Etymoleg Prif ddelwedd

Gwreiddiau Geiriau Cymraeg / Etymology of Welsh Words

Yn Deall ein Hiaith/Yr Iaith

Pam rydyn ni'n dweud 'Cymru'? O ble mae geiriau'n dod? Ydy'r iaith Gymraeg yn gwbl unigryw? Mae deall etymoleg a gwreiddiau iaith yn rhan bwysig o ieithyddiaeth a dysgu iaith. Yma, rydyn ni'n edrych ar etymoleg yr iaith Gymraeg gan ddangos bod ei gwreiddiau ar hyd a lled y byd. 

Gan: Madison Keeping

Why do we say 'Cymru'? Where do words come from? Is the Welsh language completely unique? Understanding the etymology and origins of a language is an important part of linguistics and language learning. Here, we look at the etymology of the Welsh language, showing that its roots spread far and wide across the world.

By: Madison Keeping

Mae Madison Keeping yn fyfyrwraig PhD ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe sy'n ymchwilio defnydd salwch meddwl mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg ddiweddar. Ers 2018, mae hi wedi bod yn gweithio yn Adran y Gymraeg ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe fel tiwtor.

Madison Keeping is a PhD student in Swansea University researching the use of mental illness in recent Welsh literature. Since 2018, she has been working in the Welsh Department in Swansea University as a tutor.

Awdur ac ymgyrchydd Heini Gruffudd: “Mae’r dudalen yma’n rhoi cyfle i ddysgwyr a siaradwyr Cymraeg roi eu traed i mewn i ddyfroedd diddorol etymoleg. Mae tarddiad geiriau Cymraeg yn amrywiol- nid mor amrywiol â’r Saesneg wrth gwrs- ac mae deall o ble y daeth geiriau’r iaith yn gymorth mawr i ni i ddeall sut mae’r iaith yn gweithio. Dyma’r ymdrech ddwyieithog ar-lein gyntaf i nodi tarddiad geiriau, ac rwy’n edrych ymlaen at weld y rhestr yn cynyddu.”

Author and campaigner Heini Gruffudd: "This page gives learners and Welsh speakers the chance to put their feet into interesting etymology waters. The origins of Welsh words are varied- not as diverse as English, of course- and understanding where the words of the language came to us is a great help to us to understand how the language works. This is the first online bilingual effort to identify the origin of words, and I'm looking forward to seeing the list increasing."

Yr Athro Steve Morris: “Dyma adnodd hynod werthfawr i bawb sy’n ymddiddori yn yr iaith Gymraeg. Mae gwybod o ble mae geiriau wedi dod yn ein helpu, nid yn unig i ddeall mwy am hanes ein gwlad a sut mae’r iaith yn adlewyrchu’r hanes yna, ond hefyd cyfoeth a chryfder y Gymraeg fel iaith sydd wedi benthyca, ymgyfoethogi ac addasu o ieithoedd eraill ar hyd ei hoes.”

 

Associate Professor Steve Morris: "This is an invaluable resource for all those interested in the Welsh language. Knowing where words have come from help us to not only understand more about the history of our country and how the language reflects that history, but also the wealth and strength of Welsh as a language that has lent, enriched and adapted from other languages throughout its life."

 

Gwreiddiau’r Iaith Gymraeg

Mae’r Gymraeg yn un o ieithoedd hynaf Ewrop. Cyn y Gymraeg, Brythoneg oedd prif iaith Cymru, Lloegr a de’r Alban, pan ddaeth y Rhufeiniaid yn 43 AD. Daeth y Gymraeg o’r Frythoneg, rywbryd rhwng 400 a 700 AD. Mae barddoniaeth Gymraeg gynnar yn dod o’r cyfnod hwn.

