Dychmygwch sefyllfaoedd pan fydd pethau'n digwydd i chi (hynny yw, pan na fyddwch chi'n eu gwneud nhw eich hunan) - e.e., 'Ges i fy ngeni' ('I was born'), neu 'Ges i fy magu' ('I was brought up'). Dyma bethau sy wedi digwydd i chi, nid pethau rydych wedi eu gwneud i chi eich hunan. Er mwyn siarad am y fath sefyllfaoedd, cynorthwyol iawn yw defnyddio 'Y Goddefol / Y Stad Oddefol' ('The Passive / The Passive Voice') fel yn yr eisamplau o'r blaen. Sut mae hyn yn digwydd?

Amser dyfodol (Cael) +         Rhagenw           +    Berfenw (wedi'i dreiglo os bydd rhaid)
Ges i                               + fy                                + ngeni

Ges i fy ngeni        I was born                   (Yn llythennol - 'I had I my birthing/borning')
Ges i fy magu        I was brought up       (Yn llythrennol - 'I had I my bringing up')

Cofiwch: Peidiwch â defnyddio'r amser amherffaith ('Roedd') yma

Isod y mae tabl sy'n dangos y Goddefol yn yr amser gorffennol gyda 'Geni' ('To be born'). Cofiwch y bydd y rhagenwau'n achosi'r un treigladau yn y Goddefol ag y byddan nhw'n peri pan fydd rhywun yn meddu ar rywbeth:

Fy ... i (treiglad trwynol)
Dy ... di (treiglad meddal)
Ei ... e (treiglad meddal)
Ei ... hi (treiglad llaes)

When things happen to you (i.e. you don’t do them yourself),  e.g. I was born, I was brought up - (you don’t give birth to yourself or bring yourself up - they are done to you not by you), this is conveyed by using the passive voice, e.g.

Past (cael)     +         pronoun           +    verb (mutated if necessary)
Ges i              +          fy                     +   ngeni

I was born                  Ges i fy ngeni   (Literally: had I my borning/birthing)
I was brought up       Ges i fy magu   (Literally had I my bringing up)

Don’t be tempted to use the ‘roedd’ - was - imperfect tense.

Below is the table of the passive mood in the past using ‘geni’:  The ‘rhagenwau’(pronouns) cause the same mutations as they did with possessions.

Fy (treiglad trwynol)
Ei..e/Dy..di (treiglad meddal)
Ei..hi (treiglad llaes)

Cael + rhagenw + geni Saesneg (Lythrennol) / English (Literal) Saesneg (Ar lafar) / English
Ges i fy ngeni had I my borning I was born
Gest ti dy _eni had you your borning You were born
Gaeth e ei _eni had he his borning He was born
Gaeth hi ei geni had she her borning She was born
Gaethon ni ein geni had we our borning We were born
Gaethoch chi eich geni had you your borning You were born
Gaethon nhw eu geni had they their borning They were born

 

Rhagor o esiamplau:

Ces i fy ngweld > Ges i fy ngweld I was seen (= 'Had I my seeing')
Ces i fy ngweld > Ges i fy magu I was brought up (= 'Had I my bringing up')
Cafodd e ei fagu > Gaeth e ei fagu He was brought up (= 'Had he his bringing up') 

Fel rydyn ni wedi gweld, pan fydd rhywbeth yn digwydd i rywun (pan na fyddan nhw wedi gwneud y peth iddyn nhw eu hunain), byddwn ni'n defnyddio'r Stadd Ofeddol. Byddwn ni'n gwneud hyn gan ddefnyddio amser dyfodol 'Cael', e.e:

Ges i (f)y ngeni I was born (= 'I had my birthing')
Gaethon nhw eu magu They were brought up (= 'They had their bringing up')
Gaeth hi ei gweld She was seen (= 'She had her seeing')
Gaethon ni ein hanafu We were injured (= 'We had our injuring')

Byddwn ni'n gallu defnyddio'r Stad Oddefol mewn amserau eraill, trwy ddernyddio amser priodol 'Cael, e.e:

Y Stad Ofeddol yn yr Amser Dyfodol

Gaiff hi ei gweld               She will be seen
Bydd hi’n cael ei gweld     She will be seen (yn enwedig yr un ystyr yma)

Y Stad Ofeddol yn yr Amser Presennol

Mae hi’n cael ei gweld She is (being) seen

Y Stad Ofeddol yn yr Amser Perffaith

Mae hi wedi cael ei gweld She has been seen

Y Stad Ofeddol yn yr Amser Amherffaith

Roedd hi’n cael ei gweld She was (being) seen

Yn y Stadd Oddefol, byddwn ni gallu dangos pwy sy'n gwneud y gweithred trwy ddefnyddio 'Gan' -- Cofiwch fod 'Gan' yn achosi treiglad meddal, e.e:

Ges i fy arestio gan yr heddlu
I was arrested by the police

Gaeth e ei fwrw gan gar  (‘Gan’ sy'n achosi treiglad meddal)
He was hit by a car

Further examples:

I was seen (Had I my seeing)  =  Ces / Ges i fy ngweld
I was brought up (Had I my bringing up)  =  Ces / Ges i fy magu
He was brought up (Had he his bringing up)  =  Gaeth e / Cafodd e ei fagu

As we have seen, when something happens to someone, rather than them doing it themselves, the passive is used.  This is done by using ‘cael’ in the past, e.g:

I was born  =  Ges i (f)y ngeni  (I had my borning)

They were brought up  =  Gaethon nhw eu magu  (They had their bringing up)

She was seen  =  Gaeth hi ei gweld  (She had her seeing)

We were injured  =  Gaethon ni ein hanafu  (We had our injuring)

The passive, using ‘cael’ , is also used with other tenses, e.g.

Future

Gaiff hi ei gweld / Bydd hi’n cael ei gweld  (She will be seen)

Present

Mae hi’n cael ei gweld  (She is being seen)

Perfect

Mae hi wedi cael ei gweld  (She has been seen)

Imperfect

Roedd hi’n cael ei gweld  (She was being seen)

 

If someone / something is done by someone / something - ‘gan’ is used e.g.

I was arrested by the police
Ges i fy arestio gan yr heddlu

He was hit by a car
Gaeth e ei fwrw gan gar  (‘gan’ causes a soft mutation)