Cymraeg ar y chwith

Rhowch gynnig ar adrodd y pennill hwn, sy'n cynnwys yr arddodiaid fydd yn achosi treiglad meddal - efallai y byddwch chi'n gallu eu cofio nhw drwy wneud hyn!

i, o, am,

ar, at, dan,

hyd , wrth, heb,

trwy, dros, gan.

English on the right

Try reciting these prepositions which cause a soft mutation as a way to remember them:

i, o, am,

ar, at, dan,

hyd , wrth, heb,

trwy, dros, gan.

Rywbryd, bydd rhaid defnyddio arddodiad neilltuol (e.e. ‘at’, ‘wrth’, 'i', 'o', ac ati) gyda berf neilltuol. Mae'r ystyr newydd ('berf + arddodiad') yn gallu bod yn wahanol i ystyr y ferf yn unig. Felly, dylech chi ddysgu'r arddodiad priodol gyda phob berf. Gweler isod:

Certain prepositions (e.g. ‘at’, ‘wrth’ etc.) go with certain verbs.   It is best to learn them together as their meanings may change. See below: 

 atcofio atto remember/give regards to (a person) 
ysgrifennu atto write to (a person)
mynd at to go to (a person)
hala/Anfon atto send to (a person)
  i gofyn i to ask 
diolch i to thank

 

 wrthdweud wrthto tell
clywed wrthto hear from

 

 am becso/poeni amto worry about
chwilio amto look/search for
meddwl amto think about
 aredrych arto look at
gwrando arto listen to
gweiddi arto shout at

 

âsiarad âto talk to
cwrdd âto meet (with)

Pan fyddwch yn defnyddio arddodiaid gydag enwau (pobl nwu pethau), fydd ddim rhaid ychwanegu terfyniadau, e.e:

Dw i wedi bod yn meddwl am Ffred.    (I’ve been thinking about Ffred)
Dw i wedi gofyn i’r plant.                        (I’ve asked (to) the children)
Dw i wedi edrych ar y tŷ.                       (I’ve looked at the house)

When using prepositions with nouns (people or things) no endings are required, e.g:

Dw i wedi bod yn meddwl am Ffred. (I’ve been thinking about Ffred)
Dw i wedi gofyn i’r plant.                    (I’ve asked (to) the children)
Dw i wedi edrych ar y tŷ.                    (I’ve looked at the house)

Ond, pan fyddwn ni'n defnyddio rhagenwau personol (personal pronouns) – fi, ti, fe, hi, ni, chi, nhw – yn lle enwau, bydd rhaid ychwanegu terfyniad priodol at fôn yr arddodiad i ddangos pa berson fydd dan sylw. e.e:

Dw i wedi bod yn meddwl amdani hi   I have been thinking about her

Dw i wedi gofyn iddyn nhw                  I have asked (to) them

Dw i wedi edrych arno fe                        I have looked at it/him

But when personal pronouns are used - fi, ti, fe, hi, ni, chi, nhw - instead of names, an ending has to be added to the root of the preposition to fit the person.

Dw i wedi bod yn meddwl amdani hi.  I have been thinking about her

Dw i wedi gofyn iddyn nhw.                   I have asked (to) them

Dw i wedi edrych arno fe.                       I have looked at it/him

RootEndingsPerson
arn--a /-oi
wrth--at /-otti
drost--ofe
amdan--ihi
at--onni
ohon--ochchi
 -ynnhw

Os bydd arddodiad yn rhedeg, wedyn, bydd yr arddodiad hwnnw'n defnyddio'r un terfyniadau - yn cynnwys 'heb' (e.e. hebddo fe - without it/him), a ‘trwy’ (e.e. trwyddo fe - through it/him).

Dim ond dwy eithriad sydd, sef:

â          Fydd yr arddodiad hwn ddim yn ychwanegu'r un terfyniad, e.e:

Siarad â nhw - to talk to them
Cwrdd â hi - to meet her

i          Dim ond i ddangos fe / hi a nhw y bydd yr arddodiad hwn yn ychwanegu terfyniadau, e.e:

Gofynnwch i ni - ask us - OND:

Gofynnwch iddi hi - ask her

Gofynnwch iddo fe - ask him

Gofynnwch iddyn nhw - ask them

The endings are the same for all the prepositions including ‘heb’ e.g. hebddo fe (without it/him), ‘trwy’  e.g. trwyddo fe (through it) etc. 

The only exceptions are:

â          This preposition does not require any endings at all, e.g:

Siarad â nhw   to talk to them

Cwrdd â hi   to meet her

i           This preposition does not require any endings apart from with fe, hi and nhw e.g:

Gofynnwch i ni ask us    BUT:

Gofynnwch iddi hi   ask her

Gofynnwch iddo fe  ask him

Gofynnwch iddyn nhw  ask them

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

1. Sut mae'ch rhieni chi? Cofiwch ni atyn nhw!
How are your parents? Remember me to them!

2. Fi sy'n nabod y brifathrawes. Bydda i'n ysgrifennu ati hi i gwyno am yr athro 'na!
I know the headmistress. I'll be writing to her to complain about that teacher!

3. Dyn hyfryd yw'r milfeddyg. Aethon ni â'r ci ato fe pan oedd e'n sâl
The vet is a lovely man. We took the dog to him when he was ill

4. Beth am Ffred a Sandra? Os byddwn ni'n hala neges aton nhw, falle byddan nhw'n ymateb
What about Ffred and Sandra? If we send them a message, perhaps they'll reply

5. Pam dych chi'n gofyn i ni am hynny? Mae'n breifat!
Why are you asking us about that? It's private!

6. Wel, nawr 'te, roedd hi'n dweud wrtha i am y manylion i gyd
Well, now then, she was telling me about all the details

7. Dyn ni ddim wedi clywed wrthoch chi ers achau
We haven't heard from you for ages

8. Wyt ti'n meddwl am yr arholiad? Paid becso amdano fe, Twm!
Are you thinking about the exam? Don't worry about it, Twm!

9. Ro'n ni wedi bod yn chwilio amdanat ti cyn i ti gyrraedd
We'd been searching for you before you arrived

10. Wyt ti'n meddwl amdana i erioed, Ffred?
Do you ever think about me, Ffred?

11. Mae Sandra yn dwlu ar bêl-droed, ond dyw hi byth yn edrych arno fe ar y teledu
Sandra loves football, but she never watches it on the television

12. Rhaid i chi wrando arnyn nhw'n astud er mwyn eu deall nhw
You have to listen to them intently in order to understand them

13. Dych chi'n siarad â nhw bob dydd, dw i'n credu
You talk to them every day, I think

14. Bydd yr athro'n cwrdd â ni i esbonio beth sy'n digwydd yn yr ysgol
The teacher will meet us to explain what's going on in the school

15. Wnewch chi ymweld â'r cyngor drosta i, os gwelwch yn dda?
Will you visit the council on my behalf, please?

16. Dim ond hanner ohonyn nhw sydd yma!
There's only half of them here!

17. Edrycha ar y bwrdd! Dyna Spot yn cuddio dano fe!
Look at the table! There's Spot hiding under it!

18. Pan fyddi di'n gadael, paid mynd hebddon ni!
When you leave, don't go without us!

19. Os cyrhaeddwch chi'r ardd, bydd yn rhaid i chi gerdded drwyddi hi
If you reach the garden, you'll have to walk through it

20. Dw i wedi dysgu cymaint gennyt ti
I've learned so much from you