Letter Name  In Welsh speech
In English speech Sound of the letter as spelt
a tân/tan as in hard/bat ah
b bola as in bat bee
c car as in car, never as Cyril eck
ch coch as in Scottish loch ech
d dant as in dentist dee
dd sedd as in then, never as thing edd
e hen/Gwen long open e sound/then eh
f llef as in vase, never as off ev
ff ffôn as in phone eff
g an as in gut, never as George egg
ng ng as in bling eng
h hapus as in happy eye-tch
i ci/bin keep/bin, never as slime ee (dot)
j garej as in jam jay
l lan as in last el
ll llan no English equivalent ell
m map as in map em
n nawr as in nip en
o do/llon as in phone/pot oh
p pen as in pet pee
ph en as in physics phee
r car rolled more than English er
rh rhif breathy ‘r’, unvoiced rhee
s sarff as in set, not is ess
t ti as in top tee
th beth as in thing, never as then eth
u un/tun been/kiss never as in rump ee (bedol)
w dŵr/twp do/full oooo
y dyn/cyn/yn as in Dean/tin/dump uh

Cymraeg ar y chwith

Y llythrennau a, e, i, o, w, y sy'n cynrychioli llafariaid.

O dan y colofn 'Cymraeg' mae esiamplau o eiriau sy'n cynnwys llafariaid hir, a llafariaid byr, e.e. mae'r a mewn 'tân' ('fire') yn cael ei hynganu'n hirach na'r 'a' mewn 'tan' ('until').

Yn Saesneg, enw'r sianel deledu Cymraeg yw S4C, ond yn Gymraeg mae hwn yn cael ei ynganu fel ess pedwar ec.

Nid oes dim o'r llythrennau k, q, v, x, z yn y wyddor Gymraeg.

O ystyried y cyfyniadau o lythrennau ch, dd, ff, ng, ll, ph, rh, th byddwn ni'n gweld eu bod yn cynrychioli un sain yr un. Mewn croesair Cymraeg, er enghraifft, mae'r gair 'rhydd' yn llenwi dim ond tri sgwâr ('Rh-y-Dd'). Er enghraifft, os byddai arnoch chi eisiau cael hyd i ystyr y gair 'llaeth', byddai rhaid i chi chwilio yn adran y geiriadur o dan 'Ll', lle mae bob gair sy'n dechrau â 'Ll' yn cael ei restru; ni fyddwch chi'n dod o hyd i'r gair yn yr adran o dan 'L'.

Yn Gymraeg, dim ond y llythrennau 'n' ac 'r' yn gallu cael eu dyblu, ac wedyn dim ond yn syth ar ôl syllaf acennog, e.e. 'ysgrifennu' ('to write'), 'cyrraedd' ('to arrive').

Mae'r sain 'sh' (fel yn y gair Saesgeg 'shop') yn cael ei chynrychioli yn Gymraeg gan 'si', e.e. Siân, Siôn, siop ('shop'), siarad ('to talk').

Mae'r sain 'ch' (fel yn y gair Saesneg 'church') yn cael ei chynrychioli yn Gymraeg gan 'ts', e.e. Tseina ('China').

Mae syllafu yn y Gymraeg yn fwy cyson ac yn haws nag yn y Saesneg. Er enghraifft, meddyliwch am y geiriau canlynol. Mae pob un ohonyn nhw'n cynnwys yr un sain, ond beth am y sillafiad?

Yn Gymraegŵ – cŵn, sŵn, balŵn, dŵr   Yn Saesnegue / oe / oo – blue, shoe, soon!

English on the right

The letters a, e, i, o, w, y are vowels.

Under the ‘Welsh’ column examples of words with long and short vowel sounds are given, e.g. a - tân (fire) is pronounced longer than tan.

S4C the Welsh TV channel in English is pronounced ess four see, but in Welsh is pronounced ess pedwar ec.

There is no:  k, q, v, x or z  in the Welsh alphabet.

ch, dd, ff, ng, ll, ph, rh and th count as one letter each. In a Welsh crossword for example, the word ‘rhydd’ would only fill 3 squares. It also affects the word order in a Welsh dictionary. For example, if you wanted to find the meaning of the word ‘llaeth’, you would look under the ‘Ll’ section in the dictionary, where all words starting with ‘Ll’ would be listed, not under ‘L’.

The only letters that can be doubled in Welsh are ‘n’ and ‘r’  e.g.  ysgrifennu, cyrraedd, and then only just after the stress.

A ‘sh’ sound is represented by ‘si’ yn Welsh e.g.       Siân, Siôn, siop, siarad.

A ‘ch’ sound, as in English church is represented by ‘ts’ in Welsh e.g. Tseina (China).

Welsh spelling is more consistent and easier than English. For example using a long ‘oo’ sound. Notice the following-

Welsh - ŵ - cŵn, sŵn,  balŵn, dŵr               English – ue / oe / oo - blue, shoe, soon!