Parallel.cymru: Bilingual Welsh digital magazine https://parallel.cymru Fri, 08 Nov 2019 10:44:33 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.2 https://parallel.cymru/wp-content/uploads/cropped-Square-URL-512-1-32x32.png Parallel.cymru: Bilingual Welsh digital magazine https://parallel.cymru 32 32 Ask Dr Gramadeg: Esbonio Gramadeg Cymraeg yn ddwyieithog / Explaining Welsh Grammar bilingually https://parallel.cymru/ask-dr-gramadeg/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 21:00:12 +0000 http://parallel.cymru/?p=2046

Wrth ddysgu neu wella ein dealltwriaeth o’n  hiaith, mae angen cefnogaeth a chymorth oddi wrth bobl eraill arnom, pobl sydd wedi’i meistroli ac sydd gyda’r sgiliau i’w hesbonio’n effeithiol.  Yma, mae Mark Stonelake, sydd wedi ysgrifennu llyfrau cwrs i CBAC a Dysgu Cymraeg - Ardal Bae Abertawe, wedi cytuno i rannu ei ddoethineb gyda'r byd.  Mae parallel.cymru yn ei gyflwyno fe ar ffurf cwestiynau ac atebion, gyda thabl cynnwys isod.

When learning or improving our understanding of a language we need support and help from others who have mastered it and are skilled at explaining it to others. Here, Mark Stonelake, who has written course books for the WJEC and Learn Welsh- Swansea Bay Region, has kindly agreed to share his wisdom with the world. Parallel.cymru presents it in the form of questions and answers, with a table of contents below.

Mae Mark yn dod o Aberdâr yng nghymoedd de Cymru. Ar ôl ennill gradd yn y Gymraeg ac wedyn gwneud addysg Gymraeg ran-amser yn y 1980au, dechreuodd Mark weithio fel tiwtor a threfnydd llawn amser ym 1993, gan arbenigo mewn datblygu, trefnu a dysgu cyrsiau Cymraeg dwys iawn. Roedd Mark yn Swyddog Cwricwlwm ac Adnoddau yng Nghanolfan Cymraeg i Oedolion De-orllewin Cymru o 2006 i 2016. Roedd e'n Rheolwr Datblygiad Proffesiynol ac Ansawdd o 2016 i 2018 yng Nghanolfan Dysgu Cymraeg Ardal Bae Abertawe yn Academi Hywel Teifi, Prifysgol Abertawe. Yn ogystal â datblygu cyrsiau yn Abertawe, fe a gyd-ysgrifennodd gwrslyfr CBAC Sylfaen. Mae e wedi ymddeol o weithio lawn amser ers cynnar 2018 ond mae e'n dal i weithio mewn addysg ran-amser.

Mark is from Aberdare in the South Wales Valleys. After doing a degree in Welsh and working part-time teaching Welsh in the 1980s, Mark started as a full time tutor/organiser in 1993, specialising in developing, organising and teaching highly intensive Welsh courses. From 2006 to 2016 he was appointed as the Curriculum and Resources Officer in the South-West Wales Welsh for Adults Centre.  From 2016 to 2018 he was the Personal Development and Quality Manager at the Learn Welsh Swansea Bay Area centre in Academi Hywel Teifi at Swansea University. In additon to developing courses in Swansea, he co-wrote the WJEC Foundation course book. He retired from working full time in early 2018 but continues to teach part-time.

Nodyn am y geirfa wedi'i chyflwyno yma: Yma ac acw, mae rhai o'r geiriau'n fwy addas eu defnyddio gan ddysgwyr yn Ne Cymru na chan ddysgwyr y Gogledd. Fodd bynnag mae cysyniadau gramadegol yn gwmwys i bob tafodiaith Gymraeg.

A note on the language: Some of the vocabulary was written for learners in South Wales, but the grammar concepts are applicable to all Welsh dialects.

Nodyn ar sut mae'r gramadeg wedi'i gyflwyno: Mae'r defnydd yma wedi'u hysgrifennu ar gyfer dysgwyr sydd yn gwneud cyrsiau dros 4 - 10 o flynyddoedd. Felly, os bydd dysgwyr newydd yn gweld popeth yn yr un lle ac ar yr un pryd, efallai y byddan nhw wedi eu llethu ganddo fe. Dylai dysgwyr ddefnyddio'r defnydd yma i gefnogi ffurfiau eraill o ddysgu. Er enghraifft, byddan nhw'n gallu defnyddio'r ganllaw hon dros sawl blwyddyn i ddod o hyd i esboniadau amgen ac er mwyn egluro pynciau. Fe fydd hefyd yn rhoi cymorth i bobl sydd eisoes yn medru'r Gymraeg ac sydd eisiau cryfhau eu gwybodaeth, a gloywi eu deallwriaeth greddfol.

A note on the presentation: This content was designed to be delivered to learners over the course of 4-10 years, and new learners receiving this all in one place could feel overwhelmed.  Its purpose is to support an existing learning method, and for this guide to be referred to as a reference, clarification and alternative explanation over a number of years. It is also helpful for people with a good knowledge of Welsh to reinforce and clarify their intuitive understanding.

Rhagor o enghreifftiau: Mae enghreifftiau a delweddau ychwanegol gyda'r symbol * wedi cael eu paratoi gan Patrick Jemmer a Neil Rowlands i parallel.cymru. Er moyn cadw'r delweddau, right-click/long-press ac wedyn dewiswch 'Save As'.

Yn ychwanegol, diolch yn fawr i Patrick Jemmer am gyfieithu’r darnau gramadeg i’r Gymraeg ac y prawf ddarllenwyr am eu hawgrymiadau nhw.

 

More examples: The extra examples and images with the * symbol have been prepared by Patrick Jemmer and Neil Rowlands for parallel.cymru. In order to save the images, right-click/long-press and then choose 'Save As'.

In addition, thank you very much to Patrick Jemmer for the English to Welsh translation and to the proof readers with their suggestions.

 

Lefel Sylfaen / Foundation Level

Cyflwyno'r Amser Dyfodol
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'Will you get up?' and 'Will you pay?' yn yr amser dyfodol?
Introducing the future tense
How do we say things like 'Will you get up?' and 'Will you pay?' in the future tense?
Adolygu arddodiadau a'r terfyniadau priodol
Rywbryd byddwn ni'n gweld pethau fel 'arno fe' and 'amdani hi'- beth yw'r ymadroddion yma, a beth yw'r patrymau sylfaenol?
Recapping prepositions and adding endings
Sometimes we see things like 'arno fe' and 'amdani hi'- what are these and the patterns behind them?
Cyflwyno Bod fel That
Yn aml yn y Saesneg byddwn ni'n gadael y gair 'that' allan o frawddegau, ond dyw hyn ddim yn bosibl yn y Gymraeg. Sut mae cyfleu ystyr y gair 'that'?
Introducing Bod as That
In English we often omit 'that' from sentences, but this isn't possible in Welsh. How do we convey 'that'?
Cymalau yn yr amser dyfodol
Beth sy'n digwydd pan fyddwn ni'n siarad am y dyfodol?
Clauses with the future tense
What happens with 'bod' when we talk about the future?
Cip arall ar yr amser dyfodol
Sut mae defnyddio Mynd, Cael a Gwneud i ofyn cwestiynau ac i ffurfio brawddegau negyddol?
Taking a look at the future tense again
How do we form questions, use negatives and mynd, cael and gwneud?
Mwy am yr amser dyfodol
Dyma ni'n gweithio'n galed iawn i ddysgu am yr amser dyfodol -- gawn ni ymarfer y terfyniadau rheolaidd?
Extending the future tense
We are covering a lot of the future tense here- can we recap the straightforward regular endings?
Gofyn cwestiynau yn yr amser dyfodol
Sut mae gofyn cwestiynau fel 'Will you learn? or 'Will they see?'
Asking questions in the future
How do we ask questions such as 'Will you learn? or 'Will they see?'
Yr amser dyfodol (Cael)
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'I’ll have' a 'May I have?'
The future tense of Cael
How do we say things such as 'I’ll have' and 'May I have?'
Yr amser dyfodol (Dod)
Gan fod Dod yn afreolaidd yn yr amser dyfodol, sut mae defnyddio'r ffurfiau yma?
The future tense of Dod
As Dod is irregular in the future, how do we use these forms?
Cyflwyno'r Goddefol
Sut mae dweud pethau sy wedi digwydd i ni, fel 'I was born' neu 'She was brought up'?
Introducing the Passive voice
How do we say things that have happened to us, such as 'I was born' or 'She was brought up'?
Mynegi hoffter gan ddefnyddio 'Mae'n well gyda fi'
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'I prefer...' neu 'What do you prefer?' ...?
Expressing a preference with 'Mae'n well gyda fi'
How do we say things like 'I prefer...' or 'What do you prefer?'
Cyflwyno'r Amodol
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'I would be' a 'They would go'?
Introducing the Conditional tense
How do we say things like 'I would be' and 'They would go'?
Yr Amodol (parhad)- If I Could
Sut mae dweud pethau mwy cymhleth gan ddefnyddio'r amodol fel 'If I was to go?'
Continuing the Conditional tense with If I Could
How do we extend the conditional tense and express a touch more complexity with things like 'If I was to go?'
Cyflwyno Rhifolion a Threfnolion
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'the first, second or twenty-third'?
Introducing Cardinal and Ordinal numbers
How do we say things like the first, second or twenty-third?
Cyflwyno Gorchmynion- gyda Ti
Sut mae dweud pethau fel ''Stand up' neu 'Don't'...?
Introducing Commands- with Ti
How do we say things like 'Stand up' or 'Don't'...
Y Goddefol (parhad)
Cip arall ar y goddefol
Continuing the Passive voice
Taking another glance at the Passive voice
Mor, Cystal & Cynddrwg
Sut mae dweud 'So', 'As...as', 'As good as' ac 'As bad as'?
Mor, Cystal & Cynddrwg
How do we say 'So', 'As...as', 'As good as' and 'As bad as'?
Cymharu dau beth
Beth yw'r patrwm sylfaenol pan fyddwn ni'n dweud pethau fel 'Wetter', 'Taller' and 'Younger'?
Comparing two things
What is the pattern behind saying things like 'Wetter', 'Taller' and 'Younger'?
Cymharu Ansoddeiriau
Mae patrymau rheolaidd i'w defnyddio pan fyddwn ni'n cymharu pethau, er enghraifft pan fyddwn ni'n dweud "Mae Eglwys Gadeiriol Llandaf yn dalach na Neuadd y Ddinas ond Stadiwm y Mileniwm yw'r adeilad tala". Beth yw'r rhestr lawn?
Comparison of Adjectives
There are set patterns for comparing items, for example saying "Mae Eglwys Gadeiriol Llandaf yn dalach na Neuadd y Ddinas ond Stadiwm y Mileniwm yw'r adeilad tala". What is the full list?
Cymharu ansoddeiriau- Y Radd Eithaf
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'The tallest', 'The biggest' neu 'The wettest'?
Comparing two adjectives- The Superlative
How do we say things like 'The tallest', 'The biggest' or 'The wettest'?
Cymalau: Tair ffordd o ddweud That- Taw, Y & Bod
Pryd y dylech chi ddefnyddio Taw, Y & Bod, y tri ohonyn nhw sy'n golygu 'that'?
Clauses: Three ways of saying That- Taw, Y & Bod
How do we know when to use Taw, Y & Bod where they each mean 'that'?
Dylwn
Sut mae cychwyn dweud pethau fel 'I should go'?
Dylwn- I should
How do we get started with saying things such as 'I should go'?
Geiriau llenwi- Sut mae cael amser i feddwl wrth siarad?
Beth dw i'n gallu ei ddweud i lenwi bwlch wrth i fi lunio'r frawddeg nesaf?
Verbal fillers- giving you time to think when speaking
What can I say to fill a gap while I'm still putting the next sentence together?
Cyflwyno Berfau Cryno
Rywbryd rydyn ni'n clywed ymadroddion fel 'Licwn i fynd' ac 'Allet ti?'- sut mae'r rhain yn cael eu llunio?
Introducing short-form verbs
Sometimes we hear expressions such as 'Licwn i fynd' and 'Allet ti?'- how are these formed?
Heb - Mae'r gair yma yn cael ei ddefnyddio i olygu 'without' a hefyd i olygu 'Ddim wedi'
Sut mae defnyddio Heb i olygu 'without' neu i olygu 'ddim wedi'?
Heb- Used as 'without' and in place of 'Ddim wedi' to mean 'have not'
How do we go about using Heb in its two different forms?
Wrth Fy Modd
Beth yw ffurfiau eraill yr ymadrodd 'Wrth fy modd', sy'n golygu 'I am delighted'?
Wrth Fy Modd- In my element or Delighted
What are the variations of 'Wrth fy modd', meaning 'I am delighted'?
Ar ôl, Ar bwys, O flaen & O gwmpas
Mae geiriau yma yn eithaf tebyg i'w gilydd- Beth yw'r gwahaniaeth rhyngddyn nhw?
Ar ôl, Ar bwys, O flaen & O gwmpas - After, Beside, In front of & Around
These sets of words can sound quite similar- what is the difference between them?
Bod yn yr Amodol: Byddwn, Byddet, Byddai, Bydden, Byddech, Bydden
Sut mae cychwyn dweud pethau fel 'I would go' a 'She would come'?
The conditional form of Bod: Byddwn, Byddai & Byddet
How do we start saying things such as 'I would go' and 'She would come'?
Cyflwyno Lluosog Enwau
Beth yw rhai ffyrdd o ffurfio lluosog enwau yn y Gymraeg?
Introducing plurals
What are some ways in which plurals are formed in Welsh?
Dim Ond
Beth yw ystyr yr ymadrodd 'Dim ond' a sut mae'n effeithio'r frawddeg o'i gwmpas?
Dim Ond- Only
What does 'Dim Ond' mean and how does it affect the sentence around it?
Pwysleisio rhannau brawddeg yn yr amser presennol ac yn yr amser gorffennol
Sut mae newid brawddeg i bwysleisio rhan wahanol ohoni hi?
Emphasising elements of a sentence in the present and past tense
How do we amend a sentence to emphasise a different part?
Cynffoneiriau
Sut rydych chi'n ychwanegu ymadroddion fel 'Aren’t I', 'Don’t you' a 'Won’t you' i gwestiynau er mwyn swnio fel siaradwr rhugl?
Cynffoneiriau- Tags
How do we add phrases such as 'Aren’t I', 'Don’t you' and 'Won’t you' to questions in order to help sound like a native speaker?
Er
Gall y gair Er olygu naill ai 'although' neu 'despite'. Mae ganddo fe sawl ystyr eraill hefyd - Beth yw'r rhain?
Er- Although / Despite
The word Er can mean although or despite, but it also has a few other meanings- what are these?
Pen
Yn arferol, mae'r gair Pen yn golygu 'head, end, top'. Mae ganddo fe sawl defnydd idiomatig hefyd- Beth yw'r rhain?
Pen: Head, End, Top & Idioms
Pen usually means head, end or top, but it also has a few idiomatic uses- what are these?
Mynd ati o ddifrif gyda Lluosogion
O'r blaen rydyn ni wedi cael cipolwg ar luosogion. Sut mae gwneud lluosogion i fwy o eiriau?
Diving into Plurals
Following the earlier glance at plurals, how do we use plurals with a wider range of words?
Y Genidol - Defnyddio dau air neu fwy gyda'i gilydd
Mae'r Gymraeg yn llai hyblyg na'r Saesneg pan fydd yn cysylltu dau air gyda'i gilydd- sut mae gwneud hyn?
The Genitive- Using two or more nouns together
Welsh is less flexible when joining two nouns than English- how do we accomplish this?
Y Treiglad Meddal gyda geiriau benywaidd unigol
Gawn ni weld rhai esiamplau o'r treigladd meddal gyda geiriau benywaidd unigol?
Soft Mutations with feminine singular nouns
Can we have some examples of soft mutations with feminine singular nouns?
Atgrynhoi Adferfau
Beth yw adferfau, a sut mae eu defnyddio?
Recapping Adverbs
What are adverbs and how do we use them?
Byth & Erioed
Pryd rydyn ni'n defnyddio Byth, a phryd rydyn ni'n defnyddio Erioed?
Byth & Erioed- Ever & Never
When do we use Byth and when do we use Erioed?
Ta Beth, Bron a Bron i Fi
Sut mae defnyddio'r ymadroddion defnyddiol hyn?
Ta Beth, Bron a Bron i Fi- Anyway, Almost, and I Almost
How do we use these handy little phrases?
Dyma fi’n, Cyfuno Lliwiau & Iawn
Sut mae defnyddio Dyma Fi? Sut mae disgrifio arlliwiau? Sut mae defnyddio'r gair Iawn?
Dyma fi’n, Cyfuno Lliwiau & Iawn- A short way of saying 'I am', Combining Colours, and using Iawn
How do we use Dyma Fi, how do we describe shades of colours and how can Iawn be used?

Lefel Canolradd / Intermediate Level

Allan / Mas, Ar Gyfer, Cam, Er Mywn, Yn Enedigol & Llys
Casgliad o gyngor ar y geiriau hyn
Allan / Mas, Ar Gyfer, Cam, Er Mywn, Yn Enedigol & Llys
A collection of advice on these words
Cyflwyno enwau gwledydd
Oes ffyrdd hawdd o ddysgu llawer o enwau gwledydd?
Introducing country names
Are there straightforward ways to learn lots of country names?
Yr arddodiad 'i'
Mae sawl ffordd o ddefnyddio'r arddodiad 'i'- beth yw'r rhain?
The preposition 'i'
'I' is used as a preposition in many ways- what are these?
Defnyddio Mo fel gair negyddol
Sut mae defnyddio'r gair negyddol Mo?
Using 'Mo' as a negative
How is Mo used to indicate a negative?
Ffurfiau amhersonol y berfau afreolaidd
Sut ydyn ni’n dod i gyfarwydd â ffurfiau llenyddiol Mynd, Cael, Gwneud, a Dod?
Impersonal forms of the irregular verbs
How do we become familiar with formal written forms of Mynd, Cael, Gwneud and Dod?
Mwy am Luosogion
Gawn ni gael cip arall ar fwy o luosogion?
Extending Plurals
Can we take a look at more forms of plurals?
Defnyddio Bod yn yr amser presennol a'r amser amherffaith
Sut mae defnyddio ymadroddion fel 'Fy mod i' a 'Credir y bydd' mewn cymylau enwol?
Using Bod as That in the present and imperfect tenses
How do we use forms such as 'Fy mod i' and 'Credir y bydd'?
Ardoddiadau yn Gymraeg ffurfiol
Beth yw ystyr ffurfiau llenyddol ar arddodiadau fel 'ataf', 'atom' neu 'atynt'?
Prepositions in formal Welsh
When we see prepositions in the form of 'ataf', 'atom' or 'atynt', what do they mean?
Gwahaniaethau pwysig rhwng Cymraeg y De a Chymraeg y Gogledd
Sut mae patrymau Cymraeg y De yn wahanol i'r rheini yng Nghymraeg y Gogledd?
Key differences between North and South Welsh
What are some of the main changes in patterns between North and South Welsh?
Atgrynhoi Yn
Gadewch i ni edrych ar y gair Yn unwaith eto- beth fydd yn treiglo ar ei hôl hi, a beth na fydd?
Recapping Yn
Can we just run through 'Yn' again- what mutates after it and what doesn't?
Dadansoddi'r gramadeg yn y gân 'Calon Lân'
Rwy'n hoff iawn o'r gân Cymraeg o'r enw Calon Lân, ond mae'n cynnwys Cymraeg llenyddiol- gewch chi esbonio ystyr y geiriau hardd?
Analysing the grammar in 'Calon Lân'
I'm really fond of the Welsh song Calon Lân, but it uses formal Welsh- can you talk us through the meaning of the beautiful words?
Defnyddio Gwneud yn amser dyfodol
Oes ffordd gyflym a hawdd o ddefnydio berfau yn yr amser dyfodol?
Using Gwneud in the future
Can you show us a quick and easy way to put verbs into the future tense?
Cyflwyno iaith ffurfiol
Mae rhai gwahaniaethau rhwng Cymraeg ffurfiol a Chymraeg ar lafar. Beth yw'r pethau mwyaf pwysig i'w deall pan fyddwch chi'n ysgrifennu?
Introducing formal language
As formal written Welsh is a little different from spoken Welsh, what are the main things we should learn about it first?
Defnyddio'r Amodol Cryno
Sut mae defnyddio'r Amodol Cryno i ddweud 'I would go' fel 'Elwn i'?
Using the shortened form of the conditional tense
How do we compress phrases such as 'Byddwn i’n mynd' into 'Elwn i'?
Yr Amodol: Cymharu'r ffurfiau ar lafar â'r rhai ffurfiol ysgrifenedig
Sut y byddwch chi'n ynganu ffurfiau'r Amodol pan fyddwch chi'n gweld geiriau fel 'Licwn i'?
Comparing the written and spoken forms of the Future Conditional tense
How do we learn the differences between forms such as 'Licwn i' and 'Licen i' (I would like)?
Atgrynhoi ac ymestyn syniadau ynglŷn â Phwyslais
Sut mae cyferbynu pethau? Sut mae mynegi syndod neu anghrediniaeth? Sut mae anghytuno?
Recapping and extending the Emphatic form
How do we contrast things, express surprise, disbelief, or disagreement?
Defnyddio'r geiriau pwysleisiol Taw & Mai, a'r Cyplad yn yr amser presennol, sef Yw
Sut mae defnyddio'r geiriau Yw, Taw a Mai i bysleisio rhywbeth?
Using the emphatic words Taw & Mai, and the present-tense connecting form of To Be, that is Yw
How do we use Yw, Taw and Mai to emphasise something?
Dydd & Diwrnod
Y geiriau Dydd a Diwrnod fel ei gilydd sy'n golygu Day, ond byddan nhw'n cael eu defnyddio mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol- beth yw'r rhain?
Dydd & Diwrnod- Words for Day
Both 'Dydd' and 'Diwrnod' mean 'Day', but are used in different contexts- what are those?
Hwn, Hon, Hwnna, Honno, Y Rhain, Y Rheina & Rheiny
Mae'r geiriau hyn i gyd yn eitha tebyg i'w gilydd- beth yw'r gwahaniaeth rhyngddyn nhw?
Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns- Saying This, That, These, Those
As each of these words is quite similar, how do we tell the difference between them?
Fan Hyn & Fanna
Sut mae dweud 'By here' ac 'Over there'?
Fan Hyn & Fanna- By here & Over there
How do we say things like 'By here' and 'Over there'?
Adolygu Ateb Cwestiynau
Gawn ni edrych ar y ffyrdd gwahanol o ateb cwestiynau unwaith eto?
Revising Answers to Questions
Can we go through again the different ways of answering questions?
Cyflwyno Amser Gorffennol Crwyno Bod- Bues, Buest, Buodd, Buon, Buoch & Buont
Sut mae dweud pethau fel 'Fuoch chi ar wyliau eleni?'
Introducing the Short Past Tense of Bod- Bues, Buest, Buodd, Buon, Buoch & Buont
How do we say things such as 'Did you go on holidays this year?'
Yn & Rhwng
Mae Yn yn golygu 'in' ac ystyr Rhwng yw 'between'. Rwybryd mae'n anodd pa un y dylech chi ei ddefnyddio- gawn ni egluro hyn?
Yn & Rhwng- In & Between
Yn means in and Rhwng means between but it can be unclear when to use which- can we clarify this?
Blwydd, Blwyddyn & Blynedd
Mae'r geiriau hyn i gyd yn golygu Year, ond maen nhw'n cael eu defnyddio mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol. Pryd y dylen ni ddefnyddio Blwydd, Blwyddyn neu Flynedd?
Blwydd, Blwyddyn & Blynedd- Different words for Year
Each of these means 'Year', but is used in different contexts- when do we use which?
Arall, Eraill, Y Llall & Y Lleill
Mae sawl gair sy'n golygu Other. Sut mae defnyddio'r geiriau gwahanol hyn?
Arall, Eraill, Y Llall & Y Lleill- Words for Other
How do we use the different forms of 'Other'?
Geiriau Bychain: Y Fannod (Y, Yr, 'R), A & Ac, Â & Ag
Beth yw'r ffurfiau gwahanol ar y geiriau Yr, A, ac Â?
Little Words: The Definite Article ('The'), 'And' & 'With'
Can we just run through again the differences between these forms of the definite article, and & with?
Di
Di- yw rhagddodiad sy'n golygu 'heb'. Rydyn ni'n ei weld yn eitha aml- sut mae ei ddefnyddio?
Di- Without or Less
I've seen Di, meaning without or less, appear quite often- how can it be used?
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Cyflwyno Beirdd Cymreig / Introducing Welsh Poets https://parallel.cymru/poets/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 20:00:09 +0000 https://parallel.cymru/?p=18046

Croeso i ‘Cyflwyno Beirdd Cymru’. Yn yr adnodd hwn byddwch yn dod o hyd i wybodaeth am feirdd sy’n ysgrifennu yn y Gymraeg, neu sydd wedi ysgrifennu am y wlad. Dylanwadwyd ar y beirdd yn y cyflwyniad hwn gan bob agwedd ar Gymru, yn cynnwys traddodiadau barddol Cymraeg, a hanes, tirwedd a diwylliant Cymru. Yma byddwn yn dathlu lleisiau Cymreig, yn cynnwys rhai cyfarwydd, a rhai sy’n llai adnabyddus. Efallai y byddwch yn synnu nad yw rhai enwau cyfarwydd wedi’u cynnwys yn yr adnodd hwn. Roeddwn yn credu ei fod yn bwysig i ddangos yr amrywiaeth sy’n bodoli ym myd barddoniaeth Gymraeg, yn cynnwys y gwahanol arddulliau, o’r traddodiadol i’r arbrofol, sydd wedi bodoli trwy hanes Cymru.

