Ceri Shaw Croeseiriau Cymraeg

Ceri Shaw o Americymru: Croeseiriau Cymraeg / Welsh-language Crosswords

Yn Dysgwyr/Erthyglau

Mae Ceri wedi bod yn cefnogi’r gwasgariad Cymreig yng Ngogledd America ers 2011 trwy’r wefan AmeriCymru, a nawr wedi dyfeisio ffordd arloesol i gefnogi dysgu’r iaith ar-lein- trwy groeseiriau. Yma, mae’n esbonio mwy…

Ceri has been supporting the Welsh diaspora in North America since 2001 through the AmeriCymru site, and has now devised an innovative way to support Welsh learning online- through crosswords. Here, he explains more…

Oes ar y byd angen cwrs Cymraeg ar-lein arall? Mae’n amlwg ein bod ni’n credu bod hyn yn gywir, er bod llawer o adnoddau ardderchog eisoes ar gael. Wrth ddysgu, dw i wedi defnyddio (a byddwn i’n cymeradwyo) Americymraeg, Say Something In Welsh, Parallel.Cymru o blith eraill. Beth, felly, sy’n sbesial, newydd, neu wahanol am Croeseiriau Cymraeg? Pam dylech chi gael cip arni a dechrau’i defnyddio?Does the world need another online Welsh language course? Clearly we think that it does even though there are many excellent resources already available. In the course of my own studies I have used (and would recommend) Americymraeg, Say Something In Welsh, Parallel.Cymru amongst others. So what does Croeseiriau Cymraeg bring to the table? What is new about this course and why should you check it out?
Falle bydd tipyn bach o gefndir hanesyddol yn ddefnyddiol i chi yma. Cyn i fi allfudo i America, dw i wedi bod yn dysgu’r Gymraeg yng Nghaerdydd wrth ddefnyddio sawl adnodd ar-lein yn ogystal â rhai stafell ddosbarth. Fodd bynnag, pan gyrhaeddais i’r U.D., do’n i’n gwybod fawr o ddim am y Gymraeg. Es i i’r ysgol yn ne-ddwyrain Cymru yn y 70au, a ddysgais i ddim o’r Gymraeg yn yr ysgol. Ddim yr un wers! Pan adawais i’r ysgol ro’n i’n medru’r Lladin yn well na fy iaith fy hunan. Ar ôl i fi ddechrau’r wefan AmeriCymru yn 2008, daeth hi’n gliriach byth i fi fod rhaid i fi wella fy Nghymraeg. Ryw flwyddyn yn ôl nes i benderfynu y byddwn i’n dod yn rhugl dros gyfnod o ddwy flynedd. Cododd y cwestiwn ar unwaith- Beth ddylwn i ‘neud?A bit of historical background might be useful at this point. Before I emigrated to America in 2001 I had been learning Welsh in Cardiff utilising a number of online and classroom based resources. My knowledge of Welsh was, however, rudimentary when I arrived in the U.S. Having been educated (miseducated?) in south east Wales in the 1970's I was not taught Welsh in school. Not a single lesson! I left with a better command of Latin than I had of my own language. After starting the AmeriCymru website in 2008 it became ever more clear to me that I had to improve my grasp of Welsh and about 12 months ago I committed to becoming fluent over a two year period. The question immediately arose- How should I proceed?
Un o’r rhwystrau mwya i ddysgu iaith yw ymrwymiad, neu o leia’ dyna’r broblem fwya yn fy achos i. Dim ond rhy hawdd yw dweud – ‘Dw i wedi penderfynu dysgu’r Gymraeg, a sdim ots da fi faint o amser bydd hyn yn cymryd.’ Dyma agwedd gymeradwy i ddechrau, ond ym mhen tipyn byddwch chi’n dechrau ysu am amserlen a therfyn amser: dyddiad pan fyddwch wedi gorffen eich astudio. Nes i benderfynu trin y broblem ‘ma trwy ‘fy nal fy hunan’. Byddwn i’n mynd i ddysgu’r Gymraeg ar-lein, hynny yw ‘yn gyhoeddus’ dros gyfnod o ddwy flynedd. Nes i benderfynu hefyd groniclo fy natblygiad. Ro’n i’n meddwl gallwn i ddefnyddio hyn i lunio cwrs mynediad i ddysgwyr Cymraeg eraill yn y dyfodol.One of the biggest barriers to language learning is commitment, or at least it is in my case. It is too easy to say - 'I am determined to learn Welsh and I don't care how long it takes me.' This attitude is all very well to begin with but after a while you begin to crave a schedule and a deadline: a date by which you will have completed your studies. I decided to confront this problem by 'trapping' myself. I resolved to learn Welsh online and in 'public' over a two year period. I further resolved to develop a record of my progress which might serve as an introductory course for future Welsh learners.
