Yn aml yn Saesneg, byddwn ni'n hepgor y gair 'that' ar lafar, pan fyddwch chi'n dweud pethau fel ‘I think it’s good' (yn hytrach na ‘I think that it’s good’). Mewn y fath frawddegau yn Gymraeg, dyw hi ddim yn bosibl hepgor y gair (neu'r geiriau) sy'n golygu 'that'.

Pan fyddwn ni'n rhoi 'cymal' ('clause') o flaen brawddeg, bydd rhaid defnyddio rhyw ffurf ar y ferf 'bod'. Hynny yw, os byddwn ni'n uno dwy frawddeg ar wahân (fel yn y tair esiampl isod), bydd rhaid rhoi ffurf ar 'bod' yn lle 'mae', e.e:

In English the ‘that’ is often left out in speech, e.g.‘I think it’s good’, rather than ‘I think that it’s good’.  The ‘that’ in these type of sentences cannot be omitted in Welsh.

When a clause is placed in front of a sentence, some form of ‘bod’ has to be used e.g. If two separate sentences are joined together (as in the 3 examples below) ‘mae’ has to be changed into ‘bod’.

Dw i’n meddwl.     Mae e’n dda.     >  Dw i’n meddwl fod e’n dda.
(I think)                  (He / it is good)      (I think that he / it is good)

Dw i’n meddwl.     Mae hi’n dda.    >  Dw i’n meddwl bod hi’n dda
(I think)                  (She is good)         (I think that she / it is good)

Dw i’n meddwl.  Maen nhw’n dda > Dw i’n meddwl bod nhw’n dda
(I think)               (They are good)     (I think that they are good)

Ac ysgrifennu popeth yn llawn, byddwch chi'n gweld: 'ei fod e / ei bod hi / eu bod nhw'. Fodd bynnag, fel rheol, byddwn ni'n hepgor yr elfen gyntaf ('ei / ei / eu', ac yn y blaen) ar lafar. Yma byddwn ni'n gweld yr un treigladau ag y byddwn ni'n eu defnyddio i ddweud pwy sy biau beth, fel yn yr ymadrodd 'ei fag e' ('his bag').

Nodiwch fod yr ymadroddion ‘(fy) mod i’ / (dy) fod di’ a yn y blaen, yn golygu ‘that I am / that you are’ ac ati. Ond, arben gynny, maen nhw hefyd yn golygu ‘that I was / that you were' (ac ati). Bydd yr ystyr neilltuol yn Saesneg yn dibynnu ar gud-destun y frawddeg Gymraeg, e.e:

In full they would be written as ei fod e, ei bod hi, eu bod nhw, but the first element ei/eu is usually left out in speech. They cause the same mutations (e.g. his bag > ei fag e) as when used to posses things.

Notice that ‘mod i’, ‘fod di’ etc can mean not only - ‘that I am’, ‘that you are’  etc. but also ‘that I was’, ‘that you were’ etc. – according to the context of the sentence. e.g:

Mae e’n dost               Mae’n flin ’da fi glywed fod e’n dost
(He is ill)                      (I’m sorry to hear that he is ill)

Roedd e’n dost            Roedd hi’n flin ’da fi glywed fod e’n dost
(He was ill)                   (I was sorry to hear that he was ill)

Yn Gymraeg, yn aml bydd rhaid defnyddio geiriau sy'n golygu 'that' hyd yn oed pan na fydd rhaid yn Saesneg, e.e.

Falle bod hi’n dost > Perhaps (that) she is ill

Wrth gwrs fod di > Of course (that) you are

Nodwch fod yr un gair 'bod' yn golygu'r dau air Saesneg 'that + is' (neu 'that + was') ar yr un pryd.

 

In Welsh ‘that’ often occurs where it would not in English, e.g:

Falle bod hi’n dost    >   Perhaps (that) she is ill.

Wrth gwrs fod di    >    Of course (that) you are.

Note that the word ‘bod’ not only means ‘that’ but also ‘is/was’.