Dyma adnodd addysgol rhad ac am ddim, ar gyfer y rhai sydd â diddordeb yn y Gymraeg, ac yn hanes a barddoniaeth Cymru. Mae wedi’i ysgrifennu er mwyn helpu pobl i ddysgu am feirdd Cymru yn y ffordd hawsaf posib, ac felly mae’n cynnwys dolenni i lyfrau ac erthyglau. Ynglŷn â’r wybodaeth am bob bardd, mae’r lluniau wedi’u cysylltu â gwefannau, ble fyddwch chi’n gallu dod o hyd i rai o’r llyfrau y mae sôn amdanyn nhw yn y cyflwyniad hwn. Mae’r awdur wedi manteisio ar wybodaeth academyddion, haneswyr a beirdd Cymreig blaenllaw wrth greu’r dudalen hon. Ymunwch â ni i ymchwilio i feirdd Cymru drwy hanes y wlad ac i ddarganfod pam mai un enw ar Gymru yw Gwlad frwd y beirdd.

Welcome to 'Introducing Welsh Poets'. In this resource you can expect to find information about poets who wrote in, or about, Wales. The poets in this introduction have been influenced by all aspects of Wales, including Welsh poetic traditions, Welsh history, landscape and culture. It is time to celebrate Welsh voices from the familiar to the new. It might be surprising that certain household names have not been included in this resource. This is because I thought it was important to explore the diversity within Welsh poetry and the range of styles, from the traditional to the experimental, that is present throughout Welsh history.

This is a free educational resource for those interested in Welsh language, history and poetry. It has been written with the intention of making further study of Welsh poets as straightforward as possible, including links to books and articles. The photos that accompany each poet are linked to websites where some of the books mentioned in this introduction can be found. This page has benefited from the knowledge of prominent Welsh academics, historians and poets. Join us in an exploration of Welsh poets throughout Welsh history and discover why Wales is called Gwlad frwd y beirdd.

Wedi'i gasglu a'i olygu gan / Collated and edited by: Rhea Seren Phillips rhea_seren
Gyda chyfraniadau oddi wrth / With contributions from: Aneirin Karadog, Professor Ann Parry Owen, Eurig Salisbury, Natalie Ann Holborow & Norena Shopland.

Mae'r eitem hon ar gael i'w lawrlwytho: / This item is available to download:

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Dros y canrifoedd, mae’r enw Taliesin wedi’i ramantu, ac mae’r bardd wedi cael ei ddyrchafu i fod yn rhan o fytholeg Cymru. Efallai mai un o straeon mwyaf adnabyddus Cymru yw’r chwedl am sut y daeth Taliesin i fod. Roedd y wrach, Ceridwen, wedi gorchymyn i was ifanc droi diod hud am flwyddyn a diwrnod. Bwriadwyd y ddiod ar gyfer ei mab oedd yn wrthun a diddawn pan gafodd ei eni. Penderfynodd Ceridwen fragu diod i newid ei natur. Â’r ddiod yn barod, tasgodd diferyn ar law'r gwas. Ar unwaith, rhoddodd y bachgen ei law yn ei geg i leddfu’r llosg gan yfed y ddiod a derbyn ei buddion i gyd. Ac felly daeth chwedl Taliesin i fod.

Bardd llys cynnar oedd Taliesin. Un o’r Cynfeirdd oedd e, oedd yn weithredol rhwng y 6ed a’r 12fed ganrif, fwy neu lai. Cyfoethog ac amrywiol oedd rôl y bardd yn yr Oesoedd Canol, yn cynnwys bod yn rhyfelwr, diddanwr, proffwyd, a chroniclydd. Roedd barddoniaeth yn draddodiad llafar, ac ysgrifennwyd fel arfer mewn ffurfiau a mesurau barddol, Cymraeg, sef cerdd dafod a chynghanedd. Un o ddyletswyddau bardd llys oedd ysgrifennu barddoniaeth i ganu clodydd noddwr enwog, fyddai’n aml o dras frenhinol (am fwy o wybodaeth am feirdd Cymraeg yn yr Oesoedd Canol, gweler y cyswllt isod). Roedd Taliesin yn enwog am ei allu i wneud hyn. Ymhlith rhai eraill, ysgrifennodd ddeuddeg o gerddi mawl i’w noddwr, y Brenin Urien Rhedeg a’i fab, Owain.

  • Aneirin oedd un o gydoeswyr Taliesin.
  • ‘Talcen disglair’ yw ystyr yr enw Taliesin.
  • Ysgrifennwyd Hanes Taliesin yn y 16eg ganrif gan Elis Gruffydd.

The name Taliesin has been romanticised throughout the centuries and the poet has transcended into myth. The story of how Taliesin came to exist is perhaps one of Wales’ most well-known stories. The witch Ceridwen tasked a serving boy to stir a potion for a year and a day. The potion was intended for her son who had been born grotesque and talentless. Ceridwen decided to brew a potion to alter his nature. Just as the potion was ready, a splash fell on the serving boy's hand. The boy immediately brought his hand to his mouth to ease the burn, consuming the potion and all of its benefits. And so, the legend of Taliesin was born.

Taliesin was an early Welsh court poet. He was one of the Y Cynfeirdd or 'The Early Poets' who were active around the 6th to 12th century. The role of the medieval poet was a rich and varied one that included warrior, entertainer, prophet and chronicler. Poetry was an oral tradition that was usually written in Welsh poetic forms and metre or cerdd dafod and cynghanedd. One of the duties of a court poet was to write panegyric verse or poetry written in praise of a celebrated patron, these individuals were often of royal descent (for more information about medieval Welsh poets see the link below). Taliesin was renowned for this ability. Among others, he wrote twelve praise poems for his patron, King Urien Rheged and his son, Owain.

  • Aneirin was one of Taliesin's contemporaries.
  • The name Taliesin means 'radiant brow' or 'shining brow'.
  • Hanes Taliesin was written in the 16th century by Elis Gruffydd.

Darn oddi wrth 'Marwnad Owain ab Urien'

Cysgid Lloegr llydan nifer
A lleufer yn eu llygaid.

Extract from 'Marwnad Owain ab Urien'

Wide England’s host would sleep
With the light in their eyes.

Books

Taliesin. 1988. Taliesin Poems. Translated from Welsh to English by Meirion Pennar. Wales. Llanerch Press. (See above photo.)

Lewis, G. Williams, R. 2019. The Book of Taliesin: Poems of Warfare and Praise in an Enchanted Britain. England. Penguin Classics.



Gwalchmai ap Meilyr (c.1132 - c.1180)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Professor Ann Parry Owen

Roedd Gwalchmai ap Meilyr  yn un o’r cynharaf o Feirdd y Tywysogion neu’r Gogynfeirdd. Hanai o deulu o feirdd proffesiynol o Fôn (ac fe’i cysylltir yn arbennig â Threwalchmai). Bu ei dad, Meilyr Brydydd, yn fardd llys i’r Tywysog Gruffudd ap Cynan (marw 1137). Mae’r cerddi sydd wedi goroesi yn awgrymu cyswllt arbennig rhyngddo a’r Tywysog Owain Gwynedd (marw 1170), mab Gruffudd ap Cynan, yn ogystal â brodyr a meibion Owain. Roedd Madog ap Maredudd, tywysog Powys, yntau’n noddwr pwysig iddo, a chyfansoddodd awdl farwnad hir yn dilyn marwolaeth Madog yn 1160. Yn ogystal â’r cerddi mawl a marwnad traddodiadol, cadwyd ganddo gerddi crefyddol a myfyrgar, a hefyd gerdd Orhoffedd, lle mae’n ymffrostio yn ei alluoedd milwrol ef ei hun a rhai ei noddwr, Owain Gwynedd, ac yn llawenhau yn agweddau ar serch a natur. Cadwyd barddoniaeth Gwalchmai mewn dwy lawysgrif bwysig o’r Oesoedd Canol, sef Llawysgrif Hendregadredd  (c.1300) a Llyfr Coch Hergest (c.1400). Gwelir yn llinellau agoriadol ei Orhoffedd y llawenydd personol a’r brwdfrydedd sy’n nodweddu llawer o’i waith.

Gwalchmai ap Meilyr was one of the earliest of the Poets of the Princes or Gogynfeirdd. He belonged to a family of professional poets from Anglesey (and is associated in particular with Trewalchmai). His father, Meilyr Brydydd, was the court poet of Prince Gruffudd ap Cynan (died 1137). Gwalchmai’s extant poetry suggests a particularly close relationship with Prince Owain Gwynedd (died 1170), Gruffudd ap Cynan’s son, and Owain’s brothers and sons. Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys, to whom he composed a long elegy following his death in 1160, was also an important patron. As well as the traditional eulogies and elegies, Gwalchmai’s repertoire contains religious poems, poems of reflection, and his Gorhoffedd, a ‘boasting’ poem celebrating his own military exploits as well as those of his patron, Owain Gwynedd, and rejoicing in aspects of love and nature. Gwalchmai’s poetry has survived in two major medieval manuscripts, The Hendregadredd Manuscript (c.1300) and the Red Book of Hergest (c.1400). The opening lines of his Gorhoffedd convey the personal joy and enthusiasm that characterize much of his poetry.

Mochddwyreawg huan haf dyffestin,
Maws llafar adar, mygr hear hin.
Mi ydwyf eurddeddf ddiofn yn nhrin,
Mi ydwyf llew rhag llu, lluch fy ngorddin.

Early to rise is the sun in summer which is quickly approaching,
Sweet is the birdsong, splendid and fine is the weather.
I am a man of magnificent and fearless attributes in battle,
I am a lion at the front of a regiment, my onslaught is a lightning flash.

Books

For Gwalchmai ap Meilyr’s poetry, see J. E. Caerwyn Williams and Peredur I. Lynch, Gwaith Meilyr Brydydd a’i Ddisgynyddion (Cardiff, 1994), pp. 127–313.

Am waith Gwalchmai ap Meilyr, gweler J. E. Caerwyn Williams a Peredur I. Lynch, Gwaith Meilyr Brydydd a’i Ddisgynyddion (Caerdydd, 1994), tt. 127–313.


Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (c.1155 - c.1195)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Professor Ann Parry Owen

Roedd Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr yn un o Feirdd y Tywysogion neu Ogynfeirdd y ddeuddegfed ganrif. Canodd fawl i dywysogion pwysicaf ei oes: Madog ap Maredudd o Bowys (marw 1170), Owain Gwynedd (marw 1170), Owain Cyfeiliog (marw 1197) a’r Arglwydd Rhys ap Gruffudd o Ddeheubarth (marw 1197). Ef yw’r mwyaf toreithiog o’r beirdd llys, a chadwyd 3,847 llinell o’i farddoniaeth (mewn 48 cerdd) yn rhai o brif lawysgrifau Cymraeg yr Oesoedd Canol, yn cynnwys Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin (c.1250), Llawysgrif Hendregadredd (c.1300) a Llyfr Coch Hergest (c.1400). Mae ei repertoire yn eang, ac yn ogystal â cherddi traddodiadol o fawl a marwnad, canodd awdl hir yn moli eglwys Meifod a’i nawddsant Tysilio, cerddi crefyddol, cerddi dadolwch (cymod), cerddi diolch a cherddi serch. Roedd Cynddelw yn bencerdd, a nodweddir ei farddoniaeth gan hunanhyder ac ymwybyddiaeth o’i statws uchel. Mewn awdl yn cyfarch yr Arglwydd Rhys o’r Deheubarth, un o’r dynion mwyaf pwerus yn ei ddydd, mae’n atgoffa Rhys o’r ffaith eu bod yn llwyr ddibynnol ar ei gilydd, y naill heb lais ac felly’n ddi-rym heb y llall.

Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr was one of the twelfth-century Poets of the Princes or Gogynfeirdd. He sang the praises of the most important princes of his age: Madog ap Maredudd of Powys (died 1170), Owain Gwynedd (died 1170), Owain Cyfeiliog (died 1197) and Lord Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth (died 1197). He is the most prolific of all the court poets, 3,847 lines of poetry (in 48 poems) having survived in some major medieval Welsh manuscripts, including The Black Book of Carmarthen (c.1250), The Hendregadredd Manuscript (c.1300) and The Red Book of Hergest (c.1400). His repertoire was vast, and as well as the traditional eulogies and elegies, he composed a long poem for the church of Meifod and its patron saint, Tysilio, religious poems, poems of appeasement, poems of thanks and two love poems. Cynddelw was a master craftsman, and his poetry is characterized by a certain self-confidence and awareness of his high status as he addresses his patron princes. In an awdl for the great Lord Rhys of Deheubarth, he reminds Rhys of their interdependency, neither having a voice, and therefore powerless, without the other (an extract from the poem can be read below).

Ti hebof, nid hebu oedd tau,
Mi hebod, ni hebaf finnau.

You without me, you would have no voice,
Me without you, I have no voice either.

Books

Parry Owen, A. Jones, N. 1992. Gwaith Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr V.1. Wales. University of Wales Press. (See above photo).

Links

Myrddin Lloyd, D. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 1959. Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (fl. 1155-1200), the leading 12th century Welsh court poet.

Professor Ann Parry Owen is a Research Project Leader at The University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies and Senior Editor at the Dictionary of the Welsh Language. Her principle field of research is medieval Welsh language and poetry. She is particularly interested in the poetry, metrics and language of the Poets of the Princes, the later Gogynfeirdd who sang in the fourteenth century, and in the later poetical tradition of the fifteenth century. She is the co-editor (with Nerys Ann Jones) of two volumes, Gwaith Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr I and II, in the ‘Poets of the Princes Series’, and she has editions of later texts in the 'Poets of the Nobility Series' of which she is the series editor. Professor Ann Parry Owen was the Principal Investigator on the AHRC five-year team-based Guto’r Glyn Project (2008–13) and general editor of the new electronic edition that is freely available online at www.gutorglyn.net.


Iolo Goch (c.1320 - c.1398)

Iolo Goch Poems

Roedd Iolo Goch yn fardd llys yn yr Oesoedd Canol a gafodd ei eni yn Nyffryn Clwyd. Roedd yn ysgrifennu gan ddefnyddio’r traddodiad barddol Cymraeg o gerdd dafod a chynghanedd, ac yn ffafrio’r cywydd. Roedd Iolo’n ysgrifennu yn arddull y Gogynfeirdd, gan ddefnyddio iaith sy’n atgoffa dyn o Gymru hŷn. Ithel ap Robert, archddiacon Llanelwy, teulu’r Tuduriaid o Fôn, ac Owain Glyndŵr oedd ei noddwyr, a chyrhaeddodd un o’i gerddi ddwylo’r Brenin Edward III Lloegr, hyd yn oed (1347). Dangosodd y gerdd wybodaeth am frwydrau yn Lloegr, Iwerddon, a Ffrainc. Mae’i weithiau eraill yn cynnwys cerddi disgrifiadol, ac roedd un ohonyn nhw’n sôn am neuadd fawr Sycharth, oedd yn gartref i Owain Glyndŵr, yn ogystal â cherddi oedd yn ceisio ategu trefn ddwyfol, wleidyddol, a chymdeithasol (Mae’r ‘Y Llafurwr’ yn enghraifft o hyn). Roedd yn gydoeswr i Dafydd ap Gwilym a Llywelyn Goch Amheurig Hen.

Iolo Goch was a medieval court poet who was born in the Vale of Clwyd (his name translates to Iolo the Red). He wrote using the Welsh poetic tradition of cerdd dafod and cynghanedd, favouring the cywydd form. Iolo wrote in the style of the Y Gogynfeirdd, his use of language reminiscent of an older Wales. His patrons were Ithel ap Robert, an archdeacon of St. Asaph, the Tudur family of Anglesey, Owain Glyndŵr and one of his poems even reached the hands of King Edward III of England (1347). The poem displayed a knowledge of battles in England, Ireland and France. His other works include descriptive poems, one of which was about the great hall of Sycharth, home to Owain Glyndŵr, as well as poems that sought to uphold divine, political and social order ('The Labourer’ is an example of this). He was a contemporary of Dafydd ap Gwilym and Llywelyn Goch Amheurig Hen.

Llys barwn, lle syberwyd,
lle daw beirdd aml, lle da byd;
Gwawr Bowys fawr, beues Faig,
Gofuned gwiw ofynaig.

Baron's palace, place of generosity,
Where the bards come often, a good place;
Lady of great Powys, land of Maig,
A place of great promise.

Books

Goch, I. 2010. Welsh Classic Series: Iolo Goch Poems. Wales. Gomer Press. (See above photo.)

Links

Lewis, Prof.H. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 1959. Iolo Goch (c.1320-c.1398), poet.

Canolfan Owain Glyndŵr Centre. Llys Owain Glyndŵr (the court of Owain) - a poem by Iolo Goch. 

 


Gwerful Mechain (c.1460 - c.1502)

The Works of Gwerful Mechain

Roedd Gwerful Mechain yn ferch i Hywel Fychan o Fechain ym Mhowys. Roedd ei thad yn aelod o’r teulu Vaughan, ac roedd Gwerful yn meddu ar y breintiau a ddaw o gael ei geni i deulu â statws uchel a boheddig. Roedd hi’n fardd canoloesol y mae cryn dipyn o’i gwaith wedi goroesi. Roedd hi hefyd yn fardd arloesol, ac mae hyn i’w weld yn y pynciau ddewisodd hi. Roedd hi’n un o’r beirdd cyntaf i ysgrifennu am gamdriniaeth deuluol; Mae ‘I’w Gŵr am ei Churo’ yn gerdd deimladwy, gref yn llawn o iaith ddig a delweddaeth llawn egni. Roedd hi’n fardd cynhyrchiol nad oedd wedi’i chyfyngu i un arddull,  ond mae’i gwaith yn cynnwys barddoniaeth grefyddol a doniol, a cherddi’n dangos ymwybyddiaeth gymdeithasol. ‘Cywydd y Cedor’ yw un o’i gweithiau enwocaf. Dyma gerdd sy’n ceryddu’i chymheiriaid gwryw am ganu clodydd corff menyw o’r corun i’r sawdl tra byddan nhw’n anwybyddu un nodwedd gêl. Cafodd y gerdd ei hysgrifennu mewn ymateb i 'Cywydd y Gal' gan Dafydd ap Gwilym.

Roedd Gwerful yn sylwedydd craff ar gymdeithas ganoloesol. Ysgrifennwyd ei cherddi crefyddol, sy’n cydymffurfio â moesoldeb caethiwus cymdeithas ganoloesol, yn gaeth, mewn cynghanedd, ond mae rhai o’i cherddi eraill yn fwy rhydd o ran y mesur, yn dangos ei meistrolaeth ar y grefft. Roedd Gwerful yn gydoeswr i Dafydd Llwyd a Llywelyn ap Gutyn, a byddai’n gohebu â nhw’n rheolaidd.

Gwerful Mechain was the daughter of Hywel Fychan from Mechain, Powys. Her father belonged to the Vaughan family, and Gwerful enjoyed the privileges that being born into a high-status and noble family afforded her. She was a medieval poet with a substantial surviving body of work. She was also an innovative poet which is reflected in her choice of subject matter. She one of the first poets to write about domestic abuse; ‘To Her Husband for Beating Her’ is a poignant and powerful poem full of enraged language and energetic imagery. She was a prolific poet who was not restricted to one style, her work includes religious, humorous and socially conscious poetry. One of her most well-known works is ‘Ode to a Vagina’, a poem that chastises her male counterparts for praising a woman’s body from her hair to her feet but ignoring one hidden feature. The poem was written in response to Dafydd ap Gwilym's 'Ode to a Penis' or 'Cywydd y Gal'. 

