Mae 'Pe' ac 'Os' fel ei gilydd yn golygu 'If''. Dim ond 'Pe' y byddwn ni'n ei ddefnyddio yn yr Amodol, a dim ond 'Os' fel arall. Yn llawn, rydyn ni'n ysgrifennu, ac yn dweud, er enghraifft, ‘Pe taswn i’ ('It I were to be' yn Saesneg). Ond, byddwn ni'n hepgor y seiniau 'pe' a 'ta' fel arfer ar lafar, hynny yw:
Pe taswn i > ’Swn i
(ysgrifinnedig) > (ar lafar)
Mewn geiriau eraill, y gair talfyredig ' ’swn ' yn cynnwys y syniad o 'pe'.
Fel arfer, bydd rhaid defnyddio 'yn traethiadol' ar ôl 'Bod' yn yr Amodol i gysylltu dwy ran y frawddeg â'i gilydd, e.e.
(Pe) (ta)sai hi + yn + mynd > ’Sai hi’n mynd 'If she went' (Yn llythrennol, 'If she were to go')
Unwaith eto, yn yr iaith Gymraeg, arwydd yr Amodol yw'r sain 'e':
Ysgrifennedig Ar Lafar
’Swn i ’Sen i
’Sai fe ’Se fe
’Sai fe ’Se hi
Beth yw ystyr y ffurfiau hyn yn Saesneg? Wel, mae sawl ffordd o ddweud yr un peth, e.e.
’Swn i’n mynd...
If I was to go
If I would go
If I went / If I did go
If I were to go
Were I to go
Should I go
Pe’ is the conditional ‘if’ (used instead of ‘os’ which is used with the present and future tenses). It is not usually pronounced in speech. Neither is the ‘ta’ from ‘taswn, etc.
So ‘pe taswn i’ becomes ’swn i in speech. In effect, the ’swn i includes the ‘if’.
As with other ‘bod’ verbs an yn or ’n is usually required to stick them to the rest of the sentence
e.g: ’sai hi’n mynd.
‘e’ is the key sound in this tense - ’swn i pronounced ’sen i
’sai fe / hi pronounced ’se fe / hi
You could think of these as ‘if’ being used with a past sense, e.g. with ‘mynd’ - to go:
If I was to go ’Swn i’n mynd
If I were to go ’Swn i’n mynd
If I would go ’Swn i’n mynd
If I went / did go ’Swn i’n mynd
|Yn llawn / In full||Ynganu / Pronounced
||Saesneg / English|
|(pe) (ta)swn i||’sen ee||If I would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)set ti||’set tee||If you would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)sai fe||’seh veh||If he would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)sai hi||’seh hee||If she would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)sen ni||’sen nee||If we would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)sech chi||’sech chee||If you would / were / did|
|(pe) (ta)sen nhw||’sen nhoo||If they would / were / did|
* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples
1. (Pe) (ta)swn i'n dod, byddwn i'n cael llawer o hwyl
> 'Swn i'n dod, byddwn i’n cael llawer o hwyl
If I were to come, I would have lots of fun
If I came, I'd have lots of fun
2. (Pe) (ta)set ti'n canu, bydden nhw'n rhedeg bant!
> 'Set ti'n canu, bydden nhw'n rhedeg bant!
If you were to sing, they would run off!
If you sang, they'd run off!
3. (Pe) (ta)sai fe'n cyrraedd, bydden ni'n gadael
'Sai fe'n cyrraedd, bydden ni'n gadael
Were he to arrive, we would depart
If he arrived, we'd leave
4. (Pe) (ta)sai hi'n nofio i Ffrainc, byddwn i'n ei thalu hi
> 'Sai hi'n nofio i Ffrainc, byddwn i'n ei thalu hi
If she were to swim to France, I would pay her
If she swam to France, I'd pay her
5. (Pe) (ta)sen ni'n rhedeg bob dydd, bydden ni'n colli pwysau
'Sen ni'n rhedeg bob dydd, bydden ni'n colli pwysau
If we were to run every day we would lose weight
If we ran every day, we'd lose weight
6. (Pe) (ta)sech chi'n prynu cinio, byddai fe'n mynd i'r sinema gyda chi
'Sech chi'n prynu cinio, byddai fe'n mynd i'r sinema gyda chi
If you were to buy dinner, he would go to the cinema with you
If you bought dinner, he'd go to the cinema with you
7. (Pe) (ta)sen nhw'n ceisio ennill, bydden nhw'n gallu llwyddo
'Sen nhw'n ceisio ennill, bydden nhw'n gallu llwyddo
If they were to try to win, they would be able to succeed
If they tried to win, they could succeed