Geraint Lewis Geiradur Gomer ir Ifanc

D. Geraint Lewis- Creu Geiriadur Gomer i’r Ifanc

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Mae Geraint Lewis yn eiriadurwr toreithiog, ac yn awdur nifer o lyfrau iaith hynod ddefnyddiol megis Geiriadur Cynradd Gomer, Y Llyfr Berfau, Pa Arddodiad?, Y Treigladur a Geiriau Lletchwith. Yma mae’n mynd â ni i ni y tu ôl i’r llen ynghylch pam y creodd Geiriadur Gomer i’r Ifanc (enillydd Gwobr Tir Na N’og ym 1995 am lyfr plant gorau’r flwyddyn (ac eithrio ffuglen).

Geraint Lewis is a prolific lexigographer and author of a number of highly useful language books such as Geiriadur Cynradd Gomer, Y Llyfr Berfau, Pa Arddodiad?, Y Treigladur a Geiriau Lletchwith. Here he takes us behind the scenes as to why he created the Geiriadur Gomer i’r Ifanc winner of the 1995 Tir Na N’og Award for the best children’s book of the year (with the exception of fiction).
Geiriau a Geiriadura
Dechreuodd fy nhaith eiriadura ym merw ad-drefnu Llywodraeth leol yn 1974. Crëwyd wyth sir fawr newydd, wyth gwasanaeth llyfrgell newydd, gydag wyth o lyfrgellwyr proffesiynol, yn gyfrifol am wasanaethau i blant a phobl ifanc. Yr oedd y rhain yn llyfrgellwyr yr oedd y rhan fwyaf ohonom wedi bod trwy Goleg Llyfrgellwyr Cymru a dod o dan ddylanwad y diweddar Frank Keys oedd yn arbenigo ym maes llyfrau plant.
Words and Dictionary-making
My journey as a compiler of dictionaries began in the ferment of the local government reorganisation in 1974. Eight large new counties were created, and eight new library services with eight professional librarians, responsible for services to children and young people. They were librarians most of whom had been through the College of Librarianship Wales and come under the influence of Frank Keys, who specialised in the field of children's books.
Ffurfiwyd Cymdeithas Llyfrgellwyr Plant Cymru oedd yn awyddus i ddylanwadu ar y cyrff a oedd yn gyfrifol am lyfrau plant – Y Cyd-bwyllgor Addysg, Cyngor y Celfyddydau a’r Cyngor Llyfrau (nad oedd a chyfrifoldeb am lyfrau plant ar y pryd.)
Bûm i’n ddigon ffodus i fod yn aelod o Banel Llenyddiaeth Plant Cyngor y Celfyddydau a ffurfiwyd gan y diweddar Meic Stephens – coffa da amdano.
The Society of Welsh Children’s Librarians was formed, which was keen to have an influence on the bodies responsible for children's books – the W.J.E.C., the Arts Council, and the Welsh Books Council (which was not responsible for children's books at the time). I was lucky enough to be a member of the Welsh Arts Council’s Children’s Literature Panel, which was created by the late Meic Stephens of blessed memory.
Un o dasgau’r panel oedd edrych am fylchau yn narpariaeth llyfrau plant y tu allan i faes addysg. Fel llyfrgellydd yr oedd gennyf ddiddordeb ym maes llyfrau ymchwil. Yr oedd Atlas Cymraeg ar gael, yr oedd y gwyddoniadur Chwilota ar y gweill ond nid oedd unrhyw eiriadur Cymraeg i blant. Yn wir, nid oedd yna unrhyw eiriadur cyfan oedd yn diffinio geiriau yn Gymraeg - yr oedd Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru ar gael ond dim ond wedi cyrraedd y llythyren ‘G’ y pryd hynny.One of the panel's tasks was to look for gaps in the provision of children's books outside the field of education. As a librarian I was interested in the field of reference books, The Welsh Atlas was available, the encyclopaedia Chwilota was on the drawing board, but there was no dictionary of Welsh for children. In fact, there was at that time no complete dictionary with definitions of words in Welsh – the University of Wales Dictionary was available but had only reached the letter 'G'.