Gwerful was a keen observer of medieval society. Her religious poems, which conform to the restrictive morality of medieval society, were written in strict cynghanedd, while some of her other poems had a relaxed attitude towards the metre, displaying her mastery of the craft. Gwerful was a contemporary of Dafydd Llwyd and Llywelyn ap Gutyn, who she corresponded with on a regular basis.

Darn oddi wrth 'A Response to Ieuan Dyfi's poem on Red Annie'

Gwae'r undyn heb gywreinddu,
Gwae'r un wen a garo neb;
Ni cheir gan hon ei charu,
Yn dda, er ei bod yn ddu.

Extract from 'A Response to Ieuan Dyfi's poem on Red Annie'

Woe betide you, incompetent bard,
Who sings the praise of the chaste blonde,
While the loving, clever dark one
Gets lambasted and shunned.

Books

Gramich, K. 2018. The Works of Gwerful Mechain. Canada. Broadview Press. (See above photo.)

Links

Rattle. 2017. Gwerful Mechain: 'To Her Husband for Beating Her'.

Harries, L. 1959. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. Gwerful Mechain (1462? - 1500), poetess.

Swansea University. The Welsh Department. Dafydd ap Gwilym.

 


Guto'r Glyn (c.1450 - c.1490)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Eurig Salisbury

Eurig Salisbury a Barry J. Lewis: "Er mor anghyflawn yw’r darlun ar adegau, eto fe gawn [yn ei waith] gipolwg cyffrous ar Guto mewn lleoliadau arbennig ar adegau arbennig, ac yn raddol fe ddaw i’r amlwg amlinelliad o yrfa bardd ac iddi arwyddocâd gwir genedlaethol a rhyngwladol."

Cyfansoddai Guto yn Gymraeg. Cafodd ei eni yn nyffryn Ceiriog a bu’n byw am gyfnod yng Nghroesoswallt, lle cafodd fod yn fwrdais yn gyfnewid am ganu cerdd o fawl i’r dref. Teithiodd Gymru a’r gororau benbaladr, ac fe’i claddwyd yn abaty Glyn-y-groes.

  • Bardd mwyaf y bymthegfed ganrif.
  • Cymerodd ran fel milwr yn y Rhyfel Can Mlynedd a bu’n dyst i brif ddigwyddiadau Rhyfeloedd y Rhosynnau yng Nghymru.
  • Canodd fawl i uchelwyr mwyaf blaenllaw ei ddydd ar hyd a lled Cymru, yn fwyaf nodedig i Syr Wiliam Herbert o Raglan yn ystod ei fuddugoliaethau a’i gwymp yn yr 1460au.
  • Roedd yn bennaf gysylltiedig ag abaty Ystrad Fflur, Rhaglan, Croesoswallt (lle bu’n byw fel bwrdais) ac abaty Glyn-y-groes, lle bu farw a lle’i claddwyd.

Gruffudd Aled Williams– "According to the later poet Tudur Aled it was Guto of all Welsh poets who excelled in composing praise poems to noblemen: his work amply bears out this judgement, often boldly transcending poetic convention and delighting with its wit, vigour, and original imagery."

Guto composed in Welsh. He was born in the Ceiriog valley and lived for a time in Oswestry, where he was made a burgess in exchange for composing a poem of praise for the town. He travelled all over Wales and the marches. He was buried in the abbey of Valle Crucis.

  • The greatest poet of the fifteenth century.
  • Took part as a soldier in the Hundred Years War and witnessed the most important events of the Wars of the Roses in Wales.
  • Composed praise poetry for the leading noblemen of his day in every part of Wales, most notably for Sir William Herbert of Raglan during his spectacular rise and fall in the 1460s.
  • Principally associated with Strata Florida abbey, Raglan, Oswestry (where he lived as a burgess) and Valle Crucis abbey.

'Moliant i Wiliam Herbert o Raglan, iarll cyntaf Penfro, ar ôl cipio castell Herlech, 1468'

Na fwrw dreth yn y fro draw
Ni aller ei chynullaw.
Na friw Wynedd yn franar,
N’ad i Fôn fyned i fâr,
N’ad y gweiniaid i gwynaw
Na brad na lledrad rhag llaw.
N’ad trwy Wynedd blant Rhonwen
Na phlant Hors yn y Fflint hen.
Na ad, f’arglwydd, swydd i Sais,
Na’i bardwn i un bwrdais.
Barna’n iawn, brenin ein iaith,
Bwrw ’n y tân eu braint unwaith.
Cymer wŷr Cymru’r awron,
Cwnstabl o Farstabl i Fôn.
Dwg Forgannwg a Gwynedd,
Gwna’n un o Gonwy i Nedd.
O digia Lloegr a’i dugiaid,
Cymru a dry yn dy raid.

gutorglyn.net 21.53–70

'In praise of William Herbert of Raglan, first earl of Pembroke, after the capture of Harlech castle, 1468'

Do not exact a tax on the land over there
Which cannot be gathered.
Do not churn up Gwynedd into fallow-land,
Do not let Anglesey fall into misery,
Do not let the weak lament
Either treachery or theft from now on.
Do not let Rhonwen’s children roam Gwynedd
Nor the children of Horsa into ancient Flint.
Do not, my lord, allow any office to an Englishman,
Nor give any burgess his pardon.
Judge rightly, king of our nation,
Cast their privilege into the fire once and for all.
Take now the men of Wales,
Constable from Barnstaple to Anglesey.
Take Glamorgan and Gwynedd,
Make all one from the Conwy to the Neath.
If England and her dukes are angered,
Wales will come to your need.

gutorglyn.net 21.53–70

Books

Parry Owen, A. 2017. Plu Porffor a Chlog o Fwng Ceiliog: Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr a Guto'r Glyn. Wales. University of Wales for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies.

Williams. I. 1979. Gwaith Guto'r Glyn. Wales. University of Wales Press. (See above photo.) 

Links

The University of Wales. Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies. 2011. The Poetry of Guto'r Glyn. 

Williams, Sir. I. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 1959. Guto'r Glyn, a bard who sang during the second half of the 15th century (1440-1493).

Eurig Salisbury is an English and Welsh language poet. He graduated from Aberystwyth University in 2004 and 2006, where he now works as a lecturer. He won the Chair at the Urdd Festival in Denbighshire in 2006. Eurig was the first to hold the prestigious position of Bardd Plant Cymru or Welsh Children's Laureate for two years (2011 - 2013). Eurig Salisbury is the Welsh-language editor for 'Poetry Wales'. eurig | eurig.cymru/blog | soundcloud.com/podlediad_clera


Katherine Philips (c.1632 - c.1664)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Norena Shopland

Cafodd Katherine Philips ei geni yn Llundain, ond treuliodd y rhan fwyaf o’i bywyd yng Nghymru. O’i chartref yn Aberteifi ysgrifennodd farddoniaeth a sicrhaodd ei bod yn cael ei chydnabod fel y bardd Prydeinig benyw cyntaf o bwys. Hi oedd y wraig gyntaf hefyd i gael llwyfannu drama’n fasnachol. Roedd hi’n adnabyddus yn ei chyfnod ei hun, ond diflanodd ei gwaith o olwg y byd yn ddiweddarach, a dim ond yn yr 20fed ganrif y sylweddolwyd ei wir werth. Pan ddechreuodd ysgrifenwyr ffeministaidd dynu sylw at ei barddoniaeth cafodd ei harddel fel un o feirdd mwyaf dylanwadol yr iaith Saesneg.

Mae llawer o’r drafodaeth ynghylch barddoniaeth Katherine yn canolbwyntio ar ofyn a oedd hi’n lesbiad ai peidio. Y rheswm am hyn yw bod ei gwaith yn ffocysu’n emosiynol ar fenywod, a’r perthnasoedd nwydwyllt yr oedd hi’n eu cael â nhw. Ni waeth beth fo rhywioldeb Katherine dyma’r cerddi Prydeinig cyntaf sy’n mynegi cariad rhwng dwy fenyw.

Katherine Philips was born in London, but spent most of her life in Wales. From her home in Cardigan she was to write poetry that marked her out as the first significant female British poet, as well as the first woman to have a commercial play staged. Well-known in her own time she fell into obscurity and it was not until the late 20th century that her true worth was realised. When feminist writers began to highlight her poetry she was finally acknowledged as one of the most influential women poets in the English language.

Much discussion around Katherine’s poetry and life concentrates on whether she was or was not a lesbian. For the emotional focus of her poetry was on women and the passionate relationships she had with them. Regardless of Katherine’s own sexual orientation they are the first British poems which express same-sex love between women.

Extract from 'To the Queen of Inconstancy, Regina Collier'

And you kill me, because I worshipp’d you.
But my worst vows shall be your happiness,
And nere to be disturb’d by my distress.
And though it would my sacred flames pollute,
To make my Heart a scorned prostitute;
Yet I’le adore the Authour of my death,
And kiss the hand that robbs me of my breath.

Books

Shopland, N. 2017. Forbidden Lives: LGBT Stories from Wales. Wales. Seren. (See above photo).

Philips, K. 2018. Poems by the Most Deservedly Admired Mrs. Katherine Philips (Classic reprint). England.Forgotten Print.

Thomas, P. Philips, K. 1990. The Collected Works of Katherine Philips: The Matchless Orinda. England. Stump Cross Books.

Orvis, D.L. 2015. Noble Flame of Katherine Philips. U.S.A. Duquesnes University Press.

Links

Jokinen, A. 2003. The Works of Katherine Philips. 

Poetry Foundation. Katherine Philips. 

British Library. Katherine Philips. 

Norena Shopland has a Master’s degree in heritage studies and has worked with leading heritage organisations including National Museums Wales, Glamorgan Archives and Cardiff Story Museum. She has extensively researched the heritage of LGBT people and issues in Wales for 15 years. She devised the first project in Wales to look at placing sexual orientation and gender identity into Welsh history, culminating in the Welsh Pride, the first exhibition exclusively on Welsh LGBT people, allies and events, and managed Gender Fluidity, the first funded transgender project in Wales. Norena arranged for Gillian Clarke to write the first poem in the world by a national or poet laureate celebrating the LGBT people of a country. NorenaShopland


Huw Morys (c.1622 - c.1709)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Eurig Salisbury

Canai Huw Morys yn Gymraeg. Bardd mwyaf yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg. Roedd yn byw ar ffermdy Pont-y-meibion ger y Pandy yn nyffryn Ceiriog. Fe’i claddwyd yn eglwys Llansilin, lle roedd yn warden.

  • Un o’r beirdd olaf i ennill ei fywoliaeth yn canu cerddi i bobl yn ei gymuned.
  • Gwnaeth ddefnydd arloesol o’r gynghanedd ar fesurau rhydd newydd.
  • Canodd gerddi i fwy nag un haen yn y gymdeithas, o’r tlawd i’r mwyaf cefnog.
  • Thomas Parry: ‘Y mwyaf toreithiog, ac ar lawer ystyr y gloywaf ei ddawn o feirdd [yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg] … un o brif feirdd Cymru.’

Huw Morys composed in Welsh and he is considered to be the greatest poet of the 16th century. He lived at Pont-y-meibion farmhouse near Pandy in the Ceiriog valley. He was buried in Llansilin church, where he served as a warden.

  • He was one of the last poets to earn a living composing poetry for his community.
  • He made innovative use of ‘cynghanedd’ in new free metres.
  • He composed poetry for all levels in society, from the poor to the wealthy.
  • Thomas Parry: "the most prolific and in many ways the brightest bardic talent of the seventeenth century – one of the great Welsh poet."

Darn oddi wrth ‘Codi Nant-y-cwm’ (gofyn i grefftwyr adeiladu tŷ i dlodion)

Fi a’m holl gymdeithion,
Os gwir yw gwers y person,
Troed y ffordd i’r nefoedd gu
Yw adeiladu i dlodion.

Extract from ‘To build Nant-y-cwm’ (request for craftsmen to build a house for the poor)

Myself and all my companions,
if the parson’s sermon is true,
the beginning of the road to beloved heaven
is to build for the poor.

Books

Morys, H. Jones, F.M (ed). 2008. Y Rhyfel Cartrefol. Wales. School of Welsh, Bangor University. (See above photo.)

Parry, T. 1962. The Oxford Book of Welsh Verse. England. Oxford University Press.

Eurig Salisbury is an English and Welsh language poet. He graduated from Aberystwyth University in 2004 and 2006, where he now works as a lecturer. He won the Chair at the Urdd Festival in Denbighshire in 2006. Eurig was the first to hold the prestigious position of Bardd Plant Cymru or Welsh Children's Laureate for two years (2011 - 2013). Eurig Salisbury is the Welsh-language editor for 'Poetry Wales'. eurig | eurig.cymru/blog | soundcloud.com/podlediad_clera


Sarah Jane Rees (1839 - 1916)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Norena Shopland

Pan fu farw Sarah Jane Rees ym 1916, dywedodd yr ysgrif goffa yn y Carmarthen Journal y canlynol: “Gall dyn honni’n ddiogel nad yw’r un Gymraes arall wedi bod mor boblogaidd mewn cymaint o feysydd cyhoeddus ag oedd Cranogwen.”

Cranogwen oedd yr enw barddol a ddaeth ag enwogrwydd Sarah – mae’n gyfuniad o ddau air: Sant Crannog, yr enwyd Llangrannog ar ei ôl, a Nant Hawen, yr afon leol – ac yn wir llwyddodd hi i wneud nifer fawr o bethau yn ystod ei bywyd. Roedd hi’n forwr, athro, bardd arobryn, ysgrifennwr a golygydd, a phregethwr lleyg. Yn ystod ei hoes, gwnaeth gryn dipyn i hyrwyddo ysgrifenwyr benyw yng Nghymru, ond nad ydym yn gwybod llawer amdani heddiw.

Trwy ei hysgrifennu y daeth Cranogwen yn enwog, dros nos, bron. Yn 1865, cystadlodd yn yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, y digwyddiad cymdeithasol hwnnw sy’n Gymraeg i’r gwraidd. Yn y Brifwyl yn Aberystwyth, cyflwynodd gerdd o’r enw ‘Y Fodrwy Briodasol’. Rhaid i bob awdur ddewis ffugenw, ac felly pan ddaeth i’r golwg mai menyw oedd wedi ennill, roedd pawb yn synnu. Roedd hi wedi bod yn cystadlu yn erbyn ysgrifenwyr gwryw enwog a chydnabyddedig.

When Sarah Jane Rees died in 1916 Carmarthen Journal’s obituary said “It can safely be claimed that no other Welsh woman enjoyed popularity in so many public spheres as Cranogwen did."

Cranogwen was the bardic name for which Sarah was to become famous - a combination of Saint Cranog after whom Llangrannog was named and Hawen the local river, and she certainly covered a lot of ground in her life. She was a sailor, teacher, award winning poet, writer and editor and lay preacher. In her time she did an enormous amount for the advancement of Welsh women writers but today is little known.

It was through her writing that Cranogwen became a celebrity almost overnight. In 1865 she entered that quintessentially Welsh cultural event, the Eisteddfod. At the nationals in Aberystwyth she entered a poem ‘Y Fodrwy Briodasol’ ('The Wedding Ring'). All entries are anonymous and so when it was revealed a woman had won there was genuine shock. She had been competing against established and renowned male writers.

Darn oddi wrth 'Fy Ffrynd'

Ah! Annwyl chwaer, ‘r wyt ti i mi,
Fel lloer I’r lli, yn gyson;
Dy ddilyn heb orphwyso wna
Serchiadau pura’m calon.

Extract from 'My Friend'

Oh! My dear sister, you to me
As the moon to the sea, constantly,
Following you restlessly are
My heart’s pure affections.

Books

John, A.V. 2011. Our Mothers' Land: Chapters in Welsh Women's History, 1830-1939. Wales. University of Wales Press.

Jones, D.G. 1981. Cranogwen: Portread Newydd. Wales. Gomer Press. (out of print.)

Links

Matthews, C. BBC Wales. 2019. Hidden Heroines. 

Carradice, P. BBC Wales. 2013. Sarah Jane Rees, schoolteacher and poet.

WENWales. Sarah Jane Rees "Cranogwen".

 

Norena Shopland has a Master’s degree in heritage studies and has worked with leading heritage organisations including National Museums Wales, Glamorgan Archives and Cardiff Story Museum. She has extensively researched the heritage of LGBT people and issues in Wales for 15 years. She devised the first project in Wales to look at placing sexual orientation and gender identity into Welsh history, culminating in the Welsh Pride, the first exhibition exclusively on Welsh LGBT people, allies and events, and managed Gender Fluidity, the first funded transgender project in Wales. Norena arranged for Gillian Clarke to write the first poem in the world by a national or poet laureate celebrating the LGBT people of a country. NorenaShopland


John Ceiriog Hughes (1832 - 1887)

Cafodd John Ceiriog Hughes ei eni ar fferm yn edrych dros bentref Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog yng ngogledd-ddwyrain Cymru. Gadawodd yno i fynd i Fanceinion yn 1849, ble gweithiai fel rheolwr rheilffordd rhwng Manceinion a Llundain. Ychydig wedi hynny, cymerodd swydd fel clerc yn Llundain. Yn ddiweddarach, symudodd i orsaf reilffordd Caersws a gweithiodd yno am weddill ei oes.

Cymerodd ei enw barddol o afon yn llifo’n agos i’w gartre’, Afon Ceiriog. Teitl ei gasgliad cyntaf o farddoniaeth, wedi’i gyhoeddi yn 1860, oedd 'Oriau’r Hwyr' ('Evening Hours'). Dylanwadwyd ar ei waith gan y Gymru wledig, a chan berseinedd barddoniaeth ac alawon gwerin Cymraeg, yn enwedig y rhai a oedd yn deffro atgofion bore oes.

Yn ystod y cyfnod a dreuliodd yn Lloegr, dylanwadwyd ar Ceiriog gan y Cymry John Hughes, R.J. Derfel ac Idris Fychan, oedd yn aelodau o gymdeithas lenyddol. Roedd Idris Fychan yn arfer canu’r delyn, offeryn cerdd traddodiadol oedd yn cael ei ddefnyddio i gyfeilio i farddoniaeth Gymraeg ganoloesol. Roedd R.J. Derfel yn gefnogwr pybyr o hanes, iaith a diwylliant Cymru. Mae’u dylanwad i’w gweld yn y llyfr 'Cant o Ganeuon: Yn Cynwys, Y Gyfres Gyntaf o Eiriau ar Alawon Cymreig', y gyntaf o bedair cyfrol (y cyhoeddwyd dim ond un ohonyn nhw).

  • O bryd i’w gilydd, cyfeirir ato fel  ‘Robert Burns barddoniaeth Gymraeg’.
  • Cafodd ei hudo gan ganeuon gwerin Cymraeg, ac ysgrifennodd gerddi telynegol yn dilyn eu rhythm. Mae’r rhain yn cynnwys 'Dafydd y Garreg Wen'.

John Ceiriog Hughes was born on a farm overlooking the village of Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog in North-East Wales. He left for Manchester in 1849 where he worked as a railway manager between Manchester and London. Shortly after he took a job as a clerk in London. In later life, he moved to Caersws railway station where he worked until his death.

He took his bardic name from a river that ran close to his home, the River Ceiriog. His first collection of poetry, published in 1860, was called 'Evening Hours' or 'Oriau’r Hwyr'. His work was influenced by rural Wales and the musicality of Welsh poetry and folk tunes, particularly those that invoked memories of childhood.

During his time in England, Ceiriog was influenced by Welshmen John Hughes, R.J.Derfel and Idris Fychan who were members of a literary society. Idris Fychan played the harp, a traditional instrument used to accompany medieval Welsh poetry. R.J.Derfel was a staunch promoter of Welsh history, language and culture. Their influence can be seen in 'Cant o Ganeuon: Yn Cynwys, Y Gyfres Gyntaf o Eiriau ar Alawon Cymreig', the first of four volumes (only one of which was published).

  • He is sometimes referred to as 'the Robert Burns of Welsh poetry'.
  • He was fascinated by Welsh folk songs and wrote lyrical poems to their rhythm. These included 'David of the White Rock' or 'Dafydd y Garreg Wen'.

Extract from 'Alun Mabon'

The mighty mountains changeless stand.
Tireless the winds across them blow;
The shepherd's song across the land
Sounds with the dawn so long ago.

Books

Conran, T. 2017. Welsh Verse. Wales. Seren. (See above photo.)

Links

Jones, D.G. The Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 1959. Hughes, John (Ceiriog) (Ceiriog; 1832-1887), poet.

Welsh Icons News. 2019. John Ceiriog Hughes. 


T.H. Parry-Williams (1887 - 1975)

Cerddi TH Parry-Williams

Cafodd T.H. Parry-Williams ei eni yn Rhyd-Ddu, Eryri, a daeth o deulu o lenorion. Roedd ei dad, Henry Parry-Williams, wedi ennill clod yn yr Eisteddfod, ac roedd Ann, ei fam, yn chwaer i gynganeddwr uchel ei fri. Bardd adnabyddus ledled Cymru hefyd oedd R.Williams Parry, ac roedd yntau’n gefnder i T.H. Parry-Williams.

Mynychodd T.H. Parry-Williams Brifysgol Cymru, Aberystwyth, ble y daeth yn athro’n ddiweddarach. Aeth yn ei flaen i fynychu Coleg Iesu, Rhydychen ym 1909, gan astudio geiriau benthyg Saesneg yn y Gymraeg. Cyhoeddwyd yr ymchwil hwn o dan y teitl, ‘The English Element in Welsh’. Dim ond ym 1931 y cyhoeddwyd ei gyfrol gyntaf o farddoniaeth, ‘Cerddi’. Mae chwe chyfrol bellach o gerddi a thraethodau’n cynnwys y rhan fwyaf o’i waith creadigol, 'Olion' (1935), 'Lloffion' (1942), 'O'r Pedwar Gwynt' (1944), 'Ugain o Gerddi' (1949), 'Myfyrdodau' (1957) a 'Pensynnu' (1966). Cafodd y traethodau’u casglu at ei gilydd yn 'Casgliad o Ysgrifau’ ym 1984, a’r cerddi yn 'Casgliad o Gerddi' dair blynedd yn ddiweddarach.