Am fwy o wybodaeth, gweler dysgucymraeg.cymru/amdanom-ni/hanes-y-gymraeg ac erthygl parallel.cymru parallel.cymru/hanes-a-datblygiad-yr-iaith

Origin of the Welsh Language

Welsh is one of the oldest languages in Europe. It evolved from Brythonic, the main language spoken in Wales, England and Southern Scotland when the Romans invaded in 43AD. Welsh began to emerge as a distinctive language sometime between 400 and 700 AD – early Welsh poetry survives from this period.

For more information, see learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/welsh-language-fast-facts and parallel.cymru’s article parallel.cymru/hanes-a-datblygiad-yr-iaith/?lang=en

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation Iaith Benthyg / Borrowed Language Tarddiad ac Ystyr / Etymology and Meaning
Cymru / Cymry Wales / Welsh peopleBrythoneg / Brythoniccombrogi = com (rhagddodiad sy’n golygu cydwladwr) + brogi (gŵr o’r un wlad)

combrogi = com (prefix which means compatriot) + brogi (fellow countryman)

ll. combrogos
Wales / Welsh Wales / WelshGermaneg / Germanic


Eingl-Sacsonaidd / Anglo- Saxon (Hen Saesneg / Old English)
Walh (ll. Walha) = (rhywun o dramor / rhywun estron / siaradwr iaith Geltaidd)
(foreigner / stranger / Celtic speaker)


Waelisc = ([pobl] Brythoniaid / Britons)
Wēalas = (tir y Brythoniaid / the Britons’ land)


Yr Elfen Lladin- The Latin Element

Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg

Fel rydyn ni’n gwybod, mae’r Gymraeg wedi benthyg nifer o eiriau o’r Lladin dros y canrifoedd.

Y dosbarth gyntaf o eiriau benthyg oedd geiriau a berthynai i fywyd / arferion milwrol megis: castell, ffos, llafn, mur, pebyll, saeth.

Yn sgil y rheiny, daeth geiriau a oedd yn ymwneud â masnach a llafur megis : aur, hestawr, mesur, plwm, pwys.

Ond wrth i’r Ymerodraeth Rhufeinig ddod yn fwy cryf, manteisiwyd hefyd ar eu dull o fyw a gwelwyd, cegin, ystafell a ffenestr, gwisgwyd maneg a torch, bwytodd y bobl torth ac yfon nhw, gwin.

Diolch i'r llyfrau Henry Lewis, Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1943) a Geiriadur Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru  am yr wybodaeth hon.

The Latin Element in Welsh

As we know, Welsh has borrowed many words from Latin over the centuries.

The first group of words were those which belonged to military life and customs such as: castell (castle), ffos (ditch/trench/moat), llafn (blade), mur (wall), pebyll (tents), saeth (arrow).

In the wake of those came words that were related to trade and labour such as: aur (gold), hestawr (=hestor a measure of quantity, two bushels), mesur (measure/quantify), plwm (lead), pwys (pound).

But as the Roman Empire grew in strength, their lifestyle was adopted and things such as cegin (kitchen), ystafell (room) and ffenestr (window) were seen, things such as maneg (glove) and torch (chain/collar) were worn, people ate torth (loaf) and drunk gwin (wine).

Many thanks to Henry Lewis, Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1943) a Geiriadur Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru  for this information.