Yn ysbryd brwdfrydig y cyfnod, dechreuais lunio geiriadur Cymraeg:
1. A fyddai’n diffinio geiriau Cymraeg yn Gymraeg
2. A fyddai’n ateb y cwestiynau yr oeddwn i, fel dysgwr, wedi cael trafferth i’w hateb.
3. Oedd yn cyflwyno gwybodaeth yn y ffyrdd yr oedd y geiriaduron Saesneg gorau i bobl ifanc yn eu gwneud.
In the enthusiastic spirit of the time, I began to draw up plans for a Welsh dictionary:
1) Which would define Welsh words in Welsh
2) Which would answer the questions which I, as a learner, had had difficulty in getting answers to
3) Which would present knowledge in the same ways as the best English dictionaries for young people were doing.
Bu’r Cyd-bwyllgor Addysg yn ddigon dewr i dderbyn y syniad (nid oeddwn yn athro, nid oeddwn yn ieithydd, nid oeddwn yn eiriadurwr – ond yr oeddwn yn frwdfrydig) a derbyniais ganddynt gymorth amhrisiadwy – golygyddion a’m cadwodd ar y llwybr cul a rhywun i osod yr holl ddeunydd ar brosesydd geiriau.The W.J.E.C. were sufficiently brave to take on the idea (I was not a teacher, I was not a linguist, I was not a lexicographer – but I was enthusiastic) and I received invaluable support from them – editors who kept me on the straight and narrow and someone to word-process all the material.
Beth oedd y Geiriadur hwn felly?
1. Geiriadur Cymraeg cyfoes na fyddai’n cynnwys geiriau oedd wedi diflannu o’r iaith
So, what sort of Dictionary was this?
1. A dictionary of contemporary Welsh which would not contain words that had disappeared from the language.
2. Geiriadur a fyddai’n gosod geiriau yn eu ffurf safonol na fyddai’n cynnwys ffurfiau tafodieithol ac ychydig o’r ffurfiau ansafonol mwyaf cyffredin2. A dictionary that would present words in their standard form and would not contain dialect forms, and would contain only a few of the most common non-standard forms
3. Geiriadur a fyddai’n diffinio geiriau Cymraeg yn Gymraeg:
• Nid yw Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru yn gwneud hyn yn achos ymadroddion a geiriau cyfansawdd fel llygad y dydd; llygad maharen; llygad y geiniog; madruddyn y cefn
• Nad oedd yn dibynnu ar restr o eiriau cyfystyr, e.e.
lletchwith a trwsgl, trwstan, afrosgo, di-lin, anfedrus, bwngleraidd, chwithig, allan o le, annifyr, anffodus, annheg (GPC)
• Oedd yn ceisio dweud beth oedd ystyr y gair mewn geiriau mor syml neu symlach na’r gair ei hun
• A fyddai’n anelu at diffinio y geiriau a ddefnyddiwyd mewn diffiniadau
• Geiriau Saesneg cyfatebol
3. A dictionary that would define Welsh words in Welsh:
• The University of Wales Dictionary does not do this in the case of phrases and compound words such as 'llygad y dydd' (the day's eye i.e. daisy, or poetically the sun), 'llygad maharen' (limpet), 'edrych yn llygad y geiniog' (to look the penny in the eye, i.e. to practise strict economy) and 'madruddyn y cefn' (the spinal cord)
• Did not define a word in a list of synonyms e.g. 'lletchwith: trwsgl, trwstan, afrosgo, di-lin, anfedrus, bwngleraidd, chwithig, allan o le, annifyr, anffodus, annheg (GPC)' – (note: all these words used to define 'lletchwith' are simply synonyms meaning awkward, clumsy, inexpert)