Ysgrifennodd erthyglau academaidd, a daeth yn ffigwr adnabyddus ar y teledu a’r radio. Roedd e’n arfer chwarae rhan weithredol mewn cymdeithasau Cymraeg eu hiaith, yn cynnwys Llys yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, ac Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion. Cafodd T.H. Parry-Williams ei urddo’n farchog ym 1958.

  • Fel plentyn ysgol, dechreuodd ysgrifennu dyddiadur manwl, arfer y daliodd ato weddill ei oes.
  • Roedd yn wrthwynebwr cydwybodol yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd a chyhoeddodd gerddi yn y cylchgrawn heddychol, 'Y Deyrnas'.
  • Ysgrifennodd mewn cwpledi sy’n odli, ac ar ffurf soned.
  • Teithiodd yn eang; astudiodd ym Mhrifysgol Freiburg (yr Almaen), ac aeth e i Ogledd a De America, ymhlith mannau eraill.

T.H.Parry-Williams was born in Rhyd-Ddu, Snowdonia. He came from a literary family. Henry Parry-Williams, his father, had been successful in the Eisteddfod and Ann, his mother, was the sibling of a celebrated strict metre poet. T.H Parry-Williams’ first cousin, R. Parry-Williams, was also a well-known poet in Wales.

T.H Parry-Williams attended The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, where he later became a professor. He went on to attend Jesus College Oxford in 1909 studying English loan words in Welsh. This research was published in 1923 titled 'The English Element in Welsh'. His first volume of poetry, 'Cerddi', wasn’t published until 1931. A further six volumes of poems and essays make up the main body of his creative work, 'Olion' (1935), 'Lloffion' (1942), 'O'r Pedwar Gwynt' (1944), 'Ugain o Gerddi' (1949), 'Myfyrdodau' (1957) and 'Pensynnu' (1966). The essays were collected in 'Casgliad o Ysgrifau' in 1984, and the poems in 'Casgliad o Gerddi' three years later.

He wrote scholarly articles and became a well-known figure on television and radio. He was active in Welsh societies including the Court of the National Eisteddfod and The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. T.H Parry-Williams was knighted in 1958.

  • As a schoolboy he started a detailed diary. A habit that he kept until his death.
  • He was a conscientious objector during WWII and published poems in the pacifist journal, 'Y Deyrnas'.
  • He wrote in rhyming couplets and sonnets.
  • He was well-travelled having studied in Freiburg University (Germany) and travelled to South and North America, among others.

Darn oddi wrth 'Hon'

Beth yw’r ots gennyf i am Gymru? Damwain a hap
Yw fy mod yn ei libart yn byw. Nid yw hon ar fap
Yn ddim byd ond cilcyn o ddaear mewn cilfach gefn,
Ac yn dipyn o boendod i’r rhai sy’n credu mewn trefn.

Extract from 'This'

What do I care about Wales? It is just fluke and accident
That I live within her confines. She is no more on a map
Than a small patch of land in the back end of beyond.
And a bit of a pain to those who believe in order.

Books

Parry-Williams, T.H. 2011. Cerddi Rhigymau a Sonedau. Wales Gomer Press. (See above photo.)

Links

Evans, R. The Curious Astronomer. 2011. “Hon” (This) – a poem.

Price, A. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 2018. Parry-Williams, Sir Thomas Herbert (1887-1975), author and scholar.


Lynette Roberts (1909 - 1995)

Cafodd Lynette Roberts ei geni ym Buenos Aires, yr Ariannin, i rieni o dras Cymreig. Astudiodd Gelf yn The Central School for Arts and Crafts, Llundain. Ym 1939, priododd y bardd o Gymro, Keidrych Rhys, ac ymgartrefodd yn Llanybri. Cyhoeddwyd ei dau gasgliad o gerddi, Poems (1944) a Gods with Stainless Ears: a Heroic Poem (1951) gan Faber and Faber. Roedd T.S. Eliot, golygydd i’r cwmni, yn edmygu’i gwaith.

Ysgrifennodd Lynette Roberts am fywyd pentrefyn Llanybri, yn cynnwys y bobl oedd yn byw ac yn gweithio yn y pentref. Mae’r pynciau yn ei cherddi’n cynnwys erthyliad a byd natur. Roedd ganddi ddiddordeb neilltuol mewn adar.  Dylanwadwyd arni hi gan draddodiadau barddol Cymraeg, ac roedd hi’n eu defnyddio i fynegi’i phrofiadau ynghylch byw ar ffiniau pentref Cymraeg traddodiadol. Ym 1944, ysgrifennodd draethawd byr o’r enw ‘Village Dialect’ oedd yn mynegi’r brwdfrydedd hwn. Roedd arddull ei hysgrifennu’n arloesol, a dim ond yn ddiweddar y mae’i gwaith wedi derbyn y gydnabyddiaeth y mae’n ei haeddu. Mae barddoniaeth Lynette yn tynnu ar brofiad synhwyraidd dwys i ddangos bywyd yn y Gymru wledig yn ystod y cyfnod o ddatblygu technegol sylweddol a ddigwyddodd yn yr Ail Ryfel Byd. Gellir gweld esiampl o’r arddull hon yn ‘Air Raid on Swansea’ (1941). Mae’r gerdd yn cyfuno’i hiaith fywiog â’r arswyd technegol oedd wedi tarfu ar gefn gwlad llonydd Cymru.

Roedd Lynette Roberts a Robert Graves yn gohebu gyda’i gilydd. Yn aml byddai’r naill yn helpu’r llall i ddatblygu syniadau a cherddi. Roedd hi’n arfer ysgrifennu llythyrau personol a phreifat at y bardd Alun Lewis. Mae 'Poem from Llanybri' (1944) yn gwahodd Alun Lewis i ymweld â hi yn ei chartref yn Llanybri. Roedd hi’n ffrind i Elizabeth Sitwell, Vernon Watkins, a beirdd enwog o Gymru oedd yn ffynnu yn yr 20fed ganrif.

  • Dylan Thomas oedd y gwas yn ei phriodas . Diddymwyd ei phriodas ym 1948.
  • Yn hwyrach yn ei hoes, ymunodd â Thystion Jehofa.
  • Ym 1956, torrodd ei nerfau, a threuliodd gyfnodau mewn ysbytai meddwl.

Lynette Roberts was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina from parents of Welsh ancestry. She studied Art at The Central School for Arts and Crafts, London. In 1939, she married Welsh poet Keidrych Rhys and settled in Llanybri. Her two poetry collections, Poems (1944) and Gods with Stainless Ears: a Heroic Poem (1951) were published by Faber and Faber, whose editor, T.S Eliot, was an admirer of her work.

Lynette Roberts wrote about village life in Llanybri, including the people who lived and worked in the village. The subjects of her poetry include miscarriage and the natural world. She was particularly interested in birds. She was influenced by Welsh poetic traditions and used them to express her experiences of living on the borders of a traditional Welsh village. In 1944, she wrote a short essay called 'Village Dialect' that expressed this enthusiasm. Her writing style was innovative and it is only recently that she has begun to receive the recognition that her work deserves. Lynette's poetry draws on an intense sensory experience to depict life in rural Wales during the technological burst that occurred during WWII. An example of this style can be seen in 'Air Raid on Swansea' (1941). The poem fuses her vibrant use of language with the technological terror that had descended upon the quiet countryside of Wales.

Lynette Roberts and Robert Graves exchanged correspondence, often assisting each other with the development of ideas and poems. She held an intimate correspondence with poet, Alun Lewis. 'Poem from Llanybri' (1944) is an invitation to Alun Lewis to visit her at home in Llanybri. She was friends with Elizabeth Sitwell, Vernon Watkins and other notable Welsh poets of the 20th century.

  • Dylan Thomas was best man at her wedding. Her marriage dissolved in 1948.
  • In later life she became a Jehovah’s Witness.
  • In 1956 she suffered a mental breakdown and spent time in mental institutes.

Extract from 'Poem from Llanybri'

Then I'll do the lights, fill the lamp with oil,
Get coal from the shed, water from the well;
Pluck and draw pigeon, with crop of green foil
This your good supper from the lime-tree fell.

Books

Roberts, L. McGuinness, P (ed). 2005. Lynette Roberts Collected Poems. England. Carcanet Press. (See above photo.)

McAvoy, Siriol (ed). 2019. Locating Lynette Roberts: Always Observant and Slightly Obscure. Wales. University of Wales Press.


Mererid Hopwood (1964 - present)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Aneirin Karadog

Wedi ei geni a’i magu yng Nghaerdydd, mae gwreiddiau teuluol Mererid Hopwood yn Sir Benfro.  Wedi cael ei haddysg yn Ysgol uwchradd Llanhari ac yna ym Mhrifysgol Aberystwyth, aeth ymlaen i ddatblygu gyrfa fel ieithydd dawnus sy’n arbenigo mewn Sbaeneg ac Almaeneg. Yng nghanol y 1990au, gan dynnu ar ei dawn fel ieithydd, dysgodd gynganeddu mewn gwersi a sefydlwyd gan y Prifardd Tudur Dylan a Geraint Roberts, Ysgol Farddol Caerfyrddin.

Yn ddigon buan daeth yn agos at gipio’r Gadair yn Eisteddfod Ynys Môn, 1999 cyn mynd ymlaen i’w hennill yn Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Dinbych, 2001 – y fenyw gyntaf erioed i gyflawni’r gamp.  Canodd awdl oedd yn trin deunydd na fu canu arno cynt yn hanes wrywaidd cystadleuaeth y gadair, sef y pwnc o feichiogi, geni babi ac yna’r brofedigaeth yn sgil colli’r plentyn.  Aeth ymlaen wedyn i dorri record arall, drwy fod y fenwy gyntaf i wneud y trebl, sef ennill y Gadair, y Goron a’r Fedal Ryddiaith.

“Yn y darn rhwng gwyn a du
Mae egin pob dychmygu”

Mae Mererid, trwy ei gwaith fel academydd, darlledwr, Prifardd ac awdur wedi dod yn enw cyfarwydd i gynulleidfaoedd yng Nghymru a thu hwnt. Mae’r Prifardd Alan Llwyd wedi sôn am bwysigrwydd Symlder Dyfnder mewn mynegiant barddol ac mae canu Mererid yn ymgorffori’r cysyniad hwn gyda’i cherddi sydd ar y cyfan yn ddealladwy o’r darlleniad cyntaf gan lwyddo i gynnwys dyfnder athronyddol.  Mae’n aelod disglair o staff Prifysgol Cymru Dewi Sant, wedi cyhoeddi nifer o lyfrau i blant a hefyd yn gwneud argraff yn ddiweddar gyda phrosiectau mawrion fel y gwaith comisiwn, Cantata Memoria, a grewyd ar y cyd gyda Karl Jenkins i gofio trychineb Aberfan, a’r sioe Eisteddfodol gyda Robert Arwyn a Bryn Terfel, i gofio Paul Robeson, ‘Hwn Yw Fy Mrawd’.

Mae Mererid Hopwood hefyd yn aelod blaenllaw o Gymdeithas y Cymod ac yn ymgyrchu’n angerddol dros heddwch.

  • Enillydd y Gadair yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, Dinbych, 2001.
  • Enillydd y Goron, Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Meifod, 2003.
  • Cyhoeddodd ‘Singing in Chains’ (Gwasg Gomer), cyflwyniad i’r gynghanedd dryw gyfrwng y Saesneg yn 2004.
  • Bardd Plant Cymru 2005-2006.
  • Enillydd y Fedal Ryddiaith, Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Caerdydd, 2008.
  • Cyhoeddodd 'Nes Draw’ (Gwasg Gomer), ei chyfrol gyntaf o gerddi, yn 2015.

Although born and brought up in Cardiff, Mererid Hopwood’s family roots are in Pembrokeshire. Having been educated in Llanhari secondary school and then in Aberystwyth University, she went on to pursue a career as a talented linguist specialising in Spanish and German. In the mid-1990s, drawing on her linguistic skill, she learned to fashion cynghanedd in classes established by the Chief-bard Tudur Dylan and Geraint Roberts, of Carmarthen Bardic School.

Soon enough she came close to seizing the Chair in the Anglesey Eisteddfod in 1999, before going on to win it in the Denbigh National Eisteddfod in 2001 – the first ever woman to achieve the feat. She composed an awdl (that is, an ode in strict metre), dealing with material that had not been touched upon previously in the masculine history of the chair competition, namely the topic of pregnancy, giving birth to a baby, and then the bereavement in the wake of losing the child. She then went on to break another record, by being the first woman to “win the triple” namely to win the Chair, the Crown, and the Prose Medal.

“In the spot between white and black
Are the buds of all imagining.”

Mererid, through her work as academic, broadcaster, Chief-bard and author, has become a familiar name to audiences in Wales and beyond. The Chief-bard Alan Llwyd has talked about the importance of the Simplicity of Depth in poetic expression, and Mererid’s composition embodies this concept in her poems which on the whole are comprehensible on the first reading, succeeding to contain philosophical depth. She is a dazzling member of staff at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, having published a number of books for children, who is also making an impression lately with big projects such as the commissioned work, Cantata Memoria, which was created jointly with Karl Jenkins to commemorate the Aberfan disaster, and the Eisteddfod show with Robert Arwyn and Bryn Terfel, to commemorate Paul Robeson, ‘Hwn Yw Fy Mrawd’ (‘This Is My Brother’).

Mererid Hopwood is also a leading member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (Cymdeithas y Cymod), and campaigns passionately for peace.

  • Winner of the Chair in the National Eisteddfod, Denbeigh, 2001.
  • Winner of the Crown in the National Eisteddfod, Meifod, 2003.
  • Published ‘Singing in Chains’ (Gwasg Gomer), an introduction to cynghanedd through the medium of English in 2004.
  • Children’s Poet Laureate, 2005-2006.
  • Winner of the Prose Medal in the National Eisteddfod, Cardiff, 2008.
  • Published 'Nes Draw’ (‘Further Away’) (Gwasg Gomer), her first volume of poems, in 2015.

Darn oddi wrth 'Ni Ŵyr Neb'

Ni ŵyr neb pa liw yw’r nos
I arall, ac er aros
Yn dynn, dynn, ni all `run dau
Hawlio mai’r union olau
Sydd i’w dydd...

Extract from Ni Ŵyr Neb'

No one knows what colour the night is
To others, and however close they come
No two can ever agree on what precise light
Lies on the day…

Books

Hopwood, M. 2009. O Ran. Wales. Gomer Press. (See above photo.)

Hopwood, M. 2015, Nes Draw. Wales. Gomer Press.

Links

Hopwood, M. Wales Arts Review. 2018. Language Journeys: Mererid Hopwood.

University of Wales, Trinity St.David. Professor Mererid Hopwood. 



Twm Morys (1961 - present)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Aneirin Karadog

Bardd, Awdur, Athro, Ieithydd, Darlledwr.

Cafodd Twm Morys ei eni yn Rhydychen, addysgwyd ef yn Aberhonddu ac Aberystwyth, ac mae’n gallu honni hawl ar sawl man. Mae wedi teithio’n helaeth ond mae’i galon a’i enaid yn perthyn i Eifionydd.

“Gwell bod Cymro’n Eifionydd
Nag ar y daith i Gaerdydd.”

Mab i’r ysgrifennwr teithio adnabyddus Jan Morris yw Twm, a dechreuodd ei yrfa broffesiynol yn gweithio am gyfnod byr fel ymchwilydd i BBC Cymru.  Yn fuan, dechreuodd ddatblygu ei yrfa greadigol ei hunan, wrth ennill clod trwy sefydlu’i fand gwerin-roc, 'Bob Delyn a’r Ebillion', ef yw’r prif gyfansoddwr a chanwr, ac mae hefyd yn canu’r delyn ac offerynnau eraill. Dysgodd Morys sut i gynganeddu yn Ysgol Uwchradd Aberhonddu, ac mae’i feistrolaeth ar y ffurf gelfyddydol hon, ynghyd â’i steil llafar naturiol, yn gwneud i’w ysgrifennu deimlo’n gyfoes, ond eto, yn dragwyddol o glasurol mewn ffordd unigryw.

Mae’n gallu siarad Llydaweg yn rhugl, ac roedd yn byw yn Llydaw pan gyhoeddodd ei gyfrol gyntaf o farddoniaeth, ‘Ofn fy het’. Ar ôl dychwelyd i Gymru, daeth yn aelod blaengar o grŵp o feirdd a deithiodd o gwmpas Cymru i berfformio’u gwaith, a threfnodd  ddigwyddiadau barddoniaeth fyw oedd yn boblogaidd yn y 1990au. Roedd y grŵp yn cynnwys Myrddin ap Dafydd, Iwan Llwyd, Ifor ap Glyn, Meirion Macintyre Huws a Geraint Lovgreen, ymhlith rhai eraill. Yn y 1990au hwyr, aeth i deithio o gwmpas De America a pherfformio’i farddoniaeth, gyda ffrind a chyd-Brifardd, y diweddar Iwan Llwyd. O ganlyniad, cyhoeddwyd ‘Eldorado’, fel casgliad o farddoniaeth, a rhaglen ddogfen ar S4C yn cynnwys perfformiadau o’r cerddi ar hyd y daith. Mae Morys wedi cymryd rhan mewn llawer o Ymrysonau yn yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, ac wedi bod yn aelod o sawl tîm sy’n cystadlu yn Nhalwrn y Beirdd.

Mae Morys yn gyflwynydd profiadol ar Deledu a Radio, ac wedi cyflwyno rhaglen ddogfen ar Radio 4 am gynghanedd yn ddiweddar, ‘To Rhyme and Chime for a Chair’. Mae wedi cyfieithu a lleisio rhaglen am Ryfel Fietnam i S4C.

  • Enillydd y Gadair – Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, Meifod, 2003.
  • Bardd Plant Cymru, 2012-2013.
  • Golygydd 'Barddas' , y cylchgrawn barddoniaeth ers 2012.
  • Casgliadau o gerddi wedi’u cyhoeddi:
    • 'Ofn fy het', Cyhoeddiadau Barddas, 1995
    • 'Eldorado' – Twm Morys ac Iwan Llwyd, 2, Cyhoeddiadau Barddas, 2002.
  • Disgyddiaeth:
    • 'Gedon', 1992 (Crai),
    • 'Gwbade Bach Cochlyd', 1996 (Crai),
    • 'Sgwarnogod Bach Bob', 2003 (Sain),
    • 'Dore', 2004 (Sain),
    • 'Dal i ‘Redig Dipyn Bach', 2017 (Sain).

Poet, singer, musician, broadcaster, linguist, editor.

Twm Morys was born in Oxford, educated in Brecon and Aberystwyth, and he can lay claim to many a place. He has travelled far and wide but his heart and soul belongs to Eifionydd.

“Better an Eifionydd Welshman
Than one who’s Cardiff-bound”

The son of the heralded travel writer, Jan Morris, he started his professional career with a brief spell as a researcher for BBC Cymru. Twm Morys soon began to forge his own creative career and making a name for himself by starting his folk-rock band, 'Bob Delyn a’r Ebillion' in which he is the principal composer, singer, and also plays the harp and other instruments.  Having learned how to write in cynghanedd in Brecon High School, Morys’ mastery of the art form coupled with his natural and oral style makes his writing contemporary, yet timelessly classical in a unique way.

A fluent Breton speaker, he was living in Brittany when he published his first volume of poetry, ‘Ofn fy het’. Having returned to Wales he became a prominent member of a group of poets that went on poetry tours of Wales and  organised live poetry events that were popular in the 1990s. The group included Myrddin ap Dafydd, Iwan Llwyd, Ifor ap Glyn, Meirion Macintyre Huws and Geraint Lovgreen, amongst others.  In the late 90s he embarked on a poetic tour of South America with fellow Prifardd and Friend, the late Iwan Llwyd.  The result, 'Eldorado' was published as a collection of poetry and as a documentary for S4C containing performances of many poems along the way.  Morys has also taken part in many an Ymryson in the National Eisteddfod and has been in various Talwrn y Beirdd teams.

An experienced presenter on TV and Radio, Morys has most recently presented a documentary on Radio 4 about cynghanedd, ‘To Rhyme and Chime for a Chair’ and has translated and voiced a programme on the Vietnam War for S4C.

  • Chair winner – National Eisteddfod, Meifod, 2003.
  • Bardd Plant Cymru (Children’s Poet of Wales), 2012-2013.
  • Editor of 'Barddas' poetry magazine since 2012.
  • Poetry Publications:
    • 'Ofn fy het', Cyhoeddiadau Barddas, 1995,
    • 'Eldorado' – Twm Morys and Iwan Llwyd, 2, Cyhoeddiadau Barddas, 2002.
  • Discography:
    • 'Gedon', 1992 (Crai),
    • 'Gwbade Bach Cochlyd', 1996 (Crai),
    • 'Sgwarnogod Bach Bob', 2003 (Sain),
    • 'Dore', 2004 (Sain),
    • 'Dal i ‘Redig Dipyn Bach', 2017 (Sain).

Darn oddi wrth 'Dod Adre'

Blinais ar wib olwynion
Yn cyrchu, laru ar lôn
Wledydd y byd o lydan
Y bûm i arni `mhob man...

Extract from 'Dod Adre'

I wearied of the squeak of wheels
Setting forth, I had my fill
Of country lanes the world over
That I was on everywhere…

Books

Llywd, I. Morys, T. 1999. Eldorado. Wales. Gwasg Carreg Gwalch. (See above photo.)

Links

British Council: Literature. Twm Morys.

Morys, T. Cerdd Dafod: a poet introduces a Welsh metrical tradition.

Aneirin Karadog is a poet, broadcaster, performer and linguist. He was the Children's Poet of Wales (2013). Aneirin won the chair at the National Eisteddfod in Monmuthshire (2016). He is a rapper and a member of the bands, 'Genod Droog' and 'Diwygiad'. NeiKaradog | soundcloud.com/podlediad_clera


Natalie Ann Holborow (1990 - present)

Rhyddhawyd casgliad cyntaf o gerddi Natalie Ann Holborow, ‘And Suddenly You Find Yourself’, gan Parthian yn 2017. Cafodd y casgliad ei lansio yng Ngŵyl Lyfrau Kolkata fel rhan o’r prosiect o’r enw 'The Valley, The City, The Village' (yma, roedd ysgrifenwyr o Gymru ac India yn teithio rhwng y ddwy wlad, gan brofi diwylliannau eraill trwy ysgrifennu).

