Ar ôl - After 

After Ffred          -         Ar ôl Ffred
but                       -         After him - ar ei ôl e

Ar bwys - By

By Sandra           -        Ar bwys Sandra
but                        -       By her   -  ar ei phwys hi

* Pwys yw'r gair gwreiddiol. Mae'n treiglo yn feddal yn yr ymadrodd 'ar bwys'. Yn yr ymadrodd 'ar ei phwys hi', er enghraifft, mae'r gair 'pwys' yn treiglo'n llaes ar ol y rhagenw benywaidd 'ei' (p > ph). Yr un peth sy'n digwydd gyda'r rhagenwau eraill. Wrth gwrs bydd i bob rhagenw ei dreiglad ei hunan (neu bydd diffyg treiglo pan fydd hyn yn briodol).

* Pwys is the original word, which is soft mutated by ar in the phrase ‘ar bwys’.  This is why ‘by her’ is ‘ar ei phwys hi’, the original ‘p’ takes an aspirate mutation p > ph.

Rhaid ychwanegu'r rhagenwau personol ('fy-i / dy-di / ei-e / ei-hi / ein-ni / eich-chi / eu-nhw' o'r neilltu i'r berfenw.
When the personal pronouns ‘fy, dy, ei, ein, eich, eu’ are used, they must be slotted in between the words of the phrase.

Sawl arddodiad cyfansawdd arall sy'n gweithredu'r un ffordd ag 'ar ôl’ ac ‘ar bwys’, Cofiwch y bydd rhaid treiglo'r gair cysefin, e.e:
Several other compound prepositions work in the same way as ‘ar ôl’ and ‘ar bwys’, e.g:

O flaen - In front of

O gwmpas - Around

In front of him              O’i flaen e
In front of you              O’ch blaen chi    etc.

Around it                      O’i gwmpas e
Around you                  O’ch cwmpas chi

Cofiwch: Bydd yr un treigladau'n digwydd yma fel ag y bydd yn digwydd pan fyddwch yn dweud 'fy nghar i / dy gar di / ei gar e / ei char hi / ein car ni / eich car chi / eu car nhw'.
The same mutations are caused by the same pronouns as when they denote possession.

 


* Rhagor o Enghreifftiau / More Examples

 

1. Daeth Sandra i'r cyngerdd ar ôl Ffred
Sandra came to the concert after Ffred

2. Fyddi di'n mynd adre' ar fy ôl i?
Will you be going home after me?

3. Roedd yr athro'n siarad ar dy ôl di
The teacher was speaking after you

4. Rhedodd Ffred lan y mynydd, ac ar ei ôl e aeth Twm
Ffred ran up the mountain, and after him went Twm

5. Roedd Glenys yn canu gynta', ac roedd y gweddill yn canu ar ei hôl hi
Glenys was singing first, and the rest were singing after her

6. Gadewch i ni ddechrau, a byddi di'n gallu siarad ar ein hôl ni
Let us start, and you'll be able to speak after us

7. Sleifiodd y ci drewllyd i mewn ar eich ôl chi
The stinky dog slunk in after you

8. Rhaid i chi aros i adael ar eu hôl nhw
You have to wait to leave after them

9. Roedd Ffred yn sefyll ar bwys Sandra
Ffred was standing by Sandra

10. Dewch i eistedd ar fy mwys i
Come to sit by me

11. Fydd y ci ddim eisiau gorwedd ar dy fwys di
The dog won't want to lie down by you

12. Cer i weithio ar ei fwys e!
Go to work by him!

13. Ar ei phwys hi, byddan nhw'n gallu gweld popeth
By her, they'll be able to see everything

14. Os bydd e'n gwrando ar ein pwys ni, bydd e'n clywed yr holl beth
If he listens by us, he'll hear the whole thing

15. Roedd y plentyn yn aros ar eich pwys chi drwy gydol y cyngerdd
The child stayed by you throughout the concert

16. Ar eu pwys nhw, doedd dim byd yn digwydd
By them, nothing was happening

17. Mae'r gath yn gorwedd o flaen y tân
The cat is lying in front of the fire

18. Rhowch yr anrheg o’i flaen e!
Put the present in front of him!

19. Dyw hi ddim yn gallu gweld beth sy o'i blaen hi
She can't see what is in front of her

20. O’n blaen ni, drwy'r ffenestr, ro'n ni'n edrych ar fachlud haul ardderchog
In front of us, through the window, we were looking at an amazing sunset

21. Mae'r losyn ar y silff o’ch blaen chi
The sweets are on the shelf in front of you

22. Mae llawer o gwaith caled o'u blaen nhw
There's a lot of hard work in front of them

23. O gwmpas y 'stafell, roedd llyfrau ym mhob man
Around the room, there were books everywhere

24. Roedd y ci'n eistedd ar y rỳg, ac roedd darnau o'r papur newydd ar y llawr o’i gwmpas e
The dog was sitting on the rug, and there were bits of the newspaper on the floor around him

25. Dylai hi dalu sylw i beth sy'n digwydd o'i chwmpas hi
She should pay attention to what's happening around her

26. Yn sydyn, roedd llawer o blant yn rhedeg yn wyllt o'n cwmpas ni
Suddenly, there were lots of children running wildly around us

27. Edrychwch o’ch cwmpas chi, blant!
Look around you, children!

28. Mae'r coed 'ma cymaint, dych chi ddim yn gallu rhoi'ch breichiau o'u cwmpas nhw
These trees are so big, you can't put your arms around them