Etymoleg allwedd

Lladin / Latin

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation Tarddiad / OriginDefnydd mewn ieithoedd eraill / Use in other languages
abadabbot (eg)abbatem / abbātabat = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
abbas = Llydaweg Canol (Middle/Medieval Breton)
achoscause / reason (eg)occāsiō
addolito adore / worship / idolise (be)adōrāre
*ansicr / uncertain
addurn ornament / decoration / adornment (eg)adorno adorn = Catalaneg (Catalan)
adorno = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
amlnumerous / many (ans)amplus
angel angel (eg)angelus ángel = Catalaneg (Catalan)
angel = Slofeniad (Slovenian)
ángel = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
angel = Swedeg (Swedish)
angoranchor (eg/b)anchoraingor = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
anifailanimal (eg)animaliumaneval = Llydaweg Canol a Diwedd (Middle and End of Century Breton)
arfarm / weapon (eg/b)armaarvov = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
arm = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
asendonkey / female donkey (eb)asinaasen = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
asen = Llydaweg Canol (Medieval Breton)
astud attentive / concentrated (ans)astutus > sy’n dod, o bosib, o’r ffurf Ffrangeg (which possibly comes from the French word) astutastut = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
aur golden (ans)aurum
barf beard (eb)barbabarf = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
barv = Llydaweg Canol (Medieval Breton)
basshallow / shaol (ans)basusbas = Hen Ffrangeg (Old French)
bas = Saesneg Canol (Medieval English)
bendith blessing (eb)benedictio / benedictum
braich arm (eb/g)bracchiumbrech = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
braç = Catalaneg (Catalan)
braccio = Eidaleg (Italian)
bresych cabbages (ll)brassica braisech = Gwyddelig (Irish)
cadair chair (eb)cathedra cadar = Llydaweg (Breton)
cathair = Gwyddelig Canol (Medieval Irish)
cathaoir = Gwyddelig
cadira = Catalaneg (Catalan)
cadeira = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
cadwynchain (eb)catēna
campfeat / achievement (eb)campus [maes brwydr / battlefield]
canghellorchancellor (eg)cancellāriuscanceller = Catalaneg (Catalan)
kancelár = Slofaciad (Slovakian)
capelchapel (eg)capellacapella = Catalaneg (Catalan)
kapela = Croation
kapell = Swedeg (Swedish)
kapell = Norwyeg (Norwegian)
carchar prison (eg)carcerem carhar = Cernyweg (Cornish)
castell castle (eg)castellum kastell = Llydaweg (Breton)
cau hollow / empty / sunken (ans)cauus
cawscheese (eg)cāseuscáis = Gwyddelig (Irish)
kaas = Iseldireg (Dutch)
cell cell (eb)cella
clochbell (eb)clocca cloch = Cernyweg (Cornish)
cloche = Ffrangeg (French)
glocke = Almaeneg (German)
klocka = Swedeg (Swedish)
cochred (ans)coccum
corffbody (g)corpus corf = Cernyweg (Cornish)
corp = Gwyddelig (Irish)
creadur creature (eg)creātūra
cwmwlcloud (eg)cumulus
cyfftrunk [of tree] (eg)cippusqueff = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
cyllell knife (eb)cultellus
cysonconsistent (ans)consonuscoson = Hen Lydaweg (Old Breton)
dewinwizard / sorcerer (eg)divinus
diafol Devil (eg)diabolusdiabhal = Gwyddelig
duivel = Iseldireg (Dutch)
diavol = Rwmaneg (Romanian)
diablo = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
disgybllearner / pupil (eg)disciplusdiscebel = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
draigdragon (eb)dracōdrage = Norweaidd (Norwegian)
dysgu to learn (be)discō
effaitheffect / consequence (eg/b)effectus
eglwys church (eb)ecclesiaeglos = Cernyweg (Cornish)
eclais = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
église = Ffrangeg (French)
eisiau to want (be)exisgŭus (to demand)
estronforeign / alien / stranger (ans + eg)extrāneusestren = Cernyweg (Cornish)
estrangeiro = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
etranger = Ffrangeg (French)