Mae gan Natalie ymwybyddiaeth gymdeithasol gref ac mae’n defnyddio ei barddoniaeth i gyfathrebu â’i darllenwyr am bynciau pwysig nad ydyn nhw’n cael eu trafod yn aml, gan ddefnyddio iaith glir a gonest. Mae hi’n ysgrifennu am ei phrofiadau’n byw gyda Diabetes Math 1, bywyd cartref, a pherthnasau teuluol. Mae’i harddull farddol yn gadael argraff ddofn, a bydd y delweddau y mae’n eu creu’n aros yn hir yn y cof ar ôl i chi daro arnyn nhw. Mae’i harddull ysgrifennu’n fywiog a chyffrous, ac mae ar bob tudalen ddelweddau afluniedig o realiti sy’n farddoniaeth athrylithgar.

“Gwae i’r sawl a ddaw i’r casgliad hwn heb fod wedi rhagweld nad anorthrech mohonom ni, ac yn wir, mai marwol ydym ni i gyd, heb os.  Byddwch chi’n gadael, o leiaf, wedi cael eich argyhoeddi o’r ffaith (brinnach) nad oes rhaid i ddyn esgus ei fod yn anfarwol, ychwaith. Cyflwyniad ysblennydd o brofiad dynol ydyw, sy’n onest ac emosiynol, yn llawn atalfeydd a cholled a dryswch a chariad. Ai wedi ceisio cyrraedd y lleuad y mae Holborow? Ie, ac mae hi wedi glanio, crwydro dros ei wyneb, plymio i’r craterau, a hel coflaid o sêr wrth fod i fyny yno.” Wales Arts Review (gweler y dolenni isod).

  • Mae’i barddoniaeth wedi ymddangos yn 'The Stinging Fly' a 'New Welsh Review'.
  • Enillodd hi The Terry Hetherington Award a’r Robin Reeves Prize (2015).
  • Yn 2017, dechreuodd Natalie blog o’r enw Running on Insulin am fyw gyda Diabetes Math 1.
  • Mae hi wedi’i hysbrydoli gan ysgrifenwyr fel Dylan Thomas a Sylvia Plath.

Natalie Ann Holborow's debut poetry collection, ‘And Suddenly You Find Yourself’ was released by Parthian in 2017. The poetry collection was launched in Kolkata Book Festival as part of 'The Valley, The City, The Village' project (the project had writers from Wales and India travel between the two countries engaging with different cultures through writing).

Natalie is a socially conscious writer and she uses poetry to engage with her readers about important issues that are rarely discussed, and she does so using open and honest language. She writes about her experiences of living with Type 1 Diabetes, domestic life and familial relationships. Her poetic style leaves a deep impression and the images created echo long after reading. Her writing style is refreshing and exciting, every page is a distorted reality of poetical brilliance.

“Woe betide anyone who comes to this collection without the foresight that we’re not invincible and are indeed very much mortal. You’ll leave, at least, with the (rarer) conviction that nor do we need to pretend we are. It’s an honest, moving panoply of human experience, full of hiccups and loss and confusion and love. Shoot for the moon? Holborow has landed, roamed its face, dipped into the craters, and gathered an armful of stars while up there.” Wales Arts Review (see links below).

  • Her poetry has appeared in 'The Stinging Fly' and 'New Welsh Review'.
  • Winner of The Terry Hetherington Award and Robin Reeves Prize (2015).
  • In 2017, Natalie started a blog called Running on Insulin about living with Type 1 Diabetes.
  • She has been inspired by writers such as Dylan Thomas and Sylvia Plath.

I knuckled the question into the wall
Which dragged on between us, searched
With my palms for your warmth.

Books

Holborow, N. 2017. And Suddenly You Find Yourself. Wales. Parthian. (See above photo.)



Sophie McKeand (1976 - present)

Cyflwyniad gan / Introduction by: Natalie Ann Holborow

Natur. Gwleidyddiaeth. Ysbrydolrwydd. Dynoliaeth. Cymuned. Unigoliaeth. Angerdd. Gwyleidd-dra.

Byddai’n bosibl i fi ddal ati i restru’r geiriau sy’n codi yn fy meddwl pan fydda i’n meddwl am Gymru a’i chynhyrchion barddol cyfoethog; rydym yn adnabyddus am ein canu, ein hysbryd, ein synnwyr o gymuned.

A dyna pam y byddai’n afresymol ystyried beirdd cyfoes Cymru heb grybwyll Sophie McKeand, sy’n fardd arobryn ac awdur Ieuenctid Cymru. Mae’r cerddi yn 'Rebel Sun' yn fflachio ar draws y dudalen, fel nentydd yn llawn breuddwydion hylifol, sydd wedyn yn ffrwydro’n ddisyfyd o’r dyfroedd aflonydd fel haid o ddrudwyod yn crafangu’u ffordd i ganmol yr Haul Heriol ym mhob un ohonom ni.

Ond eto i gyd, mae clywed gwaith McKeand, yn llawn cryfder a pherseinedd syfrdanol wrth iddo gael ei ddarllen yn uchel, yn dyrchafu’r cerddi nes eu bod nhw’n dod yn rhywbeth mwy na geiriau’n unig:  dyma gerddi sy’n gyforiog o nerth, o ymdrech, am y llais unigol ym mhob grŵp sy’n llwyddo i gael ei glywed, o’r diwedd.

Mae Sophie McKeand yn defnyddio’i geiriau i’n golchi ni â golau’r Rebel Sun sy’n bresennol ym mhob un ohonom ni – a dyna pam roedd ei rôl fel Awdur Ieuenctid Cymru (2016 – 2018) mor bwysig i oleuo llwybr i do newydd o feirdd. Mae McKeand yn enaid o Gymru’n teithio’r byd yn ei fan, sy’n ein dysgu nid dim ond i werthfawrogi’n gwreiddiau ni yng Nghymru, ond hefyd, i dyfu fel blagur, ymledu fel blodau gwylltion, ac anturio drwy’r byd ehangach sy’n aros o’n cwmpas ni.

Nature. Politics. Spirituality. Humanity. Community. Individuality. Passion. Humility.

I could go on listing the words that spring to mind when I think about Wales and its rich poetic offerings; we are known for our song, our soul, our sense of community.

Which is why it would be absurd to consider the contemporary poets of Wales without giving a mention to Sophie McKeand, award-winning poet and Young People’s Laureate for Wales (2016-2018). On the page, the poems in 'Rebel Sun' hiss along the page like streams in their dreamlike fluidity, only to burst like a sudden flush of starlings, grasping out of the tumbling waters to praise the Rebel Sun in all of us.

Yet, hearing McKeand’s work aloud, in all its startling musicality and power, elevate the poems into something more than mere words: these are poems of power, of action, of the individual voice in every group, finally making itself heard.

Sophie McKeand uses her words to wash us with the light of the Rebel Sun present in all of us – which is why her role as Young People’s Laureate of Wales (2016-2018) was so vital to lighting the way for a future generation of poets. A Welsh soul travelling the world in her van, McKeand teaches us not only to appreciate our Welsh roots, but to grow like shoots, spread like wildflowers, and explore the wider world waiting all around us.

The eyes of a tiny woman who dreamed of trees
Were wrenched open by madness,
These images caused her to shrink from people so that
Some days she could not bear to exist
And hid inside a nut.

Books

McKeand, S. 2017. Rebel Sun. Wales. Parthian. (See above photo.)

Links

McKeand, S. SOPHIE McKEAND. 

McKeand, S. 2017. Sophie McKeand - Documenting the life of a community poet.

McKeand, S. Caught by the River. 2018. Shadows and Reflections: Sophie McKeand.

McKeand, S. New Wales Arts Review. 2018. Working Class Poet: Sophie McKeand.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fG9UFuxPzo]

Natalie Ann Holborow is a Swansea-born writer of poetry and fiction. She graduated from Swansea University with an MA in Creative Writing (2014). Natalie won the Terry Hetherington Award and the Robin Reeves Prize in 2015. Her debut collection, And Suddenly You Find Yourselfwas published by Parthian in 2017. missholborow


Rhea Seren Phillips rhea_seren is a PhD student at Swansea University studying Welsh poetic forms and metre in the English language. Her poetry has appeared in The Edge of Necessary: Welsh Innovative Poetry 1966-2018, Poetry Wales, Molly Bloom, Envoi, The Lonely Crowd among others. Rhea has written articles for The Conversation and has contributed articles to Parallel.cymru.

Diolch o'r galon i: Norena Shopland, Aneirin Karadog, Eurig Salisbury, yr Athro Ann Parry Owen, Natalie Ann Holborow, Patrick Jemmer (cyfieithydd), Prifysgol Abertawe a Parallel.cymru am gefnogi'r prosiect hwn.

A special thank you to: Norena Shopland, Aneirin Karadog, Eurig Salisbury, Professor Ann Parry Owen, Natalie Ann Holborow, Patrick Jemmer (translator), Swansea University and Parallel.cymru for supporting this project.

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Sam Brown: Cyflwyno Cernyweg i bawb / Introducing the Cornish language to all https://parallel.cymru/cernyweg/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 19:00:20 +0000 https://parallel.cymru/?p=21655

Yn ddiweddar mae'r iaith Gernyweg wedi dod yn fwy amlwg i bobl y tu allan i'r Ddugaeth. Yn 2010 adnabu Llywodraeth Prydain y Gernyweg fel iaith swyddogol yng Nghernyw; yn 2018 cymerodd Gwenno yr iaith i wledydd ynysoedd Prydain, i Ewrop a'r tu hwnt efo'i halbwm newydd Le Kov (Lle Cof); ac yn 2019 dan ni'n dathlu pythefnos o Wythnos Siaradwch Gernyweg sy'n dechrau efo gŵyl cerddoriaeth a barddoniaeth Fest Kernewek – y tro cyntaf i ŵyl o'r math hwn gael ei chynnal erioed.

Felly beth am ddysgu ychydig o'r iaith hon? Fel siaradwyr Cymraeg dach chi mewn lle perffaith i ddysgu Cernyweg yn hawdd ac yn gyflym gan fod yr ddwy iaith mor debyg â'i gilydd. Dros y misoedd a ddaw mi fydda i'n cyhoeddi nifer o wersi syml fydd yn dysgu rheolau syml yr iaith i chi, rhoi tipiau am ffyrdd eraill o ddysgu ac yn eich annog chi i fynd allan a defnyddio iaith arall y nefoedd.

Nodyn byr: Dwi'n defnyddio Ffurf Ysgrifenedig Safonol yr iaith yn y gwersi hyn. Ryw bwynt bydda i'n paratoi erthygl am y gwahanol fathau o sillafu'r iaith a sut mae newid o'r un i'r llall.

Lately the Cornish language has become more visible to people outside the Duchy. In 2010 the British Government recognised Cornish as an official language in Cornwall; in 2018 Gwenno took the language into countries of the British Isles, into Europe and beyond with her new album Le Kov (Place of Memory); and in 2019 we are celebrating a fortnight of Talk Cornish Week which begins with a festival of music and poetry, Fest Kernewek – the first time a festival of this kind has ever been held.

So what about learning a bit of this language? As Welsh speakers you are perfectly placed to learn Cornish easily and quickly because the two languages are so alike. Over the coming months I will be publishing a number of lessons which will teach you the simple rules of the language, giving tips on other ways of learning and encouraging you to go out and use the other language of heaven.

Short note: I use the Standard Written Form in these lessons. At some point I will prepare an article on the different ways of spelling the language and how to change from one to another.

Bord Cynnwys / Table of Contents


 

Dysgu Cernyweg: Gwers 1 – Ynganiad a Chyfarchiadau
Dyski Kernowek: Dyskans 1 – Leveryans ha Gorhemynadow
Learning Cornish: Lesson 1 – Pronunciation and Greetings

Un o'r pethau anoddaf wrth ddysgu iaith newydd ydy deud y geiriau'n iawn, ac fel pob iaith mae gan y Gernyweg seiniau syml yn ogystal â seiniau anghyfarwydd a chaled.One of the most difficult things in learning a new language is saying the words right, and like every language Cornish has simple sounds as well as unfamiliar and hard sounds.
Yn y tabl isod dwi'n dangos gwyddor y Gernyweg a sut mae deud pob llythyren mewn cymhariaeth â'r Gymraeg a'r Saesneg. Dwi'n cynnwys symbolau o'r Wyddor Seinegol Ryngwladol i helpu dangos yr ynganiad.In the table below I show the Cornish alphabet and how each letter is said as compared with Welsh and English. I include the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet to help show the pronunciation.
Dydy hyn ddim yn beth hawdd i ddysgu o bell felly peidiwch â phoeni os ydach chi'n drysu neu yn stryffaglu gwneud rhai o'r seiniau hyn ar y cychwyn. Bydd yn dod yn haws wrth i ni fynd yn ein blaen.It is not an easy thing to learn remotely so don’t worry if you are confused or struggle to make some of these sounds at the beginning. It will become easier as we go on.
Yr Wyddor / An Abecedari:The Alphabet
Yn yr enghreifftiau hyn dwi'n dangos enwau trwy ddefnyddio priflythrennau i helpu gwahaniaethu.In these examples I show nouns capitalised to help distinguish them.
Llythyren GernywegSain cyfartal yn GymraegSain cyfartal yn SaesnegEnghraifft (cyfieithiad)
Cornish letterEquivalent sound in WelshEquivalent sound in EnglishExample (translation)
A / a [a:]A - cathAh - cashKath (cath)
B / b [b]B - bisgedynB - abacusBora (gwawr)
C / c [s]S - wythnosS - smilecertan (sicr)
Ch / ch [ʧ]Tsi - tsieinaCh - changeChi (tŷ)
D / d [d]D - duD - daddu (du)
Dh / dh [ð]Dd - defnyddioTh - thisdhe (i)
E / e [ɛ]E - heE - envelopeewn (cywir)
F / f [f]Ff - fferyllfaF - fatherfast (sefydlog)
G / g [g]G - GwyneddG - gogwynn (gwyn)
H / h [h]H - hetH - hatHatt (het)
I / i [i:]I - gwinEe - teethMin (ceg)
J / j [ʤ]J - garejJ - jamJerkyn (siaced)
K / k [k]C - camCk - backKwilkyn (broga)
L / l [l]L - gloL - helplamma (neidio)
M /m [m]M - mamM - mumMena (bryn/mynydd)
N / n [n]N - henN - nopeNans (dyffryn)
O / o [ɔ]O - agorO - holdOlifans (Eliffant)
P / p [p]P - polynP - pepperPower (pŵer)
R / r [r]*R - rôlR - readyparys (parod)
S / s [z]S - sŵZ (meddal) - timesSeythen (wythnos)
T / t [t]T - tywelT - toadTren (trên)
Th / th [θ]Th - pethTh - thingOw thas (fy nhad)
U / u [y]W (byr) - wpsiU - orangutanBugh (buwch)
V / v [v]F - fodcaV - veryDha vamm (dy fam)
W / w [w]W - gwynOo - pooWolkom (croeso)
Y / y [ɪ]Y - gwynI - winbryntin (gwych)
* Gellir rolio'r r neu beidio. Yn bersonol dwi ddim, ond mae 'na rai o bobl sy'n ffafrio fo fel yn Gymraeg.* The r can be rolled or not. Personally I do not, but some people favour it as in Welsh.
Ymarfer 1 / Praktis 1:Practice 1:
Trïwch ddeud y geiriau ar y dde yn uchel. Mi fyddwch chi'n gweld rhai geiriau cyfarwydd i'r Gymraeg a'r Saesneg, a rhai geiriau hollol newydd. Peidiwch â phoeni os nad ydach chi'n gallu deud nhw'n iawn wrth gychwyn. Os ydach chi'n stryffaglu efo'r ynganiad, sbïwch ar yr enghreifftiau Cymraeg a Saesneg eto a'u deud nhw'n uchel cyn ceisio'r Gernyweg drachefn.Try to say the words on the right aloud. Again, if you come across any problems, look at the examples.
Deuseiniau / Diwvogalennow:Diphthongs:
Mae 'na hefyd sawl deusain yn y Gernyweg. Mae'r tabl isod yn dangos ychydig o'r rhai mwyaf cyffredin i chi.There are also several Cornish dialects. The table below shows you some of the most common ones.
Deusain CernywegSeiniau cyfartalEnghraifft (cyfieithiad)
Cornish DipthongEquivalent SoundsExample (translation)
gh [x]
(byth yn dod ar ddechrau geiriau)
fel loch yn Wyddeleg yr Albanlaghel (cyfreithlon)
eu [ø:]fel höher yn Almaeneg.Eus keus? (Oes 'na gaws?)
oo [o:]Ô - lônPoos (pwysau)
ou [u:]Ŵ - dŵrGour (gŵr)
ow [ɔʊ]fel 'oh dear' yn Saesneg.Kernow (Cernyw)
oy [ɔˑɪ]Oe - anhygoelOy (wy)
yw [ɪʊ]Iw - heddiwYth yw yeyn (mae'n oer)
Nodyn / Merkyans:Note:
Mae'r gh yn debyg iawn i'r ch yn Gymraeg, ond dwedir yn fwy meddal.Gh is very similar to ch in Welsh, but said more softly.
Ymarfer 2 / Praktis 2:Exercise 2:
Trïwch ddeud y geiriau ar y dde yn uchel. Eto, os dewch chi ar draws unrhyw problemau, edrychwch ar yr enghreifftiau.Try to say the words on the right aloud. Again, if you come across any problems, look at the examples.
Hyd llafariaid / Hys bogalennow:Vowel length:
Mae'r Gymraeg yn dangos hyd llafariaid trwy ddefnyddio toeau bychain, er enghraifft tap a tâp. Er mwyn dangos y wahaniaeth hon mae'r Gernyweg yn defnyddio cytseiniaid dyblyg, cymharwch tapp (tap) a tapa (tâp). Fel arfer mae hyn yn effeithio ar eiriau unsill, ond mae 'na eithriadau fel y dangosir isod.Welsh shows vowel length by the use of circumflexes, for example tap and tâp. To show this difference, Cornish uses double consonants: compare tapp (tap) and tapa (tape). As a rule this affects words of one syllable, but there are exceptions as is shown below:
Os oes un cytsain, mae'r llafariad yn hir. Os oes dau gytsain, mae'n fyr.If there is one consonant, the vowel is long. If there are two consonants, it is short.
Gall y geiriau Pel (pêl) a Pell (pell) achosi ychydig o drafferth i siaradwyr Cymraeg oherwydd yr L dyblyg. Mae'n rhaid cofio nad oes y sŵn ll [ɬ] yn bodoli yn y Gernyweg o gwbl a dim ond yn dangos hyd y llafariad maen nhw.The words Pel (ball) and Pell (far) can cause Welsh speakers a bit of trouble on account of the double L. It must be remembered the sound ll [ɬ] does not exist in Cornish at all, and the double l merely shows the length of the vowel.
Pan welir ll yn Gernyweg, dwedir fel l yn Gymraeg.When you see ll in Cornish, say it like l in Welsh.
Mewn geiriau deusill a mwy mae'r llafariaid yn fyr, er enghraifft: kavas (can), bogalen (llafariad), tapys (tapiau).In words of two syllables and more the vowel is short, for example: kavas (tin can), bogalen (vowel), tapys (tapes).
Eithriad i'r rheol hwn ydy geiriau deusill sy'n gorffen efo llafariad. Yn yr achosion hyn mae'r llafariad olaf wastad yn fyr, tra mae hyd y llafariad cyntaf yn dibynnu ar gytseiniaid dyblyg.An exception to this rule is words of two syllables that end in a vowel. In these cases the last vowel is always short, while the length of the first vowel depends on the double consonant.
Er enghraifft: tapa (tâp), apa (epa), kanna (can), ranna (rhannu).For example: tapa (tape), apa (ape), kanna (can), ranna (to share).
Ymarfer 3 / Praktis 3:Practice 3:
Dwedwch y geiriau canlynol gan gofio bod y cytseiniaid dyblyg yn byrhau hyd y llafariaid.Say the following words remembering that the double consonants shorten the length of the vowel.

glan (glan) / Glann (glan / ymyl afon)

Sten (tun)

Lann (llan)

Lamm (naid)

bras (mawr)

Snod (rhuban) / Snodow (rhubanau)

Gwen (gwên) / Gwenn (anws) – Mae'n bwysig gwahaniaethu rhwng y ddau yma!

Unn (un) – wrth gyfrif.

Myttin (bore) – Wrth fyrhau mae sŵn yr i [i] yn newid i sŵn yr y [ɪ]. Felly [mɪtɪn].

Cyfarchiadau / Gorhemynadow:Greetings:
Felly rŵan dan ni wedi dysgu sut mae gwneud seiniau'r Gernyweg, dan ni'n barod i symud ymlaen i ail rhan y gwers hwn, sef y cyfarchiadau. Sbïwch ar yr geiriau a'r brawddegau isod a thrïwch lenwi'r bylchau wrth ddarllen nhw allan.As you can see from the examples above, a lot of words in Cornish are similar to Welsh and English, and some look wholly strange. You will see more of these similarities and differences as we learn more Cornish in the months to come.

Dydh da. Helô / Dydd Da (cyffredinol)
Lowenna dhis. Helô (unigolyn cyfarwydd)
Lowenna dhewgh. Helô (sawl person/ffurfiol)

Hou! S'mae
Yow.
Ha!

Myttin da. Bore da.

Dohajydh da. P'nawn da.

Gorthugher da. Noswaith da.

Fatla genes? Sut wyt ti?
Fatla genowgh? Sut dach chi?

Yn poynt da, meur ras. Yn dda iawn, diolch.
Da lowr. Yn iawn.
Na pur dha. Ddim yn dda iawn.

Pyth yw dha hanow? Beth ydy dy enw?
Pyth yw agas hanow? Beth ydy'ch enw?

... yw ow hanow. ... ydy fy enw.
Ow hanow yw... Fy enw i ydy...

A ble hwre'ta dos? I le wyt ti'n dod?
A ble hwrewgh hwi dos? O le dach chi'n dod?

My a dheu a-dhyworth... Dwi'n dod o...

Splann dhe'th metya. Neis i gwrdd â ti.
Splann dh'agas metya. Neis i gwrdd â chi.

Duw genes! Hwyl fawr! (unigolyn cyfarwydd)
Duw genowgh! Hwyl fawr! (sawl person / ffurfiol)

Dha weles yn skon! Gwela i di'n fuan!

Agas gweles a-vorow. Gwela i chi yfory!

Nos da. Nos da.

Mar pleg. Plîs.

Meur ras. Diolch.

Drog yw genev. Mae'n ddrwg gen i.

Gav dhymm. Esgusoda fi.
Gevewgh dhymm. Esgusodwch fi.