Er mwyn gweld sut mae hyn yn gweithio’n ymarferol, dylech chi gael cip ar ein tudalen Y Gair Cymraeg Dyddiol sydd ar gael ar AmeriCymru, Facebook a Thrydar. Dyn ni bron â chwpla’r cwrs ‘syml’ a byddwn ni’n ychwanegu llawer o nodweddion newydd ar ôl i ni orffen y rhai sylfaenol.To see how this works in practice I would advise checking out our Welsh Word of the Day feature which can be found on AmeriCymru, Facebook and Twitter. The 'bare-bones' course is nearing completion and we will be adding many new features once the basics are complete.
Sut gall hyn helpu dysgwyr Cymraeg eraill? Yma, byddwn i’n lico disgrifio strwythur a nodweddion y cwrs, fel bydd darllenwyr/dysgwyr yn gallu penderfynu drostyn nhw’u hunain a fydd Croeseiriau Cymraeg yn ddefnyddiol iddyn nhw.But, how might this be of use to other Welsh learners? At this point I should perhaps describe the course structure and features so that readers/learners can decide whether Croeseiriau Cymraeg is for them.
Gyntaf, rhaid dweud mai cwrs dysgu’ch hunan yw hwn. Felly fydd dim rhaid i chi gwrdd â siaradwyr/dysgwyr eraill. Wrth gwrs, mae’n amhosib dod yn rhugl mewn unrhyw iaith heb ymarfer gyda siaradwyr eraill. Yn hyn o beth, dylech chi feddwl am Croeseiriau Cymraeg fel cwrs mynediad sy wedi’i lunio ar gyfer dechreuwyr llwyr. Dyn ni wedi cynnwys ffeiliau sain i‘ch helpu chi gydag ynganu, ond bydd yn rhaid i chi dalu am gwrs ar ryw adeg, yn fwy na thebyg. Wedi’r cwbl, fydd hi ddim yn bosibl dysgu sgiliau sgwrsio wrth eistedd o flaen sgrin. Wedi dweud hynny, os dych chi ddim yn barod eto i ymrwymo â chwrs llawn amser, ac os byddech chi’n lico cael blas ar yr iaith a dysgu geirfa i ddechrau, dylech chi ddarllen ‘mlaen.Firstly it must be said that the course is for auto-didacts and will not necessarily involve contact with other Welsh speakers/learners. Of course it is impossible to achieve fluency in any language without practising with other speakers. To that extent Croeseiriau Cymraeg should be considered an introductory course which is designed very much with the beginner in mind. Although we have included soundfiles to help with pronunciation a paid course will almost certainly be necessary at some point. After all you cannot develop conversational skills sitting in front of a monitor. If, however, you are not yet ready to commit to a full time course and would like to get a feel for the language and accumulate some vocabulary first, then read on.
Mae’r cwrs wedi’i rannu’n bedair adran, a phob un yn cynnwys sawl adran ramadegol fer, a chwe chroesair. Rhan hanfodol o strwythur y cwrs yw’r croeseiriau. Mae i bob un restr geiriau benodol fel y gallwch chi ddysgu geirfa newydd a’ch profi’ch hunan pan fyddwch chi wedi gorffen yr adran. Mae’r atebion ar gael ar-lein, a gallwch chi ddod o hyd iddyn nhw’n hawdd o’r dudalen croesair (byddwch chi’n gallu darganfod y rhestrau geiriau fel hyn hefyd). Mae’n bosibl cwpla’r croeseiriau ar-lein neu, os bydd yn well da chi, trwy’u lawrlwytho nhw a’u datrys fel yn yr hen ddyddiau gan ddefnyddio pensil a phapur. Hefyd mae canllaw ‘Sut i Ddefnyddio’ ar y dudalen gartref i’ch helpu chi i fanteisio ar y cwrs.The course is divided into four sections each of which consists of a number of short grammar sections and six crosswords. The crosswords are an essential part of the design and each comes with its own associated wordlist so that you can learn new vocabulary and test yourself when you're done. The solutions are posted and can be easily located from the crossword page (as can the wordlists). You can complete the crosswords online or, if you prefer, by downloading them and solving them in the old fashioned way with pen and paper. There is also a fairly comprehensive 'How to Use' guide on the home page to help you get the most out of the course.
Rhan UnPart One
Yn yr adran hon, dyn ni’n cyflwyno ychydig ramadeg sylfaenol, yr amser presennol, ayyb, a dechrau dysgu geirfa.In this section we cover some basic grammar, the present tense etc and start accumulating vocabulary.
Rhan DauPart Two
Yn yr adran hon, dyn ni’n cyflwyno gorchmynion, adferfau, a ffurf seml (gwmpasog) ar yr amser dyfodol.In section two we cover commands, adverbs and a simple (periphrastic) form of the future tense.

