Ask Dr Gramadeg: Cyflwyno Berfau Cryno / Introducing Short-form Verbs

Ar lafar, bydd y rhan fwyaf o bobl yn dweud 'Licwn i' yn hytrach na 'Byddwn i'n lico' i olygu 'I would like'. Yr un modd, byddan nhw'n dweud 'Gallwn i' yn lle 'Byddwn i'n gallu' i olygu 'I could'. Gyda'r mwyafrif o ferfau eraill, fodd bynnag, byddan nhw'n dweud rhywbeth fel 'Byddwn i'n deall' i olygu 'I would understand', er enghraifft.

 

Most people use the ‘short way’ below rather than the ‘long way’ with ‘lico/hoffi’ and ‘gallu’ in speech.  Most of the other verbs use the ‘long way’.

Ffurf gwmpasog / Long way (the 'Roundabout form')

Bod          + yn + lico + verb
Byddwn     i ’n        lico    gweld –         Byddwn i’n lico gweld
I would like to see

Bod             + yn  + gallu   + verb
Byddwn     i’n         gallu      gweld –       Byddwn i’ n gallu gweld
I would be able to see                              I could see

Long way

Bod                 + yn + lico + verb
Byddwn i             ’n     lico     gweld     -          Byddwn i’n lico gweld
I would like to see

Bod                 + yn + gallu + verb
Byddwn i             ’n     gallu     gweld   -          Byddwn i’ n gallu gweld
I would be able to see
                                                                           I could see

Ffurf Rediadol / Short way (the 'Conjugated form')

Licwn i weld I would like to see
Gallwn i weld I would be able to see/I could see

Short way

Licwn i weld                        I would like to see
Gallwn i weld                       I would be able to see/I could see

Ynganu / Pronunciation (Nodiwch y sain 'e' bob amser)

Gallwn i / Licwn i              – wedi'i ynganu fel – ‘Gallen i’ / Licen i’
Gallai fe/hi/Licai fe/hi     – wedi'i ynganu fel – ‘Galle fe/hi/Lice fe/hi

Pronounced

Gallwn i / Licwn i            - pronounced as -  ‘Gallen i’ / Licen i’
Gallai fe/hi/Licai fe/hi      - pronounced as -  ‘Galle fe/hi/Lice fe/hi

Bydd treiglad meddal ar ôl pob un o'r ffurfiau uchod, e.e:
Licwn i fynd                         I’d like to go

Byddwn ni'n ychwanegu 'Ddim' i ffurfio'r negyddol, e.e:
Licai hi ddim mynd            She wouldn’t like to go

Soft mutation after all the above, e.g:
Licwn i fynd.        I’d like to go.

Add ‘ddim’ for negatives, e.g:
Licai hi ddim mynd.    She wouldn’t like to go. 

Licwn iI would like to
Licet tiyou would like to
Licai fe/hiHe/she would like to
Licen niWe would like to
Licech chiYou would like to
Licen nhwThey would like to

Bydd treiglad meddal ar ôl pob un o'r ffurfiau uchod, e.e:
Gallwn i fynd                   I could go

Byddwn ni'n ychwanegu 'Ddim' a cholli'r sain 'G' (trwy deiglo'n feddal) i ffurfio'r negyddol, e.e:
Allai hi ddim mynd         She couldn’t go.

Soft mutation after all the above, e.g:
Gallwn i fynd.     I could go.

Add ‘ddim’ for and lose ‘G’ negatives, e.g:
Allai hi ddim mynd    She couldn’t go.

Cwestiwn

Ateb

Allwn i? Could I?Gallet/Na allet Gallech/Na allech
Allet ti? Could you?Gallwn/Na allwn
Allai fe? Could he?Gallai/Na allai
Allai hi? Could she?Gallai/Na allai
Allen ni? Could we?Gallech/Na allech Gallen/Na allen
Allech chi? Could you?Gallwn/Na allwn Gallen/Na allen
Allen nhw? Could they?Gallen/Na allen

Er mwyn ateb cwestiynau byddwn ni'n defnyddio'r un ffurfiau fel y byddwn ni'n eu defnyddio gyda 'gallu' ond byddwn ni'n rhoi'r bôn 'lic-' yn lle 'gall'.

The same answers as above are used for ‘lico’ but the root is ‘lic-’ not ‘gall-’.

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

1. Byddwn i’n lico cymryd rhan yn y cyngerdd
I would like to take part in the concert

2. Byddai fe'n gallu dod ond dyw e ddim yn siŵr beth fydd yn digwydd
He could come but he's not sure what will be happening

3. Hoffwn ni weld a chlywed popeth hefyd
We would like to see and hear everything too

4. Gallech chi fwynhau'r canu 'sai fe'n isel
You could enjoy the singing if it was quiet

5. Licwn i ddawnsio pe gallwn i
I'd like to dance if I could

6. Pe gallai hi weld y plant, licai hi fynd â nhw i'r sw
If she could see the children, she'd like to take them to the zoo

7. Licwn i ddod ond licwn i ddim perfformio
I would like to come but I wouldn't like to perform

8. Licet ti fynd ond licet ti ddim cael pryd o fwyd
You would like to go but you wouldn’t like to have a meal

9. Licai fe blasu'r cyru ond licai fe ddim yfed y gwin
He would like to taste the curry but he wouldn't like to drink the wine

10. Licen ni ddim gadael ond licen ni gael diod
We wouldn't like to leave but we would like to have a drink

11. Licech chi ddim cysgu ond licech chi gael cawod
You wouldn't like to sleep but you would like to have a shower

12. Licen nhw ddim ffraeo ond licwn nhw weiddi
They wouldn't like to fight but they would like to shout

13. Licai Sandra ddim cael gwared ar Ffred ond hoffai hi weiddi arno fe
Sandra wouldn't like to get rid of Ffred but she'd like to shout at him

13. Gallwn i ddod 'swn i wedi prynu tocyn
I could come if I'd bought a ticket

14. Allen nhw ddim talu am y pethau ond gallwn i'u helpu nhw
They couldn't pay for the things but I could help them

15. Allwn i ddod i'r parti?
Gallet / Na allet / Gallech / Na allech

Could I come to the party?
Yes (you could) / No (you couldn't) / Yes (you could) / No (you couldn't)

16. Allet ti fynd i'r ysgol?
Gallwn / Na allwn

Could you go to the school?
Yes (I could) / No (I couldn't)

17. Allai fe dy helpu di i baentio'r tŷ?
Gallai / Na allai

Could he help you to paint the house?
Yes (he could) / No (he couldn't)

18. Allai hi fynd â'r ci am dro?
Gallai / Na allai

Could she take the dog for a walk?
Yes (she could) / No (she couldn't)

19. Allen ni goginio brecwast?
Gallech / Na allech / Gallen / Na allen

Could we cook breakfast?
Yes (you could) / No (you couldn't) / Yes (we could) / No (you couldn't)

20. Allech chi fod yn dawel?
Gallwn / Na allwn / Gallen / Na allen

Could you be quiet?
Yes (I could) / No (I couldn't) / Yes (we could) / No (we couldn't)

21. Allen nhw dalu am y gwaith?
Gallen/Na allen

Could they pay for the work? 
Yes (they could) / No (they couldn't)

22. Licet ti fynd i weld y plant yn canu?
Licwn / Na licwn

Would you like to go to see the children singing?
Yes (I would) / No (I wouldn't)

23. Licai fe ddod i gael cinio gyda ni?
Licai / Na licai

Would he like to come to have dinner with us?
Yes (he would) / No (he wouldn't)