A allav vy mos dhe'n bisva mar pleg? Ga i fynd i'r tŷ bach plîs?
Gyllydh. Cei.
Gyllowgh. Cewch.
Na yllydh. Chei di ddim.
Na yllowgh. Chewch chi ddim.

Ple'ma'n privedhyow? Lle mae'r toiled?
A-dro dhe'n gornel. Rownd y gornel.

Ymarfer 4 / Praktis 4:Practice 4:
Trïwch greu cwpl o sgyrsiau byr trwy ddefnyddio'r geiriau a'r brawddegau uchod.Try to create a couple of short conversations using the words and sentences above.
Diwedd y gwers / Diwedh an dyskansEnd of the lesson
Fel gallwch chi weld yn yr enghreifftiau uchod, mae 'na lot o eiriau tebyg i'r Saesneg a'r Gymraeg yn y Gernyweg, a rhai sy'n edrych yn hollol estron. Byddwch chi'n gweld mwy o'r tebygrwyddau a'r gwahaniaethau hyn wrth i ni ddysgu mwy o Gernyweg dros y misoedd a ddaw.As you can see from the examples above, a lot of words in Cornish are similar to Welsh and English, and some look wholly strange. You will see more of these similarities and differences as we learn more Cornish in the months to come.
Mae'r gwers 'ma wedi bod yn weddol syml fel rhestr o eiriau ac ymadroddion i chi eu cofio, ond yn yr un nesaf bydda i'n dangos i chi sut mae adeiladu brawddegau a dysgu cwpl o eiriau defnyddiol eraill.This lesson has been fairly simple as a list of words and phrases for you to remember, but in the next one I will be showing you how to build sentences and teaching you a few other useful words.
Os ydach chi am barhau i ddysgu yn y cyfamser galla i awgrymu gwefan www.gocornish.org fel man cychwyn i ffeindio mwy am yr iaith. I chi sydd wedi dysgu Cymraeg efo Say Something in Welsh, mae 'na hefyd fersiwn Cernyweg!If you want to carry on learning in the meantime I can suggest the website www.gocornish.org as a starting point for finding out more about the language. For those of you who are learning Welsh with Say Something in Welsh, there is also a Cornish version!
Dwi'n byw yn ardal Caerfyrddin ac yn awyddus dechrau dosbarth Cernyweg sy'n cwrdd pob hyd yn hyn. Os ydach chi am fod yn rhan o hyn, anfonwch neges ata i trwy Drydar: @SamBrown1993I live in the Carmarthen region and am keen to start a Cornish class which will meet from time to time. If you want to be part of it, send a message to me via Twitter: @SamBrown1993
Mi fydda i'n ôl cyn bo hir efo mwy o Gernyweg, ond tan wedyn...I will be back before long with more Cornish, but until then...

Duw genowgh!


Dysgu Cernyweg: Gwers 2 – Cyflwyniad i'r ferf bos
Dyski Kernowek: Dyskans 2– Kommendyans dhe verb bos
Learning Cornish: Lesson 2 – Introducton to the verb bos

Dach chi'n ôl - Dynnargh! (Croeso). Gobeithio mwynhaoch chi'r gwers cyntaf a dach chi'n teimlo'n hyderus wrth ynganu geiriau Cernyweg. Os nad ydach chi'n gyfforddus wrth greu'r seiniau eto, peidiwch â phoeni. Gallwch chi fynd yn ôl unrhyw bryd i adolygu'r gwers cyntaf, ond bydda i hefyd yn cynnwys geiriau newydd trwy'r gwersi o'ch blaen i roi help i chi.You’re back – Dynnargh! (Welcome). I hope you enjoyed the first lesson and that you are feeling confident with pronouncing Cornish words. If you are still not comfortable about creating the sounds, don’t worry. You can go back any time to review the first lesson, but I will also be presenting new words to help you in the lessons to come.
Cyn cychwyn, mae'n rhaid i mi gyfaddef bod 'na gwpl o bethau yn y gwers hwn efallai bydd yn eich dychryn. Ond peidiwch â phoeni a chymerwch eich amser wrth fynd trwyddo.Before we begin, I must confess that there are a couple of things in this lesson that may alarm you. But don’t worry, and take your time going through it.
Ta beth, ymlaen â ni i'r ail wers!Anyway, on with the second lesson.
Ddeud y gwir, dôn i ddim yn bositif beth rôn i am ei ddysgu i chi yn y gwers hwn. Ond dwi'n credu mod i wedi gwneud y penderfyniad cywir trwy ddewis cyflwyno un o'r berfenwau mwyaf defnyddiol yn y Gernyweg: bos (bod) a dechrau sôn am y treigliadau.Actually, I was not sure what I wanted to teach you in this lesson. But I think I have made the right decision in choosing to present one of the most useful verb-nouns in Cornish: bos (to be), and to start talking about the mutations.
Bos - Ffurf hir neu ffurf fer? / Bos - Furv hir po furv verr?:Bos - Long form or short form?:
Dan ni i gyd yn gyfarwydd â'r berfenw bos (bod) ym mhob iaith – defnyddies i ffurf ohono fo ar ddechrau'r frawddeg hon. Yn y Gymraeg mae'n anodd meddwl am unrhyw air sy'n fwy defnyddiol na bod, ac felly dyma fydd cynnwys y rhan hon.We are all familiar with the verb-noun bos (to be) in every language – I used a form of it at the start of this sentence. In Welsh it is hard to think of any word that is more useful than bod, and so this will be the content of this part.
Cyn i ni ddechrau, mae'n werth sôn am reol anghyfarwydd sy'n effeithio ar ddefnydd o'r berfenw bos yn Gernyweg, a hynny yw os ydy'n ffurf hir neu ffurf fer. Ond beth mae'r rhain yn golygu? A sut mae'n effeithio ar ddefnydd o ffurfiau'r ferfenw?Before we begin, it is worth mentioning a strange rule that affects the use of the verb-noun bos in Cornish, and that is that there is a long form or a short form. But what do these mean? And what effect do they have on the forms of the verbenw?
Edrychwch ar y tabl isod i gymharu'r ffurfiau hir a ber â'i gilydd:Look at the table below comparing the long and short forms with one another.
Ffurf hir / Furv hir / Long formFfurf fer / Furv verr / Short formCymraeg / Kembrek
Yth esov vyOv vyDw i
Yth esos taOs taWyt ti
Yma ev/hiYw ev/hiMae o/hi / yw o/hi
Yth eson niOn niDan ni
Yth esowgh hwiOwgh hwiDach chi
Ymons iYns iMaen nhw / ydyn nhw
Y brif wahaniaeth rhwng y ddwy ffurf 'ma yw defnydd ohonyn nhw. Dan ni'n defnyddio'r ffurfiau hir er mwyn llunio'r amseroedd parhaol, hynny yw defnyddio bos + berfenw, ac i ddangos lleoliad.The chief difference between these two forms is in the use of them. We use the long forms to denote duration of time, in this case using bos + verb-noun, and also to show location.
Cernyweg / KernowekCymraeg / KembrekSaesneg / Sowsnek
Yma hi ow tos.Mae hi'n dod.She is coming.
Yth esov vy ow tyski.Dwi'n dysgu.I am learning.
Yth esowgh hwi omma.Dach chi yma.You are here.
Cernyweg / KernowekCymraeg / KembrekSaesneg / Sowsnek
Diwedhes yw hi.Mae'n hwyr.It's late.
Medhyk ov vy.Meddyg ydwi.I'm a doctor.
Adhyskys yns i.Maen nhw'n addysgedig.They're educated.
Mae 'na eithriadau i'r rheolau hyn, ond fyddwn ni ddim yn poeni amdanyn nhw heddiw. Yn yr un modd fyddwn ni ddim yn cyffwrdd â'r ffurfiau hir tan wers hwyrach.There are exceptions to these rules, but we won’t worry about them today. In the same way, we won’t touch on the long forms till a later lesson.
Mae'n siŵr bod chi'n sgrechian ar ôl gweld y rheiny, ond peidiwch. Dwi ddim yn disgwyl i chi eu dysgu nhw yn syth. Yng ngweddill y rhan hon byddwn ni'n canolbwyntio ar y ffurfiau byrion.I expect that you are screaming after seeing these, but don’t. I don’t expect you to learn them straight away. In the remainder of this part we will concentrate on the short forms.
Y ffurfiau byrion / An furvow berrThe short-form verb-nouns
Fel dudes i uchod, dan ni'n defnyddio'r ffurfiau byrion ym mhob achos ond defnyddio berfenwau neu ddangos lleoliad, ac fel arfer maen nhw'n ymddangos efo enwau, ansoddeiriau ac rhangymeriadau y gorffennol.As I said above, we use the short forms in every case except with verb-nouns or to show location, and as a rule they appear with nouns, adjectives and past participles.
Dan ni'n gosod yr enwau/ansoddeiriau/rhangymeriadau o flaen ffurf fer o bos er mwyn llunio brawddegau.We put the nouns/adjectives/past participles in front of the short form of bos to form sentences.

Sam ov vy. Sam ydw i.
Ow howeth yw ev. Fy ffrind ydy o.
Oberoryon yns i. Gweithwyr ydyn nhw.

Yn anhebyg i'r Gymraeg gallwn ni ddefnyddio ansoddeiriau efo'r gystrawen hyn yn Gernyweg.Unlike in Welsh, in Cornish we can use adjectives with this construction.

Yeyn on ni. Dan ni'n oer.
Tanow os ta. Ti'n denau.
Lowen owgh hwi. Dach chi'n hapus.

Dyma'r ffurfiau byrion eto i chi.Here the short form verb-nouns again for you.
Cernyweg / KernowekCymraeg / KembrekEnghraifft / Ensampel Example
Ov vyDw iDyskador ov vy.Athro dw i.
Os taWyt tiLowen os ta. Ti'n hapus.
Yw ev/hiMae o/hi / yw o/hiMorwenna yw hi. Morwenna yw hi.
On niDan niSkwith on ni. Dan ni wedi blino.
Owgh hwiDach chiA-varr owgh hwi. Dach chi'n gynnar.
Yns iMaen nhw / ydyn nhwPeboryon yns i.Pobyddion ydyn nhw.
Mi allwch chi weld sut mae'r gystrawen 'ma yn perthyn i'r Gymraeg.You can see how this construction relates to Welsh.
Ymarfer 1 / Praktis 1:Practice 1:
Cyfieithwch y brawddegau isod i'r Gymraeg. Maen nhw i gyd yn defnyddio geiriau sydd naill ai wedi ymddangos mewn enghreifftiau yn y gwersi hyd yma neu sy'n gyfarwydd i chi fel siaradwyr Cymraeg.Translate the sentences below into Welsh. They all use words which have either appeared in examples in the lessons so far or which are familiar to you as Welsh speakers.
1. Gwynn yw hi.
2. Kembrek yns i.
3. Lowen ov vy.
4. Gwin yw ev.
5. Berr os ta.
6. Diwedhes on ni.
7. Du yw an gath.
8. Trist owgh hwi.
9. An ki yw lowen.
10. Dowr yw glas.
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Peidiwch ag anghofio trïo darllen yr enghreifftiau uchod yn uchel.Don’t forget to try to read the above examples aloud.
Atebion ar ddiwedd y gwers.Answers at the end of the lesson.
Ymarfer 2 / Praktis 2:Practice 2:
Trïwch gyfieithu'r brawddegau isod i Gernyweg. Eto, mae'r geiriau hyn i gyd i'w gweld yn y gwersi hyd yma.Try to translate the sentences belwo into Cornish. Again, all the words can be seen in the lessons so far.
1. Athro ydy o.
2. Angharad dw i.
3. Dan ni'n hwyr.
4. Cath yw hi.
5. Dach chi'n oer.
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Y Treigliadau / An TreylyansowMutations
Fel yr holl ieithoedd Celtaidd, mae treigliadau yn digwydd yn y Gernyweg, ac i fod yn onest mae 'na fwy o dreigliadau yn Gernyweg nag mewn unrhyw un o'r ieithoedd eraill. Ia, mae hynny'n meddwl bod 'na fwy nag yn Gymraeg!As with all Celtic languages, mutations occur in Cornish, and to be honest there are more mutations in Cornish than in any of the other lenguages. Yes, that means there are more than in Welsh!
Yn lwcus, mae lot ohonyn nhw yn cyfateb â threigliadau Cymraeg. Heddiw byddwn ni'n canolbwyntio ar y treiglad meddal, ond cyn hynny, dwi'n mynd i roi'r tabl treigliadau Cernyweg i chi gael ei weld a'i ystyried. Dwi ddim yn disgwyl i chi ddysgu'r rhain i gyd yn syth, a byddwn ni'n dod iddyn nhw yn y man.Luckily, a lot of them correspond to Welsh mutations. Today we will concentrate on the soft mutation, but before this, I am going to give the table of Cornish mutations for you to see and ponder. I don’t expect you to learn them all straight away, and we will come to them in due course.
1
Dim treiglad / Andreylyes
/ No mutation
2
Meddal / Medhel / Soft
3
Llaes / Hwethys / Aspiriant
4
Caled / Kales / Hard
5
Cymysgedig / Kemyskys

6
Ar ôl 'th / Wosa 'th / After 'th
BVBPFV
ChJChChChCh
DDhDTTT
G + (a, e, i, y)-G + (a, e, i, y)KHH
G + (o, u, ro, ru)WG + (o, u, ro, ru)KHwW
G + (l, r)-G + (l, r)KGG
GwWGwKwHwW
KGHKKK
MVMMFV
PBFPPP
TDThTTT
Dudes i fod 'na lawer! Mae modd arbennig o ddangos pryd mae'r treigliadau hyn yn digwydd, a hynny trwy cyfeirio at rif y treiglad ar ôl geiriau sy'n ei achosi.I did say there were a lot! There is a special way of showing when these mutations occur, and that is through referring to the number of the mutation after words which cause it.
Er enghraifft: ow3 (fy) neu yn5 (yn).For example: ow3 (fy) neu yn5 (yn).
Bydda i'n defnyddio'r system 'ma i ddangos pryd mae treiglad yn digwydd.I will use this system to show when a mutation occurs.
Treiglad Meddal / MedhelheansThe Soft Mutation
Yn Gernyweg mae 'na enwau gwrywaidd a benywaidd, ac fel yn Gymraeg mae treiglad meddal yn digwydd i enwau benywaidd unigol ar ôl y fannod benodol: An / 'n.In Cornish, nouns are masculine and feminine, and as in Welsh a soft mutation occurs in feminine singular nouns after the definite article: An/’n.
Er enghraifft: mowes (merch), an vowes (y ferch).For example: mowes (girl), an vowes (the girl).
Mae sawl enw yn Gernyweg efo'r un genedl ag enwau Cymraeg: kath (cath), an gath (y gath). Ond dydy hyn ddim wastad yn wir: pons (pont), an pons (y bont). Felly cymerwch ofal wrth ddysgu geiriau newydd.Many nouns in Cornish have the same gender as Welsh nouns: kath (cat), an gath (the cat). But this is not always true: pons (bridge), an pons (the bridge). So take care when learning new words.
Ymarfer 3 / Praktis 3:Practice 3:
Gan ddefnyddio'r tabl treigliadau uchod, treiglwch yr enwau benywaidd hyn.Using the table of mutations above, mutate these feminine nouns.
1. An + bugh (buwch)
2. An + benyn (menyw)
3. An + gwlas (gwlad)
4. An + kath (cath)
5. An + milva (sŵ)
6. An + gwedhen (coeden)
7. An + treveglos (pentref)
8. An + mamm (mam)
9. An + kowfordh (twnnel)
10. An + esedhva (lolfa)
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Ymarfer 4 / Praktis 4:Practice 4:
Cyfieithwch y brawddegau isod gan ddefnyddio popeth dan ni wedi'i ddysgu heddiw.Translate the sentences below using everything that you have learned today.
1. Y gath yw hi.
2. Mae'r wlad yn oer.
3. Mae'r bont yn hir.
4. Gwyn yw'r ci.
5. Dach chi'n hapus.
6. Dyskador yw ev.
7. An medhyk yw adhyskys.
9. Oberoryon owgh hwi.
10. Skwith on ni.
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Diwedd y gwers / Diwedh an dyskans.End of the lesson
Dan ni wedi mynd dros lot o dir newydd yn y gwers hwn, ac mae'n siŵr bod chi'n llawn cwestiynau. Gobeithio nad ydwi wedi codi ofn arnoch chi. Yn y gwers nesaf byddwch chi'n dechrau defnyddio'r Gernyweg dwi wedi'i dysgu i chi yn fwy ac yn creu brawddegau eich hunain gan ddefnyddio popeth dan ni wedi dysgu hyd yma.We have covered a lot of new ground in this lesson, and no doubt you are full of questions. I hope I have not frightened you. In the next lesson you will begin to use the Cornish I have taught you more and to create your own sentences using everything we have learned so far.
Yn y cyfamser, teimlwch yn rhydd i fynd dros y ddau wers hyn cwpl o weithiau ac i ddefnyddio'r adnoddau arlein eraill i'ch helpu.In the meantime, feel free to go over the two lessons a few times and use other online resources to help you.
Dwi'n hapus i ateb unrhyw gwestiwn neu sylw sydd gynnoch chi, gallwch chi gysylltu â fi drwy Drydar: @SamBrown1993 a pheidiwch ag anghofio mod i am ddechrau dosbarth yn ardal Caerfyrddin.I am happy to respond to any questions or observations that you have, you can contact me on Twitter: @SamBrown1993 and don’t forget that I am looking to start a class in the Carmarthen area.
Agas gweles yn skon!
Atebion / Gorthebow / Answers
Ymarfer 1 / Praktis 1:Practice 1:
1. Gwynn yw hi.
2. Kembrek yns i.
3. Lowen ov vy.
4. Gwin yw ev.
5. Berr os ta.
6. Diwedhes on ni.
7. Du yw an gath.
8. Trist owgh hwi.
9. An ki yw lowen.
10. Dowr yw glas.
1. Mae hi'n wen / Gwen yw hi.
2. Cymreig ydyn nhw.
3. Dwi'n hapus.
4. Mae'n win / Gwin ydy o.
5. Ti'n fyr.
6. Dan ni'n hwyr.
7. Mae'r gath yn ddu.
8. Dach chi'n drist.
9. Mae'r ci yn hapus.
10. Mae dŵr yn las.
Ymarfer 2 / Praktis 2:Practice 2:
1. Dyskador yw ev.
2. Angharad ov vy.
3. Diwedhes on ni.
4. Kath yw hi.
5. Yeyn owgh hwi.
1. Athro ydy o.
2. Angharad dw i.
3. Dan ni'n hwyr.
4. Cath yw hi.
5. Dach chi'n oer.
Ymarfer 3 / Praktis 3:Practice 3:
1. An vugh
2. An venyn
3. An wlas
4. An gath
5. An vilva
6. An wedhen
7. An dreveglos
8. An vamm
9. An gowfordh
10. An esedhva
1. An + bugh (buwch)
2. An + benyn (menyw)
3. An + gwlas (gwlad)
4. An + kath (cath)
5. An + milva (sŵ)
6. An + gwedhen (coeden)
7. An + treveglos (pentref)
8. An + mamm (mam)
9. An + kowfordh (twnnel)
10. An + esedhva (lolfa)
Ymarfer 4 / Praktis 4:Practice 4:
1. An gath yw hi.
2. Yeyn yw an wlas.
3. Hir yw an pons.
4. Gwyn yw an ki.
5. Lowen owgh hwi.
6. Athro ydy o.
7. Mae'r meddyg yn addysgedig.
8. Mae'r nos yn ddu.
9. Gweithwyr dach chi.
10. Dan ni wedi blino.
1. Y gath yw hi.
2. Mae'r wlad yn oer.
3. Mae'r bont yn hir.
4. Gwyn yw'r ci.
5. Dach chi'n hapus.
6. Dyskador yw ev.
7. An medhyk yw adhyskys.
8. An nos yw du.
9. Oberoryon owgh hwi.
10. Skwith on ni.


Dysgu Cernyweg: Gwers Tri – Ffurfiau hirion o bos
Dyski Kernowek: Dyskans Tri – Furvow hir a bos

Helô eto, a keslowena (llongyfarchiadau) ar gyrraedd gwers tri! Gobeithio bod chi wedi joio'r gwersi hyd yma ac yn teimlo fel bod chi'n dysgu lot. Fel yn y gwersi blaenorol, dwi'n eich annog i ddarllen yr holl enghreifftiau Cernyweg yn uchel er mwyn helpu'ch tafod ddod i afael efo'r holl seiniau. Bydd yn dod yn haws bob tro dach chi'n gwneud hwn.

Adolygu / Dasweles:

Yng ngwers dau dysgon ni am y ferf bos (bod) a'r ddwy ffordd mae hon yn cael ei defnyddio. Felly i ddechrau heddiw, dwi eisiau i chi gyfieithu'r brawddegau dilynol. Cofiwch y defnyddir ffurfiau byrion o bos efo enwau ac ansoddeiriau.

Ymarfer un / Praktis onan:

Teimlwch yn rhydd i edrych ar wers 2 os nad ydach chi'n gallu cofio'r holl eiriau neu batrymau hyn.

  1. Dan ni'n hapus. .....................................
  2. Maen nhw'n wyn. .....................................
  3. Athro dach chi. .....................................
  4. Mae'r ci yn hwyr. .....................................
  5. Rwyt ti'n fyr. .....................................
  6. An gath yw melyn. .....................................
  7. Hen yw an karr. .....................................
  8. Berr os ta. .....................................
  9. Kembrek owgh hwi. .....................................
  10. Lowen on ni.       .....................................

Ffurfiau hirion o bos / Furvow hir a bos:

Prif rhan y gwers hwn fydd dysgu mwy am ffurfiau hirion o bos. Dyma'r tabl i chi eto i ddangos y ffurfiau hirion.

Ffurf hir / Furv hir Cymraeg / Kembrek
Yth esov vy Dw i
Yth esos ta Wyt ti
Yma ev/hi Mae o/hi
Yth eson ni Dan ni
Yth esowgh hwi Dach chi
Ymons i Maen nhw / ydyn nhw

Mae'r ffurfiau hirion hyn yn cael eu defnyddio er mwyn llunio'r amseroedd parhaol (lle defnyddiwn bod + yn + berfenw yn Gymraeg a to be + -ing yn Saesneg) ac i ddangos lleoliad. Heddiw mi fyddwn ni'n canolbwyntio ar ddangos lleoliad, ac yn edrych ar ddefnydd o'r ffurfiau hyn â berfau eraill yn y gwers nesaf.

