r astudiaeth yn ei chyfnod cyntaf ac er mwyn dal yn ffyddlon i’w gwerthoedd a’i hegwyddorion, bydd y prosiect yn ymchwilio, ac yn arbrofi ag, ideoleg cyfieithu uniongyrchol. Mae’n defnyddio safbwynt Cymreig i ysbrydoli’r cyfieithiadau hyn trwy gyfweld beirdd Cymraeg sy’n gwybod sut i ysgrifennu yn y ffurfiau hyn ac mewn mesurau Cymraeg a Saesneg. Roedd fy nhraethawd M.A., Grandiloquent Wretches (Hiraeth oedd yr enw ar y pryd), yn cyfieithu’r gerdd dafod i Saesneg. Mae’n gasgliad barddonol sy’n cyfuno hanes, mytholeg, a ffurfiau barddonol Cymraeg i greu ffantasi ddinesig. Nid yw’n canolbwyntio’n unig ar hanes a mytholeg Gymreig; yn hytrach mae’n defnyddio helaethrwydd o hunaniaethau rhyngwladol, pob un ohonynt sy’n byw ac yn cyfrannu at gyfoeth diwylliannol, economaidd, a diwylliannol Cymru gyfoes.The study is in its primary stage and in order to remain loyal to its values and principles, the project researches and experiments with the ideology of direct translation. It uses a Welsh perspective to inform these translations through interviewing Welsh speaking poets who have knowledge of and write in these forms and metre in Welsh and English. My MA thesis, Grandiloquent Wretches (then titled Hiraeth) translated the cerdd dafod into the English language. It is a poetry collection that combines history, mythology and Welsh poetic forms to create an urban fantasy. It doesn’t focus exclusively on Welsh mythology and history; instead, it draws from a wealth of international identities, all of whom live and contribute to the social, economic and culturally wealth of modern Wales.
Mae’r pedair ffurf ar hugain o’r gerdd dant yn cynnwys penillion o ddwy i bedair llinell. Roedd y casgliad yn ailystyried y ffurfiau hyn i ddatblygu amrywiad modern oedd yn debycaf ei wedd i ffurf soned. Roedd hyn yn cefnogi defnyddio dyfeisiau barddonol megis octawd a chwechawd, oedd yn darparu strwythur traethiadol ffurfiol. Llwyddodd Grandiloquent Wretches i wneud hyn trwy arbrofi â gwnïo at ei gilydd ddwy ffurf farddonol sy’n gyflenwol ac, o bryd i’w gilydd, yn anghyson, i greu sain a werthfawrogai cynulleidfa fodern. Er enghraifft:The cerdd dafod’s twenty-four forms are made up of two to four lined stanzas. The collection reconsidered these forms to develop a modern variation that had a more visual relationship to that of a sonnet. This supported the use of poetic devices, such as an octet and sestet, which provided a formal narrative structure. Grandiloquent Wretches achieved this by experimenting with the stitching together of two complementary and, at times, conflicting poetic forms to create a sound that a modern readership would appreciate. For example:
Justice *
Let us just play this arid game,
if we lose then you should not blame them, you got cocky, let bedlam dictate where the pious venom strikes in righteous indignation;
war sought the tired Thracian
lilt, invoked wrath from lethargy
and called it justice. Liturgy transformed from sacred to mundane, fudged fingers gouged out his left brain. He had cold justice on his side;
least the Imp took the time to chide
him with keen doe-eyed promises; justice lobotomises...conscience.
* [Poetic form: Cyhydedd Fer – Welsh sonnet]
The Wolf’s Honey **
The rat snatched the wolf's honey;
sore, he tore its soft, bunny
flesh into a gunny mess, bejewelled
he bugled an umbrae
with sugar-snapped bayonets;
laced with perse, cloud silhouettes
will make the plaster sweat; hope to previse,
incise these mottled webs;
the spider drank flaxen cider,
drunk, the piper used the barrels
to play a sniper's tune, cipher
tasseomancy from pyre ashes;
hope that it was not your fault.
Suck a lolly dipped in salt,
thwart their strikes with rumour, club her cries
to equalise and escort
her moans with guided patience,
mistake twists for gyrations
of pain, stained laces tremble at the scream,
cetirizine harks, chases
the tussles that burst the bubbles
as convulsions spilt drooling
from silver buckles, sand knuckles
with piteous justice mewling.
** Poetic form: two stanzas of Englyn Crwca; two stanzas of Rhupant Hir; two stanzas of Englyn Crwca; two stanzas of Rhupant Hir.
Nid yw’r casgliad yn ymddiheuro am fod yn Faróc ei iaith a’i arddull, gan orfoleddu yn ei hanes trwy ddefnyddio ffurfiau barddonol Cymraeg wrth ymwreiddio’n gadarn yn yr oes sydd ohonom. Mae Translations: a poetry project yn gwerthfawrogi naratif cyson yn fwy ond nid yw’n gwyro’n rhy bell o’i natur rwysgfawr. Gweler y gerdd isod o The Silver in the Water, Pennod 3.The collection is unapologetically baroque in language and style, revelling in its past through the use of Welsh poetic forms whilst firmly set in the present. Translations: a poetry project places a higher value on a cohesive narrative but it does not deviate too far away from its grandiloquent nature. See the poem below taken from The Silver in the Water, Chapter Three.

Swathes of Empyrean Heather***


Wyled**** curdled the stomach;


Cistern snagged the Bittern co…pse.


Scourge dirge steep like Icarus,


periwinkle him; skim milk


to the broth, froth this relief;


temper this heather charnel****


with carrion,

virion******



river


malingers


and infers


sea.


Yn y pen draw, mae Translations: a poetry project yn sicrhau bod y ffurfiau a’r mesur yn parhau i ddatblygu i fodernedd. Wedi’u cadw’n ddiogel, nid fel arteffact mewn amgueddfa, ond fel creadur byw, creadur sy’n agored i fethu yn ogystal ag i lwyddo ac, yn bwysicaf oll, wedi’i ysbrydoli gan ei hanes a’i ddiwylliant, sy’n datblygu’n gyson, gan gydgordio ag anghenion ei ddiwylliant.Ultimately Translations: a poetry project ensures that the forms and metre continue to evolve into modernity. Preserved, not like a museum artefact but as a living organism; an organism that is open to failures as well as successes and, most importantly, informed by its history and culture, constantly evolving, harmonising to the needs of its society.

Swathes of Empyrean Heather



Wyled | curdled | the stomach;


Cistern | snagged the Bittern | co…pse.


Scourge | dirge |steep like Icarus,


periwinkle him; |skim | milk


to the broth, |froth | this relief;


temper | this heather | charnel


with carrion,|

virion |


river


malingers |


and infers |


sea.


Nid ydym ni’n gwybod pryd y cychwynnodd y gerdd dant a chynghanedd ond mae’n siŵr mai wrth i’r iaith Gymraeg ddatblygu, fe ddatblygodd barddoniaeth Cymraeg ochr yn ochr â hi.

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