Yma, dyn ni’n cyflwyno sut i ddweud beth sy wedi digwydd – yr amser amherffaith, yr amser gorberffaith, yr amser perffaith (‘wedi’ a ‘bu’).
Here we delve into the past tense: imperfect, pluperfect, perfect (long and short forms).
Rhan TriPart Three
I gloi, dyn ni’n cyflwyno’r amser dyfodol cryno yn ogystal â sawl pwnc arall.Finally we tackle the future tense amongst other things.
Rhan PedwarPart Four
Mae popeth yma’n hollol safonol, ond ydy? Wel, byddwn i’n cytuno. Ond, mae sawl nodwedd sy’n gwahanu Croeseiriau Cymraeg oddi wrth gyrsiau ar-lein eraill. Yn enwedig, byddwn i’n gofyn i chi ystyried y canlynol:All fairly standard right? I would agree but there are a few nuances which separate Croeseiriau Cymraeg from other online courses. In particular I would ask you to note the following:
1. Dyn ni wedi meddwl cryn dipyn am strwythur y cwrs. Mae yna strwythur ynddo, ond ddim gormod. Mae’n wir ein bod ni’n dweud wrthoch chi am (neu’ch annog chi i) ddarllen a meistroli’r adrannau gramadegol gyntaf. Ar ôl hyn, dylech chi ddysgu’r eirfa briodol a neud y profion croesair. Nodwedd bwysicaf y cwrs, fodd bynnag, yw’r brawddegau enghreifftiol a’r lluniau ar y tudalennau cerdyn gair [[??]]. Mae’r rhain wedi’u cysylltu â thudalennau geirfa eraill, ac ag adrannau gramadegol. Felly mae’r darlledwr/dysgwr yn cael ei annog i ‘bori’ yn y cwrs a dod o hyd i’w lwybr ei hunan drwy’r sawl elfen.1. A fair amount of thought has gone into the structuring of this course. It IS intended to be structured but only lightly so. Yes, you are instructed/encouraged to read and master the grammar sections first. Subsequently you are enjoined to learn the appropriate vocabulary and take the crossword tests. The main strength of the course is, however, in the sample sentences and pictures on the wordcard pages. These link to other vocabulary pages and grammar sections so that the reader/learner is encouraged to 'browse' the course and navigate their own path through its various components.
Felly, mae’n wir bod yna strwythur, ond mae’n hyblyg iawn nes byddwch chi’n gallu’i addasu i siwtio’ch cyflymder neu’ch anghenion dysgu’ch hunan.So … yes there is structure but nothing so rigid that it cannot be subverted, diverted or adapted to your own pace or learning requirements.
2. Dyn ni wedi meddwl yn galed am eich helpu chi i fagu hyder, ac felly wedi cadw pethau mor syml â phosib, yn enwedig yn yr adrannau cynnar. Er enghraifft: naethon ni benderfynu cyflwyno’r ffurf gwmpasog ar yr amser dyfodol (dwi’n mynd i…) yn gynnar yn y cwrs. O ganlyniad, erbyn diwedd Rhan Dau, bydd dysgwyr yn gallu siarad am bethau’n digwydd yn y presennol ac yn y dyfodol. Hefyd, byddan nhw wedi meistroli’r amser Perffaith fel y byddan nhw’n gallu sôn am bethau sy wedi digwydd, ac wedi gorffen, yn y presennol.2. A conscious effort has been made to build confidence by keeping things as simple as possible, particularly in the earlier sections. As an example of this we decided to introduce the periphrastic form of the future tense (dwi'n mynd i....) early on in the course. Consequently by the end of Rhan Dau learners will be able to express themselves with reference to both current and future actions or events. They will also have mastered the Perfect tense so they will be able to refer to events or actions which have been completed in the present .
3. Ar ben hynny oll, wrth gwrs, dyna’r croeseiriau. Dyn ni’n gobeithio y bydd y rhain yn gadael i chi gael hwyl wrth neud y profion, fel bydd y dysgu’n llai o dalcen caled.3. Then of course there are the crosswords. These are intended to make test taking a bit more fun and less of a chore.
Casgliad Conclusion
I gloi, licwn i ailadrodd y datblygwyd Croeseiriau Cymraeg fel cwrs mynediad i ddechreuwyr llwyr. Gellid hefyd gael ei ddefnyddio i ychwanegu at un o’r cyrsiau mwy sefydlog.In conclusion I would like to repeat that Croeseiriau Cymraeg has been developed as an introductory course with the absolute beginner in mind. It could also be used as a supplement to one of the more established courses.
Yn y bôn, dyn ni’n ei gynnig, yn rhad ac am ddim, i unrhyw un a all gael lles ganddo. Byddwn ni’n ychwanegu cynnwys a nodweddion newydd dros y flwyddyn nesa. Wedi dweud hynny, dw i’n amau na fydd y gwaith byth yn cael ei gwpla i’m boddhad llwyr.Basically it is being offered, free of charge, to anyone who might benefit from it. New content and features will be added over the next twelve months and it will probably never be finished to my complete satisfaction.
About the Author