• Tried to give the meaning of the word in words as simple or simpler than the word itself
• Would aim to define the words which were used in definitions
• Would give equivalent English words
4. Geiriadur a fyddai’n dangos yr holl ffurfiau Cymraeg nad oeddwn i wedi gallu eu ffindio:
• Ffurfiau lluosog enwau dagrau; ceir; cŵn; elyrch
• Ffurfiau berfol erys; cer; saf
• Ffurfiau ansoddeiriol braith; gwleb; gwlypach
• Ffurfiau’r arddodiaid amdanaf fi; amdanat ti; ohonof fi; ohonot ti
4. A dictionary which would show all those Welsh forms which had not been easy for me to find:
• Plural forms of nouns: dagrau (tears); ceir (cars), cŵn (dogs); elyrch (swans)
• Verb forms: erys; cer; saf
• Adjectival forms braith (feminine of brith, speckled); gwleb (feminine of gwlyb, wet; gwlypach (comparative of gwlyb, wet)
• Prepositional forms such as amdanaf fi; amdanat ti; ohonof fi; ohonot ti
5. Geiriadur a fyddai’n cynnig cyngor gramadegol:
• Rhestr o’r geiriau sy’n achosi treiglad
• Sylwch: ni ddefnyddir ‘y’ gydag enwau afonydd
• Mae ‘amryfal’ yn arfer dod o flaen enw
• Defnydd er, ers, erioed
5. A dictionary which would offer grammatical advice, for example:
• A list of words causing mutation
• Note: 'y' is not used with the names of rivers
• 'Amryfal' (various) usually comes before the noun
• The use of er, ers, erioed
6. Geiriadur a fyddai’n cynnwys pethau gorau geiriaduron Saesneg:6. A dictionary which would contain the best features of English dictionaries:
7. Lluniau
• Du a gwyn a lliw
• Wedi’u tynnu i raddfa yn dangos maint cymharol pethau
• Yn dangos teuluoedd: gwartheg, defaid, ceffyl, ymlusgiaid etc.
• Teulu
• Cysawd yr Haul
• Elfennau Cemegol
• Cytser
• Cyfandiroedd a’r Cefnforoedd
• Y Corff
• Ffrwythau
• Pysgod
• Adar
• Coed
• Blodau
• Baneri’r byd
• Lliwiau
7. Illustrations
• Black and white and colour
• Drawn to scale showing the relative sizes of things
• Showing word families: cattle, sheep, horses, reptiles etc.
• Members of the family
• The Solar System
• Chemical Elements
• Constellations
• Continents and Oceans
• The Body
• Fruits
• Fishes
• Birds
• Trees
• Flowers
• Flags of the world
• Colours
8. Atodiadau
• Rhifau Prifol; Trefnol; Ffracsiynau
• Arian – sut i’w ysgrifennu
• Pwysau
• Mesur
• Buanedd
8. Appendices
• Cardinal numbers; ordinal numbers; fractions
• Money – how to write it
• Weights
• Measures
• Speed
9. Adran Saesneg -> Cymraeg9. An English -> Welsh section
Cyhoeddwyd Geiriadur Gomer i’r Ifanc ym 1994 a phethau sy’n taro dyn, yw:
1. Fel yr ydych yn meddwl eich bod yn llenwi bylchau, fe welwch yn gliriach y bylchau sydd ar ôl
2. Yr ydych yn dysgu llawer o bethau yr hoffech chi eu gwneud yn well y tro nesaf
3. Does dim un geiriadur Cymraeg arall sy’n cynnig yr un ystod o wybodaeth â’r hyn a welwch chi uchod.
The Geiriadur Gomer i’r Ifanc was published in 1994 and what strikes one now is:
1. As you think you are filling in the gaps, you see more clearly the gaps that remain
2. You learn a lot of things that you hope you will do better next time
3. There is no other Welsh dictionary which offers the same range of knowledge as you see above.

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Geiriadur Gomer I'r Ifanc

 

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D Geraint Lewis Y Geiriadurwr

Geraint Lewis DIY Welsh