Er mwyn dangos lleoliad, gosodwch adferf neu arddodiad efo'r ffurf hir. Er enghraifft:

  • Yth esov vy omma - Dwi yma.
  • Yma ev tre - Mae o adref.
  • Yth esowgh hwi y'n chi – Dach chi yn y tŷ.

Edrych ar yr eirfa hon. Dwi wedi dewis geiriau tebyg yn y Gymraeg a'r Gernyweg.

Cymraeg/Kembrek Cernyweg/Kernowek
Yma / fa'ma Omma
Yno / fa'na Ena
Fan'cw Hons
Yn/mewn Yn
Yn y/yr Y'n
Adref Tre
O gwmpas A-dro


Ymarfer dau / Praktis dew:

Gan ddefnyddio'r geiriau hyn, cyfieithwch y brawddegau hyn:

  1. Dan ni yma.
  2. Mae'r ci adref.
  3. Dach chi yn y tŷ.
  4. Dwi o gwmpas.
  5. Maen nhw fan'cw.
  6. Mae'r gath yma.
  7. Maen nhw adref.
  8. Mae'r dŵr fa'na.
  9. Dwi yn y dŵr.
  10. Rwyt ti fan'cw.

Ymarfer tri / Praktis tri:

Cyfieithwch y dilynol i Gymraeg:

  1. Yth esos ta a-dro.
  2. Yma'n ki y'n karr.
  3. Yth esowgh hwi tre.
  4. Ymons i hons.
  5. Yth eson ni ena.

Yn y gwers blaenorol cyflwynes i'r treigliadau i chi gan ganolbwyntio ar y treiglad meddal neu medhelhean. Ceir hwn mewn geiriau benywaidd ar ôl y fannod benodol, er enghraifft, benyn (benyw) – an venyn (y fenyw).

Ymarfer pedwar / Praktis peswar:

Treiglwch y rhain:

  1. An + kath
  2. An + tre
  3. An + davas (dafad)
  4. An + loor
  5. An + bugh

Mae'r treiglad meddal hefyd yn digwydd mewn ansoddeiriau sy'n disgrifio enwau benywaidd.

An venyn goth (Yr hen fenyw)
An gath dew (Y gath dew)
An gowfordh dewal (Y twnnel tywyll)

Ymarfer pump / Praktis pymp:

Treiglwch y dilynol:

  1. Kath + koth
  2. An + tre + gwag
  3. An + gwedhen + gwyrdh
  4. An + mamm + lowen
  5. Esedhva + bras (mawr)

Nodyn pwysig: Ni cheir treiglad meddal mewn ansoddeiriau sy'n dilyn enwau sy'n gorffen efo -S neu -Th.

An yeth Kernowek – Yr iaith Gernyweg
An eglos bras – Yr eglwys fawr

Ond mae'r treiglad yn dal i ddigwydd ar ddechrau'r enwau hyn.

An dreveglos bras – Y pentref mawr

Ymarfer chewch / Praktis hwegh:

Cyfieithwch y rhain:

  1. Y ddafad wen.
  2. Yr hen eglwys.
  3. Benyw fawr.
  4. Y gath dew.
  5. Y ci du.
  6. Yr iaith Gymraeg.
  7. Y bont wan.
  8. Y dŵr glas.
  9. Yr athro hapus.
  10. Y nos dywyll.

Gosod popeth â'i gilydd / Gorra pubtra war-barth:

Erbyn hyn dan ni wedi dysgu lot. Edrychwch ar y rhain i weld sut mae popeth yn cyd-fynd â'i gilydd.

Yma kath bras y'n chi. Mae cath gawr yn y tŷ
Yth esov vy y'n dowr glas. Dwi yn y dŵr glas
An venyn velyn yw lowen. Mae'r fenyw felyn yn hapus
Yeyn owgh hwi hedhyw. Dach chi'n oer heddiw
Yth eswogh yn le yeyn. Dach chi mewn lle oer
Leun ha tew yw an ki. Mae'r ci'n llawn ac yn dew
Yma'n fleghes hons. Mae'r plant fan'cw

Ymarfer saith / Praktis seyth:

Cyfieithwch y brawddegau isod:

  1. An dowr glas yw yeyn.
  2. Yma kath tew y'n gegin.
  3. An dyskador yw trist.
  4. Gwann yw an pons koth.
  5. Yma ki omma.
  6. Mae'r gegin yn wag.
  7. Mae'r hen fenyw yn drist.
  8. Maen nhw yn y dŵr oer fan'cw.
  9. Dach chi'n hapus a thrist.
  10. Rwyt ti'n hen.

Diwedd y gwers / Diwedh an dyskans:

Gobeithio ar y pwynt yma dach chi'n teimlo'ch Cernyweg yn cryfhau. Byddwch chi'n dysgu mwy o eiriau a gramadeg defnyddiol. Os oes gynnoch chi syniadau am themâu i wersi a ddaw cysylltwch â fi drwy Twitter - @sambrown1993.

Agas gweles an nessa tro!


Atebion Gwers Tri / Gorthebow Dyskans Tri

Ymarfer un / Parktis onan:

  1. Lowen on ni.
  2. Gwynn yns i.
  3. Dyskador owgh hwi.
  4. Diwedhes yw an ki.
  5. Berr os ta.
  6. Mae'r gath yn felyn.
  7. Mae'r car yn hen.
  8. Rwyt ti'n fyr.
  9. Dach chi'n Gymreig.
  10. Dan ni'n hapus.

Ymarfer dau / Praktis dew:

  1. Yth eson ni omma.
  2. Yma'n ki tre.
  3. Yth esowgh hwi y'n chi.
  4. Yth esov vy a-dro.
  5. Ymons i hons.
  6. Yma'n gath omma.
  7. Ymons i tre.
  8. Yma'n dowr ena.
  9. Yth esov vy y'n dowr.
  10. Yth esos ta hons.

Ymarfer tri / Praktis tri:

  1. Rwyt ti o gwmpas.
  2. Mae'r ci yn y car.
  3. Dach chi adref.
  4. Maen nhw fan'cw.
  5. Dan ni yno.

Ymarfer pedwar / Praktis peswar:

  1. An gath
  2. An dre
  3. An dhavas
  4. An loor
  5. An vugh

Ymarfer pump / Praktis pymp:

  1. Kath koth
  2. An dre wag
  3. An wedhen wyrdh
  4. An vamm lowen
  5. Esedhva vras

Ymarfer chwech / Praktis hwegh:

  1. An dhavas gwynn.
  2. An eglos koth.
  3. Benyn vras.
  4. Yan gath tew.
  5. An ki du.
  6. An yeth Kembrek.
  7. An pons gwann.
  8. An dowr glas.
  9. An dyskador lowen.
  10. An nos tewal.

Ymarfer saith / Praktis seyth:

  1. Mae'r dŵr glas yn oer.
  2. Mae cath dew yn y gegin.
  3. Mae'r athro yn drist.
  4. Mae'r hen bont yn wan.
  5. Mae ci yma.
  6. Gwag yw an gegin.
  7. Trist yw an venyn goth.
  8. Ymons i y'n dowr yeyn hons.
  9. Lowen ha trist owgh hwi.
  10. Koth os ta.

 

A verwis hi?
A farwodd hi?
Did it die?

Y'n jydh hedhyw y hwodhyn ni bos nebes 500 kernowegor freth ha moy es teyr mil a wor temmik a'n yeth, kyn hwor peub a Gernow styryans an ger “Kernow”. Yma lyvrow-termyn ha lyvrow ow pos dyllys, yma towlennow pellwolok ha radyo kevadow rag kowsoryon a dyskadoron an yeth, ha Konsel Kernow re dhyllas aga thowlen teyr bledhen rag fatel vynnons skoodhya'n yeth. Grondyes war an re ma yth yw diogel dhe leverel bos an yeth Kernowek bew y'n kensa kansvledhen warn ugens. Mes ny veu desedhans an yeth pub prys mar gler, nyns esa saw yn 2010 y chanjyas UNESCO aga hlassans a'n yeth a varow dhe beryllys yn sevur. Ytho y'n erthygel ma y fynnav dadhla onan a gavylekka testennow yn istori an Kernowek, ha henna yw a verwis an yeth?Y dyddiau hyn dan ni'n gwybod bod 'na dua 500 o siaradwyr rhugl eu Cernyweg a dros tair mil sy'n gallu ychydig o'r iaith, er bod pawb o Gernyw yn gwybod ystyr y gair “Kernow”. Mae cylchgronau a llyfrau yn cael eu cyhoeddi, mae 'na raglenni teledu a radio ar gael i siaradwyr a dysgwyr yr iaith, ac mae Cyngor Cernyw newydd gyhoeddi cynllun tair blwyddyn am sut maen nhw am gefnogi'r iaith. Ar sail hyn mae'n saff i ddeud bod yr iaith Gernyweg yn fyw yn yr unfed canrif ar ugain. Ond dydy sefyllfa'r iaith ddim wastad wedi bod mor glir, dim ond yn 2010 newidiodd UNESCO eu dosbarthiad o'r iaith o farw i mewn perygl difrifol. Felly yn yr erthygl hon dwi am drafod un o bynciau mwyaf dadleuol yn hanes y Gernyweg, sef a farwodd yr iaith?These days we know that there are about 500 fluent speakers of Cornish and over three thousand more who know a little of the language, although everyone in Cornwall knows the meaning of the word ‘Kernow’. Books and magazines are being published, there are television and radio programmes available to speakers and learners of the language, and the Cornish Council have recently published a three-year plan of support for the language. On the basis of this it is safe to say that the Cornish language is alive in the twenty-first century. But the prospects for the language have not always been so bright, it was only in 2010 that UNESCO changed its classification of the language from ‘dead’ to ‘in serious danger’. So in this article I want to discuss one of the most controversial subjects in the history of Cornish, that is, did the language die?
Yn kensa yma res gul mencyon a vernans yethow. Pyth yw mernans yeth, ha fatel geskelm henna dhe'n Kenowek? Y hyllir deskrifa mernans yeth avel hemm: Yn yethonieth y hwer mernans yeth pan gell yeth hy howser genesik finek (rag moy gwelewgh: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-language-death-1691215). Mar tevnydhyn an deskrifans ma gans an Kernowek yma res bos kowser genesik finek. Ytho piw o an person ma? Mars esons i vyth oll.Yn gyntaf mae'n rhaid sôn am dranc ieithoedd. Beth yw tranc iaith, a sut mae hynny yn perthyn i'r Gernyweg? Gellir disgrifio tranc iaith fel hyn: Ym maes ieithyddiaeth mae tranc iaith yn digwydd pan golla iaith ei siaradwr brodorol olaf (Am fwy gweler: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-language-death-1691215). Os defnyddiwn ni'r diffiniad hwn efo'r Gernyweg mae'n rhaid bod wedi bod siaradwr brodorol olaf. Felly pwy oedd y person hwn? Os bodolon nhw o gwbl.First, we must talk about the death of languages. What is the death of a language, and how does this relate to Cornish? The death of a language can be described thus: In the field of linguistics the death of a language takes place when a language loses it last native speaker (for further details see: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-language-death-1691215). If we apply this definition to Cornish, there must have been a last native speaker. So who was this person? If they existed at all.
Yma unn hanow re deuth aswonys dre vos junyes gans mernans an Kernowek, henn yw Dolly Pentreath. Gwerther puskes a-dhyworth Porthenys y'n 1700ow o Dolly a gowsis Kernowek. Yth esa hi a vri rag sevel orth kowsel Sowsnek ha leverel: “Me ne vidn cewsel Sawznek!” ('My na vynn kowsel Sownsek' y'n Furv Skrifys Savonek). Y tevnydh tus bledhen hy mernans 1777 avel dydhans mernans an yeth yn fenowgh. Mes yma nebes dout yn-kever hemma. Mamm o Dolly, ytho yth yw certan hi dhe basya tamm a'n yeth dhe's flogh, John, ha tus erel y'n gemeneth a's onderstondyas. Onan aral a lavaransow a vri Dolly o “kronek hager du” a leveris hi dhe'n filosofer David Barrington. Ytho gwirhaval yw Dolly dhe waynya titel an kowser finek dre vos gnas bras na vynnas gweles hy mammyeth mones dhe goll yn le an Kernowegor genesik finek gwir.Mae un enw wedi troi'n enwog trwy gael ei gysylltu â marwolaeth y Gernyweg, sef Dolly Pentreath. Gwerthwr pysgod o Mousehole yn y 1700au oedd Dolly a siaradodd y Gernyweg yn rhugl. Roedd hi'n adnabyddus am wrthod siarad yn Saesneg trwy ddeud: “Me ne vidn cewsel Sawznek!” ('My na vynn kowsel Sowsnek' yn Ffurf Ysgrifenedig Safonol yr iaith. 'Dwi ddim eisiau siarad Saesneg'). Yn aml defnyddia pobl flwyddyn ei marwolaeth 1777 fel dyddiad tranc yr iaith. Ond mae 'na ychydig o amheuaeth ynglŷn â hyn. Mam oedd Dolly, felly mae'n rhaid iddi fod wedi pasio rhyw faint o'r iaith ymlaen i'w phlentyn, John, ac roedd pobl eraill yn y gymuned yn ei dallt hi. Un arall o ddywediadau enwog Dolly oedd “kronek hager du” ('llyffant hyll du') a ddwedodd hi wrth yr athronydd David Barrington. Felly mae'n debyg yr enillodd Dolly deitl y siaradwr olaf trwy fod yn dipyn o gymeriad nad oedd am weld ei mamiaith fynd ar goll yn lle y siaradwr brodorol olaf go iawn.

Dorothy Pentreath, Last Native Speaker of Cornish

There is one name that has become famous for its connection with the death of Cornish, namely Dolly Pentreath. Dolly was an 19th century fishwife from Mousehole and spoke Cornish fluently. She was well known for refusing to speak English, saying: “Me ne vidn cewsel Sawznek!” ('My na vynn kowsel Sowsnek' in the standardised form of the language. ‘I do not want to speak English’). Frequently people use the year of her death, 1777, as the date of the death of the language. But there is some doubt about this. Dolly was a mother, so she must have passed some amount of the language on to her children, and other people in the community could understand her. Another of Dolly’s famous sayings was ‘kronek hager du’ (ugly black toad) which she said to the philosopher David Barrington. So it is likely that Dolly gained the title of last speaker by being a bit of a character who did not want to see her mother tongue lost, rather than being the actual last native speaker.
Hogen mar pe Dolly an Kernowegor genesik finek, yth esa an yeth hwath owth eksistya ha bos devnydhyes gans niver a dus yn Kernow a dhysksa'n yeth – temmik avel an Manawek esa passyes dhe dhyskoryon gans Ned Madrell, an Manawegor genesik finek. Hag avel gans an Manawek y hyllyn leverel y kwithas an dhyskoryon ma an yeth Kernowek ow pewa.Hyd yn oed os oedd Dolly y siaradwr Cernyweg brodorol olaf, roedd yr iaith yn dal i fodoli a chael ei defnyddio gan nifer o bobl yng Nghernyw oedd wedi dysgu'r iaith – tipyn bach fel y Fanaweg a basiwyd ymlaen i ddysgwyr gan Ned Madrell, y siaradwr brodorol olaf. Ac fel efo'r Fanaweg gallwn ni ddeud bod y dysgwyr hyn wedi cadw'r iaith Gernyweg yn fyw.Even if Dolly was the last native speaker of Cornish, the language continued to exist and be used by a number of people in Cornwall who had learnt the language – a bit like Manx which was passed on to learners by Ned Maddrell, the last native speaker. And as with Manx we can say that these learners have kept the Cornish language alive.
Yn 1776, bledhen kyns Dolly dhe verwel, yth omdhiskwedhas lyther yn Kernowek gans pyskador henwys William Bodinar, keffrys a Borthenys. Y'n lyther ma y teskrif fatel dhyskas an yeth a-dhyworth pyskadoryon erel pan o va yowynk, mes herwydh ev yth esa le ha le a dus orth hy devnydhya dhe'n pols na. William a aswonnas Dolly hag i a gowsis yn fenowgh. A-barth dhe Dolly y leveris William ev dhe aswon pymp person aral y'n dreveglos a wodhya kowsel Kernowek. Y halsa hemm styrya bos tus yn leow erel a wodhya kowsel Kernowek.Ym 1776, blwyddyn cyn i Dolly farw, ymddangosodd llythyr yn Gernyweg gan bysgotwr o'r enw William Bodinar, hefyd o Mousehole. Yn y llythyr hwn mae'n disgrifio sut dysgodd yr iaith oddi wrth bysgotwyr eraill pan oedd yn ifanc, ond yn ei ôl o roedd llai a llai o bobl yn ei defnyddio y dyddiau hynny. Roedd William yn nabod Dolly ac roedden nhw'n siarad yn aml. Yn ogystal â Dolly roedd William yn deud ei fod yn nabod pump o bobl eraill yn y pentref a oedd yn gallu siarad Cernyweg hefyd. Gallai hyn olygu bod pobl mewn llefydd eraill yn gallu siarad y Gernyweg.In 1776, the year before Dolly died, a letter appeared in Cornish from a fisherman called William Bodinar, also from Mousehole. In this letter he describes how he learnt the language from other fishermen when he was young, but according to him fewer and fewer people were using it these days. William knew Dolly and they often spoke. As well as Dolly, William said he knew five other people in the village who could also speak Cornish. This could mean that people in other places could speak Cornish.

Llythyr William Bodinar

Y merwis William yn 1796, hag awos hemma yth yw possybyl leverel nag esa'n yeth dhe's klowes war an stretys yn fenowgh erbyn dalleth an nownjekves kansvledhen. Ny styr hemma na veu'n yeth ow pos kowsys vytholl, mes yth o kalessa dhe's trovya. Unn Kernowegor aswonys a'n oos ma o'n tiek John Davey a Voswydnek a veu genys yn 1812. Y tyskas John an Kernowek a-dhyworth y das hag y hwodhya klappya yn-kever themys sempel herwydh nebes pennfentynnyow, kyn nyns yw kler yn poran pes a'n yeth esa dhodho. Byttegyns John a gemer kresys rag skrifa Rim an Grankan, an gan Gernowek hengovek mogha a-dhiwedhes. Y merwis John yn 1891, mes erbyn an poynt ma y tallathsa akademogyon kovadha'n yeth ha dalleth an hyns dhe's dasserghi. Dyllas A Sketch of Cornish Grammar gans Edwin Norris yn 1859 gans Gwask Pennskol Resoghen avel merkyansow dhe weres tus orth redya dornskrifow yn Kernowek hengovek.Bu farw William ym 1796, ac oherwydd hyn mae'n bosib deud mai erbyn dechrau'r pedwaredd canrif ar bymtheg doedd yr iaith ddim i'w chlywed ar y strydoedd yn aml. Dydy hyn ddim yn golygu na siaradwyd yr iaith o gwbl, dim ond ei fod yn anos i'w ffeindio. Y siaradwr adnabyddus o'r adeg hon oedd y ffermwr John Davey o Boswednack a anwyd ym 1812. Mi ddysgodd John y Gernyweg oddi wrth ei dad ac roedd yn gallu sgwrsio am themâu syml yn ôl rhai ffynonellau, er nad ydy'n glir yn union faint o'r iaith oedd gynno fo. Serch hynny mae John yn derbyn y clod am fod wedi ysgrifennu Odl y Cranken, y gan ddiweddaraf yn y Gernyweg draddodiadol. Bu farw John ym 1891, ond erbyn y pwynt hwn roedd academyddion bellach wedi dechrau cofnodi'r iaith a dechrau ar y ffordd i'w hadfywio. Cyhoeddwyd A Sketch of Cornish Grammar gan Edwin Norris ym 1859 gan Wasg Prifysgol Rhydychen fel nodiadau i helpu pobl wrth ddarllen llawysgrifau yn Gernyweg draddodiadol.William died in 1796, and because of this it is possible to say that by the beginning of the nineteenth century the language was not often to be heard on the streets. This does not mean that the language was not spoken at all, only that it became harder to find. A well-known speaker at this time was the farmer John Davey of Boswednack, who was born in 1812. John learnt Cornish from his father and according to some sources could converse on simple subjects, although it is not clear how much of the language he had. In spite of this John gets the credit for having written Odl y Cranken (the Cranken Rhyme), the last song in traditional Cornish. John died in 1891, and by this point academics had now begun to record the language and started on the road to reviving it. A Sketch of Cornish Grammar by Edwin Norris was published in 1859 by the Oxford University Press as notes to assist people in reading manuscripts in traditional Cornish.