Cafodd Ceri Shaw B.A., P.G.C.E.(F.E.) ei fagu yng Nghaerdydd ac ymfudodd i Unol Daleithiau America yn 2001. Mae e’n gyn-athro, addysgwr oedolion a gwerthwr llyfrau prin ac arbenigol. Dechreuodd Ceri’r wefan AmeriCymru yn 2008 i “hyrwyddo Cymru yn yr UDA” ac i “darparu rhwydwaith cymdeithasol i Gymry, pobl o dras Cymreig a Chymruphiles ar draws y byd”. Mae’r cwrs Croeseiriau Cymraeg wedi’i greu gyda chefnogaeth a chymorth gan sawl siaradwr ac addysgwr.

Ceri Shaw B.A., P.G.C.E.(F.E.) was born in Cardiff and emigrated to the U.S.A in 2001. He is a former teacher, adult educator and rare & specialty book dealer. Ceri started the AmeriCymru website in 2008 to “promote Wales in the U.S.A.” and to “provide a social network for the Welsh, persons of Welsh descent and Cymruphiles all over the world”. The Croeseiriau Cymraeg course has been compiled with the assistance and input of a number of Welsh language speakers and educators.

americymru.net/croeseiriau_cymraeg / americymru

Welsh Word of the Day

Ceri Shaw Croesair