Ask Dr Gramadeg: Defnyddio Bod yn yr Amser Presennol a’r Amser Amherffaith / Using Bod as That in the Present and Imperfect Tenses

Pan fyddwn ni'n rhoi gair neu ymadrodd ar ddechrau brawddeg yn yr amser presennol, neu'r amser amherffaith, bydd rhaid newid y ferf i ryw ffurf ar 'bod'. Bydd hyn yn golygu yn Saesneg ‘that something is / that something was’. Edrychwch ar y dabl a'r esiamplau isod.

When a word or phrase is placed in front of a sentence in the present or imperfect tense, the verb is changed to some form of ‘bod’.  The ‘bod’ has the meaning ‘that something is or was’  See table and examples below.

Presennol / PresentAmherffaith / ImperfectCymal / ClauseSaesneg
Dw i…Ro’n i…fy mod ithat I am/was
Rwyt ti…Ro’t ti…dy fod dithat you are/were
Mae e…Roedd e…ei fod ethat he/it is/was
Mae hi…Roedd hi…ei bod hithat she/it is/was
Mae’r dyn…Roedd y dyn…bod y dynthat the man is/was
Dyn ni…Ro’n ni…ein bod nithat we are/were
Dych chi…Ro’ch chi…eich bod chithat you are/were
Maen nhw…Ro’n nhw…eu bod nhwthat they are/were

Credir ... Mae e’n barod                   >    Credir ei fod e’n barod.
It is believed ... He/it is ready       >       It is believed that he/it is ready

Cyhoeddwyd ... Roedd hi’n barod  >   Cyhoeddwyd ei bod hi’n barod
It was announced ...  She was ready       > It was announced that she/it was ready

Dywedodd llefarydd ... Roedd y dyn yn barod   >        Dywedodd llefarydd *fod y dyn yn barod
A spokesperson said ... The man was ready   >   A spokesperson said that the man was ready

* Dylech chi sylwi ar y ffaith bod y gair bod wedi treiglo'n feddal i roi fod yn y frawddeg uchod, gan mai'r holl gymal sydd yn wrthrych i'r ferf gryno.

Os byddwn ni'n rhoi gair neu ymadrodd ar ddechrau brawddeg yn yr amser dyfodol, neu'r amser amodol, fydd y ferf ddim yn newid, ond byddwn ni'n rhoi 'y' neu 'yr' o'i blaen i olygu 'that', e.e:

Credir ... Bydd e’n barod     >         Credir y bydd e’n barod.

It is believed ... He/it will be ready  >   It is believed that he/it will be ready

Maen nhw’n dweud ... Caiff e ei newid   >          Maen nhw’n dweud y caiff e ei newid.
They say ... It will be changed    >   They say that it will be changed.

Cyhoeddwyd ... Byddai hi’n barod     >          Cyhoeddwyd y byddai hi’n barod

It was announced ... She/it would be ready > It was announced that she/it would be ready

Credir ... Mae e’n barod                   >    Credir ei fod e’n barod.
It is believed ... He/it is ready       >       It is believed that he/it is ready

Cyhoeddwyd ... Roedd hi’n barod  >   Cyhoeddwyd ei bod hi’n barod
It was announced ...  She was ready       > It was announced that she/it was ready        

Dywedodd llefarydd ... Roedd y dyn yn barod   >        Dywedodd llefarydd *fod y dyn yn barod
A spokesperson said ... The man was ready   >   A spokesperson said  that the man was ready

Note that bod has been mutated to fod in the above sentence because the whole clause is the object of the short form verb.

When a word or phrase is placed in front of a sentence in the future or conditional tense, the verb stays the same and ‘y’ or ‘yr’ is used for ‘that’, e.g:

 Credir ... Bydd e’n barod     >         Credir y bydd e’n barod.

It is believed ... He/it will be ready  >   It is believed that he/it will be ready

Maen nhw’n dweud ... Caiff e ei newid   >          Maen nhw’n dweud y caiff e ei newid.
They say ... It will be changed    >   They say that it will be changed.

