ers (since), erbyn (by the time), cyn (before), ar ôl (after), wrth (while/as), rhag ofn (in case), nes/tan (until), hen bryd (high time)

Bydd yn bosibl defnyddio'r adroddiad 'i' gyda phob un o'r geiriau neu'r ymadroddion uchod, i gyfleu sawl ystyr, e.e:

Cyn i fi fynd
Before I go/have gone/went.

Erbyn iddo fe gyrraedd
By the time he arrives/has arrived/arrived.

(Mae’n) hen bryd i ti fynd
(It’s) high time for you to go/you went

Wrth iddi hi gyrraedd
As she arrives/arrived

Tan/nes iddyn nhw gyrraedd
Until they arrive/have arrived/arrived

* Ar lafar, bydd pobl weithiau'n defnyddio 'bod' yn lle 'i' yn yr amser presennol, e.e.

Cyn bo’ fi’n mynd – Before I go.

Fel arfer, bydd pobl yn defnyddio 'Gwell' ('better') fel hyn, e.e.

Gwell i chi fynd – you had better go, Gwell i ni fynd – We’d better go, etc.

Rhaid (must)

Pan fydd pobl yn dweud 'rhaid i' drwy'r amser, sylwch ar y ffaith y bydd 'i' yn cyfleu amser gwahanol yma. Ar lafar, yn yr amser presennol, byddwn ni'n hepgor 'mae'n' fel arfer.

(Mae’n) rhaid i ni fynd. We have to/must go.
(There is) a necessity for us to go

Roedd rhaid i ni fynd. We had to go.
There was a necessity for us to go

Bydd rhaid i ni fynd. We will have to go.
There will be a necessity for us to go

ers (since), erbyn (by the time), cyn (before), ar ôl (after), wrth (while/as), rhag ofn (in case), nes/tan (until), hen bryd (high time)

The preposition ‘i’ is used with all the above, and can convey several tenses, e.g:
Cyn i fi fynd
Before I go/have gone/went.

Erbyn iddo fe gyrraedd
By the time he arrives/has arrived/arrived.

(Mae’n) hen bryd i ti fynd
(It’s) high time for you to go/you went

Wrth iddi hi gyrraedd
As she arrives/arrived

Tan/nes iddyn nhw gyrraedd
Until they arrive/have arrived/arrived

*In speech ‘bod’ is sometimes used for the present tense instead of ‘i’, e.g:
Cyn bo’ fi’n mynd – Before I go.

Gwell (better) is only usually used as below, e.g:
Gwell i chi fynd - you had better go, Gwell i ni fynd - We’d better go, etc.

Rhaid (must)

Although ‘i’ is used, the tense is changed as below. In speech, the present tense – ‘mae’n is usually omitted.

(Mae’n) rhaid i ni fynd. We have to/must go.
(There is) a necessity for us to go

Roedd rhaid i ni fynd. We had to go.
There was a necessity for us to go

Bydd rhaid i ni fynd. We will have to go.
There will be a necessity for us to go

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

 

1. Bydda i'n dweud diolch cyn i fi fynd
I'll say thank-you before I go

2. Dwedodd hi ddiolch cyn iddi hi adael
She said thanks before she left

3. Erbyn i ni orffen y gwaith bydd hi wedi nosi
By the time we finished the work it'll have got dark

4. Ro't ti wedi mynd i'r cyngerdd erbyn i fi sylweddoli
You had gone to the concert by the time I realised

5. Hen bryd iddyn nhw ymweld â'r ysgol
It’s high time that they visited the school

6. Roedd yn hen bryd i ti gael swydd, a 'nei di!
It was high time for you to get a job, and you did!

7. Ro'n ni'n cyrraedd wrth i chi ddechrau siarad
We were arriving as you began speaking

8. Bydd hi'n gallu canu wrth i ti wrando
She can sing while you listen

9. Aros yma tan i ni ddod yn ôl!
Wait here until we come back!

10. Roedd e'n teithio ledled y byd nes iddo fe briodi
He travelled all over the world until he married

11. Dylech chi fynd ag ymbarél rhag ofn iddi hi fwrw glaw
You should take an umbrella in case it rains

12. Gwell iddyn nhw ymddiheuro cyn i'r ffraeo ddechrau!
They'd better apologize before the fighting starts!

13. Rhaid i chi ymweld â mam-gu cyn hir
You must visit grandma before long

14. Roedd rhaid iddyn nhw orffen y gwaith am ddim
They had to finish the work for nothing

15. Bydd rhaid i fi ddod â'r caws i'r parti
I'll have to bring the cheese to the party