Mynd a Gwneud – Dyma 'berfau afreolaidd' sy'n hollol wahanol yn yr amser gorffennol, e.e:
I went > Es i
I did/made > Gwnes i

Fel rheol, dyw'r sain 'gw' mewn ffurfiau 'gwneud' ddim yn cael ei hynganu ar lafar. Felly, byddwn ni'n gallu meddwl am ffurfio amser gorffennol 'gwneud' drwy ychwanegu 'n' at ffurfiau amser gorffennol 'dod', fel hyn:

Mynd a Gwneud – These are irregular verbs and change completely in the past tense e.g:
I went > Es i
I did/made > Gwnes i.

The ‘gw’ in gwneud is not usually pronounced in speech. To form the past tense of ‘gwneud’, simply add the past tense forms of ‘mynd’ to (gw)n-, e.g (gw)nes i, e.g.

Es i (I went)
Nes i (I did)
Est ti (You went)
Nest ti (you did)
... ac yn y blaen.

Es i (I went)
Nes i (I did)
Est ti (you went)
Nest ti (you did)
... and so on.

Yr Amser Gorffennol Rheolaidd

Er mwyn ffurfio amser gorffennol y rhan fwya o ferfau eraill, bydd terfyniad yn cael ei ychwanegu at fôn y ferf, fel hyn:
-ais i ('I did' something)
-aist ti ('you did' something - ti)

The Regular Past Tense

To form the past tense with nearly all the other verbs, an ending is added to a root:
-ais i for I did something
-aist ti for you did something (ti)

Ar lafar, bydd yn sain Gymraeg 'ai' yn swnio fel 'e' yn Saesneg, felly ar lafar, byddwn ni'n dweud:
-es i ('I did' something)
-est ti ('you did' something - ti)

In speech the ‘ai’ sounds like an ‘e’:
-es i ('I did' something)
-est ti ('you did' something - ti)

Yr Amser Gorffennol Rheolaidd - Bôn y Ferf

Rywbryd bydd y terfyniadau hyn yn cael eu hychwanegu'n syth at y berfenw, e.e:
edrych (to look) > edrychais i > edrychais i > I looked
darllen (to read) > darllenaist ti > darllenaist ti > You read
chwarae (to play) > chwaraeais i > chwaraeais i > I played

The Regular Past Tense – Roots

Sometimes these endings are added straight on to the verb, e.g:
edrych (to look) > edrychais i > I looked
darllen (to read) > darllenaist ti > You read
chwarae (to play) > chwaraeais i > I played

Gyda berfau eraill, bydd rhaid i ni ddefnyddio 'bôn' neilltuol. Byddwn ni'n gwneud hyn drwy ddileu'r llafariad olaf, neu'r sillaf olaf, cyn ychwanegu'r terfyniadau, e.e.

Codi ('to get up') > cod- (bôn) > codais i > codais i ('I got up')
Cysgu ('to sleep') > cysg- (bôn) > cysgais i > cysgais i ('I slept')

With other verbs, a ‘root’ is formed, usually by dropping the last vowel or syllable, before the endings are added, e.g:
Codi (to get up) cod- (root) > codais i > I got up
Cysgu (to sleep) cysg- (root) > cysgais i > I slept

 


 

* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

1. 'Nes i frecwast a 'nest ti ginio ddoe
I made breakfast and you made dinner yesterday

2. 'Naeth hi lanast ond 'naeth hi ddysgled o de heb gwyno
She made a mess but she made a cup of tea without complaining

3. 'Naethoch chi ffwdan ofnadw' tra 'nethon ni'n gorau glas
You made an awful fuss whilst we did our very best

4. 'Naethon nhw anrhegion gwych i'r rhieni o ffoil arian, corden, cwyr selio, a phapur llwyd
They made great presents for the parents from silver foil, string, sealing-wax, and brown paper

5. Edrychais i ym mhob man am y ci ond roedd e yn y gwely!
I looked everywhere for the dog but he was in the bed!

6. Darllenaist ti'r holl lyfr pan o't ti'n blentyn, dw i'n credu?
You read the whole book when you were a child, I believe?

7. Yn yr ysgol, chwaraeodd y merched a'r bechgyn mewn iardiau gwahanol ddoe am ryw reswm
In school, the girls and the boys played in different yards yesterday for some reason

8. Codon ni yn oriau mân y bore bob dydd pan o'n ni'n byw yn Abertawe o achos y cymdogion swnllyd!
We got up in the early hours of the morning every day when we were living in Swansea because of the noisy neighbours!

9. Cysgoch chi'n ddawel neithiwr er gwaetha'r parti y drws nesa'!
You slept soundly last night despite the party next door!

10. Siaradon nhw â ni ar ôl y parti diweddara' i ddweud sori
They spoke to us after the latest party to say sorry