estranger = Catalaneg (Catalan)
ffa beans (ll)faba fav / fao = Llydaweg (Breton)
faf / fa = Cernyweg (Cornish)
ffenestr window (eb)fenestra fenêtre = Ffrangeg (French)
venster = Iseldireg (Dutch)
ffrwythfruit (eb/g)fructus
gramadeggrammar (eg)grammătĭca
lleidr / lladrad thief (eg) / theft (eg)llatrōlladre = Catalaneg (Catalan)
ladrón = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
llyfr book (eg)libr(um)liuer = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
llythrletter (eg)littera
MaiMay (eg)Mensis / MaiiusMai = Ffrangeg (French), Estoneg (Estonian), Rwmaneg (Romanian)
Maj = Swedeg (Swedish)
meddygdoctor (eg)medicusmethek = Cerynyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
milthousand (rhif / number)mīliamila = Basgeg (Basque)
mil = Catalaneg (Catalan), Sbaeneg (Spanish)
moddway / mode / means (eg)modus
nerfus nervous (ans)nervōsus
nifernumber (eg/b)numerusnyver = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
orgrafforthography (eb/g)orthographia
pabpope (eg)pāba
pabelltent (eb/g)papilōpuball = Gwyddelig (Irish)
padellpan / dish / bowl / skillet (eb)patellapadel = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
pechod sin (eg)peccātumpechet = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
peccad = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
pêrpears (ll)pira
perygldanger / peril (eg)perīculumperigo = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
periklu = Maltese
pericolo = Eidaleg (Italian)
plantchildren (ll)planta
plufeathers (ll)plūmaplume = Ffrangeg (French)
piuma = Eidaleg (Italian)
pluma = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
plyguto bend / bow (be)plicōplygye = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
poblpeople (eb)populus pobyl, pobel = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
pobl = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
pont bridge (eb)pons pons = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
pont = Ffrangeg (French)
porfforpurple (ans)purpuraporpra = Catalaneg (Catalan)
postpost (eg)postis
* Gw. hefyd (see also)
post Saesneg Canol (Middle English) & Hen Ffrangeg (Old French)
prifprincipal / prime / main (ans)prīmus
priodproper / right / approriate (ans)prīvātus
pysgodfish (ll)piscātuspesce = Eidaleg (Italian)
pescado = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
sach sack / bag (eb/g)saccussach = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
sac = Catalaneg (Catalan)
sac = Ffrangeg (French)
säck = Swedeg (Swedish)
santsaint (eg)santussant = Catalaneg (Catalan)
santo = Eidaleg (Italian)
santo = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
sarffserpent (eb/g)sarpans *ffurf llafar (spoken term)
sebonsoapsāpōnsabó = Catalaneg (Catalan)
savon = Ffrangeg (French)
jabón = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
seguridle / lazy (ans)sĕcūrus
selsigsausage (ll)salsīciasilsicq = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
salsitxa = Catalaneg (Catalan)
seneddparliament*cymharer (compare)
senātus
a Hen Ffrangeg (Old French) = sened
sillafsyllable (eb)syllaba
sychdry (ans)siccussuho = Croatian
suchy = Pwyleg (Polish)
sucho = Slovak
seco = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
synnwyrsense / wisdom (eg/b)sentīre
tafarnpub / tavern (eb/g)taberna*mae nifer o'r ieithoedd Ewropeaidd yn defnyddio'r cystrawen hwn / A number of European Languages use this form:
taverna = Catalaneg (Catalan) a Croatian
taberna = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
tavernă = Rwmaneg (Romanian)
taverna = Eidaleg (Italian)
terfynboundary (eg)terminus
tonwave (eb)tonntonn = Gwyddelig (Irish)
trist sad (ans)trīstis tristis = Llydaweg (Breton)
tríst = Gwyddeleg (Irish)
triste = Ffrangeg (French)
ysbrydghost / spirit (eg)spīritus
ysgolschool (eb)schola
ysgrifena writing (eb)scrībendum
ystafellroom (eb)stabellum
ystyrmeaning (eg/b)historia