Cyhoeddwyd ... Byddai hi’n barod     >          Cyhoeddwyd y byddai hi’n barod

It was announced ... She/it would be ready > It was announced that she/it would be ready

Byddwch chi'n clywed y ffurfiau ffurfiol neu lenyddol ar 'Cael' yn amlaf mewn bwletinau newyddion, e.e:

Gaeth e/hi > Cafodd (e/hi)  Gaethon nhw > Cawson nhw/Cawsant

Mewn iaith ffurfiol, bydd yn bosibl hepgor y rhagenwau personol ('e/hi/nhw', ac ati.

The formal/literary forms of ‘cael’ are most often used in news bulletins, e.g:
Gaeth e/hi > Cafodd (e/hi)  Gaethon nhw > Cawson nhw/Cawsant     

The personal pronouns (e/hi/nhw, etc.) can be omitted in formal Welsh.

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

1. Dw i'n siŵr ein bod ni'n dod
I'm sure we are coming

2. Ro’n i'n hapus ei bod hi'n aros
I was happy she was staying

3. Rwyt ti'n gwybod fy mod i'n sâl
You know I am ill

4. Ro’t ti'n dweud bod y dyn yno
You were saying that the man was there

5. Mae e'n honni'ch bod chi'n ffraeo
He claims that you were fighting

6. Roedd e'n dweud wrth bawb fy mod i'n hwyr
He was telling everyone that I was late

7. Mae hi'n credu'u bod nhw'n barod
She believes that they're ready

8. Roedd hi'n meddwl eich bod chi'n mynd ar wyliau
She thought you were going on holiday

9. Mae’r dyn yn gweiddi dy fod di'n gynnar
The man's shouting that you're early

10. Roedd y dyn yn meddwl ei bod hi'n deg
The man thought that she was fair

11. Dyn ni'n gwybod bod y dyn yno
We know that the man was there

12. Ro’n ni'n credu dy fod di'n gywir
We thought you were right

13. Dych chi'n siŵr ein bod ni'n dod
You're sure that we're coming

14. Ro’ch chi'n gwybod eu bod nhw'n anghywir
You knew they were wrong

15. Maen nhw'n gallu gweld ei bod hi'n hapus
They can see that she's happy

16. Ro’n nhw'n credu'i fod e'n ddrwg
You believed he was bad

17. Ystyrir + Mae hi’n santes
> Ystyrir ei bod e’n santes

It is considered + She is a saint
> It is considered that she is a saint

18. Dywedwyd + Ro'n ni’n hwyr
> Dywedwyd ein bod ni’n hwyr

It was said + We were late
> It was said that we were late

19. Cyhoeddodd y papurau newydd y stori + Roedd y fenyw'n arwres
> Cyhoeddodd y papurau newydd y stori bod y fenyw'n arwres

The newspapers published the story + The woman was a hero
The newspapers published the story that the woman was a hero

20. Dywedir + Byddan nhw'n hwyr
> Dywedir y byddan nhw'n hwyr

It is said + They will be late
> It is said that they will be late

21. Dyn ni'n honni + Cawn ni gyfle da
Dyn ni'n honni y cawn ni gyfle da

We claim + We'll have a good chance
We claim that we'll have a good chance

22. Mae'n amlwg + Cân nhw eu cosbi
Mae'n amlwg y cân nhw eu cosbi

It's obvious + They'll be punished
It's obvious that they'll be punished

23. Credwyd + Bydden nhw'n dod
> Credwyd y bydden nhw'n dod

It was believed + They would come
It was believed that they would come

24. Cafodd hi gyfle i berfformio yn y ddrama
> Gaeth hi gyfle i berfformio yn y ddrama
She had a chance to perform in the play

25. Cawsant hwyl yn y parti
> Cawson nhw hwyl yn y parti
> Caethon nhw hwyl yn y parti
> Gaethon nhw hwyl yn y parti
They had fun in the party