 

Ynganiad

Mae'r ffurfiau ysgrifennedig i gyd wedi'u rhestru isod. Byddwn ni'n hepgor yr elfen gyntaf ('fy, dy, ei', ac yn y blaen) ar lafar fel rheol:

Nodwch y canlynol: Byddwn ni'n ysgrifennu'r ffurf 'ti' yn llawn fel 'dy fod DI'. Ond, ar lafar, byddwn ni'n dweud 'dy fod TI':

(fy) mod i, *(dy) fod di, (ei) fod e, (ei) bod hi, (ein) bod ni, (eich) bod chi, (eu) bod nhw

Llawer o bobl nad ydynt yn defnyddio'r treigladau. Mae'r sain 'd' yn y gair 'bod' yn cael ei hepgor yn aml hefyd. Felly, byddwch chi'n clywed y canlynol yn aml mewn sgwrs gyflym, ddidaro:

bo’ fi bo’ ti bo’ fe bod hi bo’ ni bo’ chi, bo’ nhw

Pronunciation

Below are the full written forms.  The first element of the phrase is usually omitted in speech:

Note that the ‘di’ in the full written form ‘dy fod di’, is pronounced as ‘ti’ in speech.

(fy) mod i, *(dy) fod di, (ei) fod e, (ei) bod hi, (ein) bod ni, (eich) bod chi, (eu) bod nhw.

Many people don’t pronounce the mutations and the last ‘d’ of the ‘bod’ is often left out. So you may hear the following in rapid casual speech:

bo’ fi, bo’ ti, bo’ fe, bod hi, bo’ ni, bo’ chi, bo’ nhw.

Written Spoken Meaning in English
(fy) mod i mod i that I am/was
(dy) fod *di fod *ti that you are/were
(ei) fod e fod e that he/it is/was
(ei) bod hi bod hi that she/it is/was
(ein) bod ni bod ni that we are/were
(eich) bod chi bod chi that you are/were
(eu) bod nhw bod nhw that they are/were
bod y plant bod y plant that the children are/were

 

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

1. Dw i’n credu + Mae e’n ddrwg
> Dw i’n credu fod e’n ddrwg

I believe + That he's bad
> I believe (that) he's bad

2. Rwyt ti’n deall + Dw i'n swil
> Rwyt ti'n deall mod i’n swil

You understand + I am shy
> You understand (that) I'm shy

3. Mae e'n dweud + Dyn ni'n hapus
> Mae'n dweud bod ni'n hapus

He says + We are happy
> He says (that) we are happy

5. Maen nhw'n siŵr + Dych chi'n brysur
> Maen nhw'n siŵr bod chi'n brysur

They are sure + You are busy
> They are sure (that) you're busy

6. Rwy't ti'n gwybod + Maen nhw'n hwyr
> Rwyt ti'n gwybod bod nhw'n hwyr

You know + They are late
> You know (that) they are late

7. Mae'n flin 'da nhw weld + Dw i'n ddi-waith
> Mae'n flin 'da nhw weld mod i'n ddi-waith

They are sorry to see + I am unemployed
> They are sorry to see (that) I'm unemployed

8. Ofnadw' clywed + Mae pethau'n anodd i chi
> Ofnadw' clywed bod pethau'n anodd i chi

It's awful to hear + Things are bad for you
> It's awful to hear (that) things are bad for you

9. Anodd dweud + Ro'n i'n hapus ar y pryd
> Anodd dweud mod i'n hapus ar y pryd

It's hard to say + I was happy at the time
> It's hard to say (that) I was happy at the time

10. Dych chi'n meddwl + Ro'n nhw'n dlawd?
> Dych chi'n meddwl bod nhw'n dlawd?

Do you think + They were poor?
> Do you think (that) they were poor?

11. Ro't ti'n credu + Roedd hi'n grac
> Ro't ti'n credu bod hi'n grac

You believed + She was angry
> You believed (that) she was angry

12. Dw i'n gwybod + Mae'r plant yn ddrwg
> Dw i'n gwybod bod y plant yn ddrwg

I know + The children are naughty
> I know (that) the children are naughty

13. Roedd e'n dweud + Roedd y ci'n glyfar
> Roedd e'n dweud bod y ci'n glyfar

He was saying + The dog was clever
> He was saying (that) the dog was clever

14. Falle + Dyn ni'n barod
> Falle bod ni'n barod

Perhaps + We are ready
> Perhaps we're ready

15. Wrth gwrs + Ro'n nhw'n hyfryd
> Wrth gwrs bod nhw'n hyfryd

Of course + they were lovely
> Of course they were lovely