Ffrangeg / French

Gair Cymraeg Cyfieithiad Tarddiad Defnydd mewn ieithoedd eraill / Use in other languages
tŵr towertour túr = Gwyddelig


Beth yw ‘gair cyfansawdd’?

Gair sydd yn cynnwys o leiaf dwy forffem yw gair cyfansawdd e.e. ‘prifathro’, lle mae’r morffemau unigol, ‘prif’ ac ‘athro’ yn gallu sefyll fel geiriau unigol ar eu pennau eu hunain.

Gweler wici.porth.ac.uk/index.php/Gair_cyfansawdd am fwy o wybodaeth.

What is a compound word?

A compound word is a word which contains at least two morphemes ( a unit of a language that cannot be further divided). For example, ‘prifathro’ (headteacher) where the morphemes ‘prif’ (main) ac ‘athro’ (teacher) can stand on their own as individual words.

See wici.porth.ac.uk/index.php/Gair_cyfansawdd for more information.

Geiriau Cyfansawdd / Compound Words

Gair Gymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / TranslationCyfansoddiad y gair / Word Formation
AbertaweSwansea (eb)Aber (estuary / mouth) + Tawe (the river Tawe > mouth of the river Tawe
amcangyfrifto estimate (be) /
estimate/estimation (eg)
amcan (target / aim / purpose) + cyfrif (to count)
ansoddair adjective (eg)ansawdd (quality / characteristic) + gair (word)
atalnodpunctuation mark (eg)atal (impediment / hindrance) + nod (mark)
bochdewhamster (eg)boch (cheek) + tew (fat)
bwytyrestaurant (eg)bwyd (food) + (house)
campwaithmasterpiece (eg)camp (accomplishment / achievement) + gwaith (work)
canhwyllbrencandlestick (eg)cannwyll (candle) + pren (wood [piece of])
canmlwyddiantcentenary (eg)cant (hundred) + blwydd (year) + iant
canolbarthmidland (eg)canol (middle) + parth (domain/zone)
canolbwyntfocus (eg)canol (middle) + pwynt (point)
cigfranraven (eb)cig (meat) + brân (crow)
cildroireverse (be)cil (to retreat) + troi (turn)
coedwigforest (eb)coed (trees / wood / lumber) + gwig (wood / forest / grove)
cofnodrecord / entry (eg)cof (memory / recollection) + nod (mark / object)
cofrestrregister (eb)cof (memory) + rhestr (list)
collnodapostrophe (eg) coll (loss) + nod (mark / object)
crefftwaithcraftsmanship (eg)crefft (craft / handicraft) + gwaith (work)
croesairparadox / a crossword (eg)croes (cross) + gair (word)
croesfforddcrossroads (eb)croes (cross) + ffordd (way / road)
cyfeirlyfrdirectory (eg)cyfeirio (to refer) + llyfr (book)
cyfrinairpassword (eg)cyfrin (secret) + gair (word)
cylchgrawnmagazine / periodical (eg)cylch (circle) + grawn (store / accumulation / treasure)
cysylltairconjunction (eg)cyswllt (contact / link) + gair (word)
delfrydideal (eb)delw (image / icon / idol) + bryd (dear one / intent / desire)
doethairapophthegm / aphorism (eg) doeth (wise) + gair (word)
dwyieithogbilingual (ans)dwy (two) + iaith (language) + og
dwylo hands (ll) dwy (two) + llaw (hand)
dyddlyfrdiary / journal (eg)dydd (day) + llyfr (book)
dyffrynvalley (eg)dwfr (water) + hynt (path / course)
ebychnodexclamation mark (eg)ebychu (to exclaim) + nod (mark / object)
eisteddleseat / pew (eg/b)eistedd (to sit) + lle (place)
ffermdyfarmhouse (eg)fferm (farm) + (house)
ffurflenform (eb)ffurf (format) + llen (sheet/curtain)
gemwaithjewellery (eg)gem (jewel) + gwaith (work)
glasgwelltgrass (ll)glas (blue / green in Welsh) + gwellt (grass)
gliniadurlaptop (eg)glin (lap) + cyfrif[iadur] (computer)
grawnwingrapes (ll)grawn (grain / seed) + gwin (wine)
gwaedlifhaemorrhage (eg)gwaed (blood) + llif (flow)
gwefanwebsite (eb/g)gwe (web / internet) + man (site)
gwerslyfrtextbook (eg)gwers (lesson) + llyfr (book)
gwerthfawrvaluable / precious (ans)gwerth (worth) + mawr (big)
gwestyhotel (eg)gwest (lodging) + (house)
gwladgarwrpatriot (eg)gwlad (country) + carwr (lover)
hawlfraintcopyright (eb)hawl (right / permission) + braint (privilege)
heddlupolice (eg)hedd (peace) + llu (throng / host / large number of people / army)
heddwas policeman (eg)hedd (peace) + gwas (servant / attendant)
hwylbrenmast / flagpole (eg)hwyl (sail) + pren (wood / tree)
iachuslawnwholesome (ans)iachus (healthy) + llawn (full)
llawysgrifhandwriting / manuscript (eb/g)llaw (hand) + ysgrif (a writing)
llofruddmurderer (eg)llaw (hand) + rhudd (crimson)
llwydnostwilight (eb)llwyd (grey) + nos (night)
llyfrgell library (eb)llyfr (book) + cell (cell)
maestrefsuburb (eb)maes (field) + tref (town)
mamiaithmother tounge (eb)mam (mum / mother) + iaith (language)
mislifmenses / period (eg)mis (month) + llif (flow)
môr-leidrpirate (eg)môr (sea) +lleidr (thief)
ofergoelsuperstition (eb)ofer (fruitless / vain / unavailing) + coel (belief / credit)
peirianwaithmechanism / machinery (eg/b)peiriant (machine) + gwaith
pêl-droedfootball (eb) pêl (ball) + troed (foot)
penelinelbow (eg/b)pen (head / end) + elin (forearm)
pennodchapter (eb)pen (hhead / end) + nod (note)
pentrefvillage (eg)pen (head / end) + tref (town)
pentwrpile / stack / cluster (eg)pen (head / end) + twr (batch / heap)
penwythnosweekend (eg/b)pen (head / end) + wythnos(week)
plentyndodchildhood (eg)plentyn (child) + dod (to become / arrive)
poptyoven (eg)pobi (to bake) + (house)
prifathrohead teacher (eg)prif (master / principal) + athro (teacher)
prifddinascapital city (b)prif (main / principal) + dinas (city)
prifforddhighway (eb)prif (main / principal) + ffordd (way/road)
prifysgol university (eb)prif (master / principal) + ysgol (school)
priodfabbridegroom [groom] (eg)priod (rightful) + mab (son)
prydferthbeautiful (ans)pryd (sight / appearance) + berth (fair / beautiful)
prynhawnafternoon (eg)pryd (time / occasion / period) + nawn (the ninth hour of the day)
pythefnosfortnight (eg)pymtheg (fifteen) + nos (wythnos or night)
rhagenwpronoun (eg)rhag (before / in front of) + enw (name)
rhithweledigaethhallucination (eb)rhith (shape / form) + gweledigaeth (vision / dream)
rhwydwaithnetwork (eg)rhwyd (net) + gwaith (work)
rhywbethsomething (eg)rhyw (some) + peth (thing)
rhywle somewhere (adf)rhyw (some) + lle (place)
rhywsutsomehow (adf)rhyw (some) + sut (how)
rhywunsomebody (eg)rhyw (some) +un (one)
safbwynt standpoint / point of view (eg)sefyll (to stand) + pwynt (point)
safleposition / location (eb/g)sefyll (to stand) + lle (place)
symudliwiridescent (ans)symud (to move) + lliw (colour)
tafodiaithdialect (eb)tafod (tongue) + iaith (language)
tanwyddfuel / firewood (eg)tân (fire) + gwŷdd (tree)
teirgwaiththrice (adf)tair (three) + gwaith (time / occasion)
triphlygtreble (ans)tri (three) + plyg (fold)
truenimisery / wretchedness (eg)truan (wretch / poor fellow) + i (1st person)
tueddfryddisposition (eg)tuedd (tendency) + (appearance)
tylwythtribe / kinsfolk (eg) (house) + llwyth (tribe / clan)
uchelwraristocrat (eg)uchel (high) + gŵr (man)
uncornunicorn (eg)un (one) + corn (horn)
unionstraight / direct ans)un (one) + iawn (right /okay)
unwaithonce (adf)un (one) + gwaith (time / occasion)
ymhlithamong(st) (ardd)yn (in) + plith (midst)
ymysgin the midst ofyn (in) + mysg (mixture)
ysbytyhospital (eg/b)ysbryd (spirit) + (house)
*ansicr yw union ffurf yr enghraifft yn ôl GPC (the exact example is uncertain according to DWL (Dictionary of the Welsh Language)

Dylanwad y Saesneg

Wrth ystyried hanes cythryblus yr iaith Gymraeg, hawdd yw gweld dylanwad y Saesneg a'r Normaniaid arni. O ganlyniad i statws israddol y Gymraeg yn y gorffennol a grym eithriadol Saesneg dros y blynyddoedd, nid yw’n syndod bod bach o debygrwydd rhwng rhai elfennau o’r Gymraeg a’r Saesneg. Ond ers twf dwyieithrwydd yng Nghymru a datblygiad y byd modern, technolegol, mae dylanwad y Saesneg wedi dwysáu. Oherwydd hyn, erbyn heddiw, mae llu o eiriau a phriod-ddulliau Saesneg wedi ymddangos yn y Gymraeg 

Am fwy o wybodaeth, gweler:

  • Morris, Steve a Rottet, Kevin, Comparative Stylistics of Welsh and English, Arddulleg y Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 2018)
  • Parry-Williams, T.H. The English Element in Welsh – A Study of English Loan Words in Welsh, (Llundain: Hon Society of Cymmrodorion, 1923)

The English Influence

As we consider the turbulent history of the Welsh Language, it is easy to see the influence of English and the Normans on Welsh. Due to the inferior status of Welsh in the past and the exceptional strength of English over the years, it is not surprising that there is an element of similarity between certain elements in Welsh and English. However, since the growth of bilingualism in Wales and the development of the modern, technological word, the influence of English has only intensified. Today, as a result, we see a whole variety of English words and idioms which have an influence on the way we speak Welsh.

For more information, see:

  • Morris, Steve a Rottet, Kevin, Comparative Stylistics of Welsh and English, Arddulleg y Gymraeg, (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2018)
  • Parry-Williams, T.H. The English Element in Welsh – A Study of English Loan Words in Welsh, (London: Hon Society of Cymmrodorion, 1923)

Saesneg / English

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation
abacwsabacus
ambiwlansambulance
bacwn bacoun Saesneg Canol / Medieval English
blanced blanket
bwsbus
cacencake
carcar
catalogcatalogue
cerdyncard (+yn)
cofficoffee
craccrack
cricedcricket
cwpan cuppe Hen Saesneg (Old English)
dawnsioto dance (verb)
desg desk
dramadrama
e-boste-mail
ffônphone (telephone)
garej garage
incink
licoto like (verb)
losinsweets (lozenge)
modernmodern
mwgmug
naturnature
neisnice
papurpaper
portreadportrait
potelbottle
pŵrpower
rygbi rugby
seiclo to cycle
sianelchannel
sigloto shake (shiggen) Medieval English / Saesneg Canol
siocledchocolate
sioe show
siopshop
siwgrsugar
siŵrsure
smwddio to iron (to smooth)
syrffioto surf
tetea
teledutelevision
tosttoast

Dylanwad Cymraeg ar Saesneg / The influence of Welsh on English

Gair / Word Diffiniad / DefinitionTarddiad / Origin
corgiCi bach sy’n frodorol o Gymru (Sir Benfro a Sir Aberteifi)

A small dog which originates from Wales (Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire)
cor (dwarf) + ci (dog)
penguinGair Cymraeg = pengwin

pen + gwyn = white head * tarddiad ansicr (uncertain origin)


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Diolchiadau

Hoffwn ddiolch yn fawr iawn i Geraint Lewis, Heini Gruffudd, David Sutton, Rhian Jones a Phrifysgol Abertawe am eu hawgrymiadau a'u cymorth.

Thanks

I would like to deeply thank Geraint Lewis, Heini Gruffudd, David Sutton, Rhian Jones and Swansea University for their suggestions and advice.

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