Odl y Grancen

Mar mynnyn leverel y merwis yeth awos mernans hy howser genesik finek, yma keffrys res mires war styryans a gowser genesik. Deskrif Leonard Bloomfield kowsoryon enesik avel: pobel a veu gorrys yn kerghynnedh yeth a-dhia bos genys (Language, 1994). Y hyllyn styrya hemma avel nebonan a dhyskas yeth y'n chi ha/po a-dhyworth y dewgerens. Ny wra'n deskrifans ma mencyon a frethder an gowsoryon ma, hag ytho y kas temmik a wedhynder orth aswon Kernowegoryon enesik.Os dan ni am ddeud bod iaith wedi marw achos marwolaeth ei siaradwr brodorol olaf, mae hefyd yn rhaid ystyried beth yw siaradwr brodorol. Diffinia Leonard Bloomfield siaradwyr brodorol fel: pobl sydd wedi'u rhoi mewn amgylch iaith ers ei enedigaeth (Language, 1994). Gallwn ni ddehongli hwn fel rhywun sydd wedi dysgu iaith wrth yr aelwyd a/neu oddi wrth ei rieni. Dydy'r disgrifiad hwn ddim yn sôn am rhuglder y siaradwyr hyn, ac felly mae'n caniatáu tipyn o hyblygrwydd wrth adnabod siaradwyr brodorol o'r Gernyweg.If we are to say that the language died with the death of its last speaker, we must also consider what a native speaker is. Leonard Bloomfield defines a native speaker thus: a person who has been in the environment of a language from birth. We can interpret this as someone who has learnt a language at home and/or from his parents (Language, 1994). This description says nothing about the fluency of these speakers, and so we may allow ourselves a little flexibility in recognising native speakers of Cornish.
A-dhia ban dhallathas tus leverel bos an yeth ow merwel, y feu derivasow di-niver a bobel a wodhya temmigow a'n yeth, ha tus a wodhya kowsel yn freth ynwedh. An re ma a gomprehend fleghes a wodhya'n Pader ha tavosethow y'n Kernowek a veu dyskys y'n skol, y'n chi hag a-dhyworth aga dewgerens. Ytho hag ow tevnydhya'n styryans a-ugh, y hyllyn leverel bos an re ma kowsoryon enesik hag ytho ny verwis an Kernowek.Ers i bobl ddechrau deud bod yr iaith yn marw allan, mae 'na wedi bod adroddiadau di-rif o bobl a oedd yn gwybod pytiau o'r iaith, a phobl oedd yn gallu siarad yn rhugl hefyd. Cynhwysa'r rhain blant oedd yn gwybod Gweddi'r Arglwydd ac idiomau yn y Gernyweg a ddysgwyd yn yr ysgol, y cartref ac oddi wrth eu rhieni. Felly gan ddefnyddio'r diffiniad uchod, gallwn ni ddeud mai siaradwyr brodorol oedd y rhain ac felly ni farwodd y Gernyweg.Since people began saying that the language was dying out, there have been countless reports of people who knew a little of the language, and also people who could speak it fluently. This includes those children who knew the Lord’s Prayer and Cornish expressions that they had learnt at school, at home and from their parents. So by using the broadest definition, we can say that they were native speakers and so Cornish did not die.
Niverow a gowsoryon yethow a janj dre'n tremyn oll, treweythyow y kressons, treweythyow yth iselhons, ha nyns yw an Kernowek dyffrans. Istori an yeth ma re varyas meur ha hi ow kelli ha kavos kowsoryon nowyth. Yn anfeusik nyns a'n erthygel ma dhe vanylyon yn-kever istori kowethasek an yeth awos nag usi saw komendyans dhe'n govyn a vernans (sopposyes) an Kernowek. Mar krysowgh y merwis an yeth po na, an dra bosek dhe bethi kov anodho yw bos an Kernowek bew y'n jydh hedhyw. Hi a gowsir gans kansow (mar na milyow) a dus ha pob bledhen yma'n niverow a's kows ow kressya. Yma hogen kowsoryon a's dyskas y'n chi. Ha honna yw yeth bew mar kovynnowgh dhymm!Mae niferoedd o siaradwyr ieithoedd wastad yn newid, weithiau maen nhw'n cynyddu, weithiau maen nhw'n lleihau, a dydy'r Gernyweg ddim yn wahanol. Mae hanes yr iaith hon wedi amrywio lot wrth iddi hi golli a chael siaradwyr newydd. Yn anffodus dydy'r erthygl hon ddim yn mynd mewn i fanylder am hanes cymdeithasol yr iaith gan mai dim ond cyflwyniad i'r cwestiwn o dranc (tybiedig) y Gernyweg ydy hi. Os credwch chi y marwodd yr iaith neu beidio, y prif beth i'w gofio ydy bod y Gernyweg yn fyw y dyddiau hyn. Siaredir hi gan gannoedd (os na filoedd) o bobl a bob blwyddyn mae'r niferoedd a'i sieryd yn cynyddu. Mae 'na hyd yn oed siaradwyr sydd wedi'i dysgu yn y cartref. A dyna iaith fyw os gofynnwch i mi!The number of people who speak languages is constantly changing, sometimes increasing, sometimes becoming less, and Cornish is no different. The history of the language has varied a good deal as it has lost and gained new speakers. Unfortunately this article cannot go into details about the social history of the language, since it is merely an introduction to the question of the (supposed) death of Cornish. Whether or not you believe that the language died, the main thing to remember is that Cornish is alive today. It is spoken by hundreds (if not thousands) of people and every year the number it is spoken by increases. There are even speakers who have learnt it at home. And that, if you ask me, is a living language!
My a wayt hwi dhe dhyski neppyth yn-kever isotri an Kernowek ha mernans yeth. Mar mynnowgh trovya moy, yma lyvrow hag erthyglow kevadow a omles war an poynt ma.Gobeithio bod chi wedi dysgu rhywbeth am hanes y Gernyweg a thranc iaith. Os ydach chi am ddarganfod mwy, mae 'na lyfrau ac erthyglau ar gael sy'n ehangu ar y pwnc hwn.I hope that you have learnt something about the history of Cornish and the death of a language. If you want to discover more, there are books and articles which expand on this subject.

 

Sam Brown Moddau Dysgu

Moddau Dysgu Ieithoedd: Fy mhrofiad i o ddysgu Cymraeg, Cernyweg & Almaeneg
Methods of Learning Languages: My experience of learning Welsh, Cornish & German

Gall y proses o ddysgu ieithoedd godi ofn mewn pobl, yn enwedig ar ddechrau'r daith. Rwyf yn gwybod hyn gan fy mod i wedi dysgu tair iaith yn rhugl, ac rwyf yn dysgu pytiau o ieithoedd eraill o hyd. Felly, yn yr erthygl hon byddaf yn cynnig mewnwelediadau personol o wahanol foddau o ddysgu ieithoedd a byddaf yn trio rhoi cwpl o dipiau am sut i wneud y proses o ddysgu yn haws. Yr ieithoedd yr ydw i wedi eu dysgu i lefel dda o ruglder yw: Almaeneg, Cymraeg a Chernyweg, ac fel mae'n digwydd dysgais i nhw i gyd mewn ffyrdd gwahanol. Felly byddaf yn defnyddio fy storïau personol o ddysgu'r rhain i sôn am dri modd o ddysgu iaith, sef: mynd i ddosbarthiadau, cyrsiau clywed, a dysgu o lyfrau.The process of learning languages can scare people, especially at the start of the journey. I know this as I have learnt to speak three languages fluently, and am still learning bits of other languages. So, in this article, I will be offering personal insights of different methods of learning languages and will try and give a few tips on how to make the learning process easier. The languages that I have learnt to a good level of fluency are: German, Welsh and Cornish, and as it happens I learnt each of them in a different way. So I will be using my personal stories of learning these to discuss three ways of learning languages: going to classes, audio courses, and learning from books.
I gychwyn rwyf am sôn am fy nhaith o ddysgu Almaeneg a ddechreuodd yn yr ysgol uwchradd, aeth â fi i'r brifysgol, ac wedyn i'r Almaen ei hun. Os nad oeddech chi'n gwybod yn barod, mae eithaf lot o ramadeg gan yr Almaeneg ac nid yw hwn wastad yn hawdd i'w ddeall (mae'n siŵr bod chi wedi clywed am y cyflyrau gramadegol). Un o'm hatgofion cynharach o ddysgu'r iaith hon yw eistedd yn yr ystafell ddosbarth ac yn adrodd y gwahanol fanodau penodol – mae 16 ohonynt yn Almaeneg! Cefais dipyn o drafferth wrth ddysgu yn wreiddiol, ni chefais ond gradd C yn fy arholiad TGAU, ac E y tro cyntaf sefais yr arholiad Lefel AS (sefais yr arholiad hwnnw tairwaith yn cael C isel ac wedyn C uchel). Pan gyrhaeddais i'r brifysgol roedd gennyf Lefel A ar radd C. Ond os neidiwn ymlaen pedair blynedd, dyna fi yn graddio yn yr Almaeneg â rhagoriaeth mewn sgiliau cyfathrebu. Felly, beth a ddigwyddodd? Dim ond mewn gwersi ffurfiol roeddwn i wedi dysgu'r iaith, felly beth a newidiodd? A yw'r stori hon yn dangos methiant yn y dull dysgu mewn dosbarth? A yw'n dangos llwyddiant?To begin with I want to mention my journey in learning German, which began when I was in secondary school, took me to university and then to Germany itself. If you didn't already know, German has quite a lot of grammar and this isn't always simple to understand (I'm sure you've heard of the grammatical cases). One of my earliest memories of learning this language is sitting in the classroom and repeating the various definite articles – there are 16 of them in German! I had a bit of trouble learning initially, I only got a C grade for my GCSE, and an E the first time I sat my AS Level exam (which I took three times, getting a low C and then a high C). When I arrived at university I had a C grade A Level. But if we jump forwards four years, there I am graduating with a degree in German with a distinction in oral communication. So, what happened? I had only ever learnt the language by attending formal lessons, so what changed? Does this story show a failure in classroom based learning? Does it show a success?
Wel, mae'n dangos y ddau i raddau achos yr hyn na ddywedais yn y paragraff uchod oedd sut yr oeddwn i yn ymddwyn yn y dosbarthiadau. Y prif beth a newidiodd wrth symud ymlaen yn yr Almaeneg oedd fy oed. 13 mlwydd oed oeddwn i pan ddechreuais ddysgu Almaeneg. Nid oedd diddordeb gennyf mewn dysgu o gwbl. Roeddwn yn casáu'r ysgol, ac yr unig beth yr oeddwn amdano oedd gadael. Oherwydd hyn, nid oeddwn yn talu sylw mewn gwersi ac nid oeddwn yn gwneud fy ngwaith cartref byth! Ond roeddwn yn gwybod pa mor bwysig oedd cael iaith ar fy CV a daliais ati i ddysgu nes imi sylweddoli sut cymaint yr oeddwn wrth fy modd ag ieithoedd. Erbyn cyrraedd y brifysgol roeddwn am ddysgu. Dechreuais ofyn cwestiynau fel rhan o'r dosbarth, gorffennais fy ngwaith cartref bob dydd. Yn ystod fy mlwyddyn olaf yno, fi oedd yr un cyntaf (ac weithiau'r unig un) i roi fy llaw yn yr awyr i ateb cwestiynau gan y tiwtoriaid.Well, it shows both to a degree as what I didn't tell you in the above paragraph was how I behaved during the classes. The main thing that changed as I progressed in German was my age. I was 13 years old when I began learning German, and I wasn't interested in learning at all. I hated school, and the only thing I wanted was to leave. Because of this I didn't pay attention in classes and I never did my homework! But I knew how important it was to have a language on my CV and I kept at it until I realised how much I loved languages. By the time I arrived at university I wanted to learn. I started asking questions in lessons, I finished my homework every day. During my final year there, I was first one (and sometimes the only one) to put my hand up and answer the tutors' questions.
Mae'n wir beth a ddywedir; rydach yn cael allan ohono'r hyn a roddwch mewn iddo. A dyna'n union sut mae cael y gorau allan o fynychu dosbarthiadau iaith (ac mae hyn yn gweithio ar gyfer unrhyw iaith, nid Almaeneg yn unig). Os eisteddwch yno heb ymrwymo â'r dosbarth, hyd yn oed os ydach chi'n cymryd nodiadau manwl, ni fydd eich sgiliau iaith yn gwella cystal â phobl eraill. Os ydach yn mynd i ddosbarth iaith, trïwch roi eich llaw yn yr awyr, cynigiwch fwy o atebion, a gwnewch eich gwaith cartref. Wrth gwrs, rwyf yn deall nad yw pawb yn gyffyrddus wrth wneud pethau fel hyn o flaen pobl eraill (mae yn ddychrynllyd wrth gychwyn!) ac nid ydwyf yn dweud bod yn rhaid ichi wneud hyn yn unig er mwyn dysgu siarad iaith yn well. Gwnewch yr hyn yr ydach yn gyffyrddus â fe.It's true what they say; you get out what you put in. And that's exactly how to make the most of attending language lessons (and this works for any language not just German). If you sit there without engaging in the classwork, even if you take detailed notes, your language skills won't improve as much as others. If you go to a language class, try putting your hand up, offer more answers, and do your homework. Of course, I know that not everyone is comfortable with doing things like this in front of other people (it's horrible at the start!) and I'm not saying that you have to do this alone to be able to speak a language better. Do what you're comfortable with.
Euthum i'r brifysgol ym Mangor, Gwynedd, a chyn imi symud yno ar ôl gorffen fy Lefelau A penderfynais fy mod i'n mynd i ddysgu Cymraeg er mwyn gallu siarad â phobl leol. Ond sut y medrai Cernywiaid 18 oed ddysgu iaith leiafrifol heb fod wedi symud i'r ardal lle y siaradir eto? Yr ateb – Say Something in Welsh (SSiW)! Dyma oedd yn ôl yn 2011 ac roedd y platfform hynod boblogaidd hwn yn ei ieuenctid o hyd. Pan ymunais â'r wefan, nid oedd ond un cwrs ar gael a wnaed o 26 o wersi unigol ac ychydig wersi ychwanegol i ddysgu cyfrif, y lliwiau, ac yn y blaen. Roedd y fforwm mor dda ag erioed, ond nid oedd mor brysur neu fawr fel y mae'r dyddiau hyn. Ar ôl gorffen y cwrs hwnnw a chyrraedd ym Mangor roeddwn yn gallu cynnal sgyrsiau eithaf hir yn y Gymraeg a chefais neidio dros y lefel gyntaf pan ddechreuais gwrs Wlpan â Chymraeg i Oedolion. O fewn i dri mis roeddwn wedi cwblhau pob gwers a oedd gan SSiW ar y pryd a dysgu digon o'r iaith i siarad yn fwy hyderus na phobl oedd wedi'i dysgu yn yr ysgol!I went to university in Bangor, Gwynedd, and before moving there after finishing my A Levels I decided that I was going to learn Welsh to be able to speak with locals. But how could an 18 year old Cornishman learn a minority language without having moved to the area it's spoken in yet? The answer – Say Something in Welsh (SSiW)! This was back in 2011 and this popular platform was still in its youth. When I signed up with the website, there was only one course available which consisted of 26 individual lessons and some extra classes to learn counting, colours, etc. The forum was as good as always, but it wasn't as busy or large as it is these days. After finishing the course and arriving in Bangor I was able to hold quite long conversations in Welsh and I was able to skip the first level when I started the Cwrs Wlpan with Welsh for Adults. Within three months I had finished every lesson that SSiW had at the time and I had learnt enough of the language to speak more confidently than people who had learnt at school!
Llwyddais wrth wneud hwn trwy dorri dau o brif reolau'r cyfrwng; 1) ni chymrais fe'n araf, a 2) ysgrifennais eiriau i lawr. Ond cyn ichi fynd i ffwrdd a dechrau anwybyddu rheolau a chanllawiau SSiW, gadewch imi esbonio. Yn y cwrs roeddent yn awgrymu mai tuag unwaith yr wythnos oeddech chi i fod yn gwneud y cwrs i adael digon o amser i'r wybodaeth setlo yn eich meddwl. Ar y pryd nid oeddwn yn gweithio ac felly roedd gennyf bob dydd yn rhydd. Golygodd hyn fy mod i'n gallu codi yn y bore, gwneud gwers nesaf SSiW, ac wedyn defnyddio gweddill y dydd i ganolbwyntio ar y wers honno a dysgu'r patrymau a geiriau, ayyb. I succeeded in doing this by breaking two of the medium's main rules; 1) I didn't do it slowly, and 2) I wrote down words. But before you go off and start ignoring SSiW's rules and guidelines, let me explain. In the course it was recommended that you did around one lesson per week to allow enough time for the information to settle in your mind. At the time I wasn't working and so I was free every day. This meant that I was able to get up in the morning, do the next SSiW lesson, and then use the rest of the day to focus on that lesson and learn the patterns and words, etc.
Weithiau gwrandawais ar yr un wers mwy nag unwaith, weithiau dwywaith y dydd, weithiau un dydd ar ôl y llall. Nid ysgrifennais eiriau i lawr o gwbl wrth wrando ar y wers. Yn lle hynny arhoswn i nes imi ei gorffen ac wedyn copïwn i'r geiriau oddi ar wefan mewn llyfr nodiadau. Ar ôl gwneud hyn cuddiwn i'r geiriau a thrïwn eu cofio heb sbïo arnynt. Roedd yn waith caled, ac am y tri mis hynny roedd yn swydd lawn amser imi. Ni fuaswn i'n awgrymu i unrhyw un drio hyn os maent yn brysur, ac os ydach chi am drio'r modd hwn allan, cofiwch pa mor bwysig yw cymryd egwyliau ac ymlacio trwy edrych ar y teledu, darllen llyfr da, neu drwy fynd am dro.Sometimes I listened to the same lesson more than once, sometimes twice a day, sometimes two days in a row. I didn't write down words at all whilst listening to the lesson. Instead of that I would wait until finishing and then I would copy down the words from the website into a notebook. After doing this I would hide the words and try to remember them without looking. It was hard work, and for three months that was my full-time job. I wouldn't recommend that anyone try this if they're busy, and if you do want to try this out, remember the importance of taking breaks and relaxing by watching TV, reading a good book, or going for a stroll.
Mae Say Something in Welsh wedi newid lot ers imi ei wneud saith mlynedd yn ôl. Felly lle roedd yn rhaid imi fynd i ddosbarthiadau Cymraeg er mwyn parhau wrth ddysgu'r iaith, nid oes rhaid y dyddiau hyn. Mae gennyf sawl ffrind sydd wedi llwyddo i ddysgu'r Gymraeg yn rhugl trwy ddefnyddio SSiW yn unig a hynny heb ddefnyddio fy null rhyfedd i. Mae SSiW yn dda iawn os ydach am ddysgu siarad yr iaith yn gyflym heb orfod mynd i wersi ffurfiol, er nad ydwyf yn sicr ynglŷn â dysgu darllen ac ysgrifennu â'r cyfrwng hwn yn 2018. Efallai gallai rhywun gynnig y wybodaeth hon imi?Say Something in Welsh has changed a lot since I used it seven years ago. So where I had to go to lessons to continue learning Welsh, you no longer have to now. I have many friends who have succeeded in learning Welsh fluently by only using SSiW and that's without employing my weird method! SSiW is really good if you want to learn to speak quickly without going to formal classes, though I'm not sure about reading and writing with this medium in 2018. Perhaps someone could offer this information to me?
Cernywiaid ydw i, a thrwy gymdeithasu a dod i adnabod Cernywiaid eraill sydd yn byw yng Nghymru, rwyf wedi darganfod rhywbeth diddorol iawn... Mae sawl un ohonynt wedi dysgu'r Gymraeg (neu wedi dangos diddordeb mewn dysgu) er mwyn teimlo'n agosach at eu cartref, hynny yw Cernyw. Fi oedd un o'r rhain, i raddau, ond ar ôl blwyddyn o fyw yng Nghymru roedd fy hiraeth wedi cynyddu gormod ac roedd yn rhaid imi wneud rhywbeth amdano. Roeddwn wedi darllen yn rhywle bod tua 70% o eiriau Cymraeg a Chernyweg yn dod o'r un lle. A chan ddefnyddio hyn fel man cychwyn dechreuais wneud tipyn o ymchwil ar y we. Dyma bryd penderfynais fynd ati a dysgu iaith fy hun, Cernyweg.I'm a Cornishman, and through socialising and getting to know other Cornishmen who live in Wales, I have discovered something really interesting... Many of them who've learnt Welsh (or have shown interest in learning Welsh) want to do so to feel closer to their home, that is Cornwall. I was one of these, to a degree, but after a year of living in Wales my hiraeth had risen too much and I had to do something about it. I had read somewhere that about 70% of Welsh and Cornish words come from the same root. By using this as a starting point I began researching online. This is when I decided to set to it and learn my own language, Cornish.
Wel, os oedd yn anodd dysgu Cymraeg tra fy mod i'n byw yng Nghernyw, roedd yn mynd i fod yn fwy neu lai amhosib i ddysgu Cernyweg yng Nghrymu. Dyna beth yr oeddwn yn ei feddwl beth bynnag. Euthum yn syth i Amazon ac ar ôl chwilio am oddeutu awr roeddwn yn sicr fy mod i wedi ffeindio'r llyfr perffaith i ddysgu'r Gernyweg: Skeul an Tavas (Ysgol y Tafod). Cefais fy siomi ychydig pan gyrhaeddodd y llyfr o'r diwedd gan ei fod mor denau. Ond roeddwn am ei ddefnyddio i ddysgu beth bynnag, a dyna'r hyn a wneuthum.Well, if it was difficult to learn Welsh whilst living in Cornwall, it was going to be nearly impossible to learn Cornish in Wales. That's what I thought anyway. I went straight to Amazon and after searching for about an hour I was certain I had found the perfect book to learn Cornish: Skeul an Tavas (The School/Ladder of the Tongue). I was a bit disappointed when the book came at last as it was so thin. But I wanted to use it to learn anyway, and that's what I did.
Bob dydd cwblheais bennod yn y llyfr, gan ddechrau â chenedl geiriau a gorffen â brawddegau llawn, er eu bod nhw'n fyr. Ond nid oedd y llyfr bach hwn yn ddigon imi- roedd eisiau mwy arnaf. Dyma le mae'r stori hon yn mynd mewn cyfeiriad gwahanol i'r ddwy flaenorol. Nid oedd cymaint o lyfrau neu adnoddau ar gael i ddysgwyr Cernyweg yr adeg honno, ond roedd geiriadur ar-lein, cymuned wych ar Facebook, a chwant siarad yn rhugl yn fy nghalon. Every day I finished a chapter in the book, starting with noun genders and finishing with full sentences, albeit short ones. But this book wasn't enough for me- I wanted more. This is where this story deviates from the previous two. There weren't as many books or resources available to Cornish learners at the time, but there was an online dictionary, a great Facebook community, and a desire to speak fluently in my heart.
Y dacteg a ddefnyddiais oedd cyfieithu. Erthyglau byrion ar Wicipedia yn gychwynnol ac wedyn symudais ymlaen at bethau hirach a hirach nes imi ddechrau cyfieithu straeon y Brodyr Grimm. Wrth edrych yn ôl arnynt roedd fy nghyfieithiadau cynnar yn ofnadwy. Roedd yr amseroedd yn anghywir, roeddwn wedi camsillafu sawl gair, ac weithiau roeddwn wedi creu geiriau newydd ac wedyn anghofio beth y golygasant. Ond trwy wneud hyn cryfheais fy sgiliau Cernyweg nes imi ddeall fy nghamgymeriadau ac ailddysgu sut i dynnu fy ngeiriau ffug i ddarnau.The tactic I used was translating. Short articles on Wikipedia to begin with, then I moved on to longer and longer texts until I started translating some of the Grimm Brothers' Fairy Tales. Looking back at some of my early translation is cringe-worthy. The tenses were all wrong, I had misspelt several words, and on occasion I had created some new words and then forgotten what they meant. But by doing this I strengthened my Cornish until I understood my mistakes and re-learnt how to pull my fake words apart.
Her feunyddiol oedd hon, yn enwedig gan ystyried y dysgais heb fynd i ddosbarth ac nad oedd llawer o lyfrau gennyf. Felly'r tip gorau yr ydwyf yn gallu ei argymell ichi a ddysga drwy'r modd hwn yw dewis testunau yr ydach yn eu hoffi. Nid oes unrhyw beth gwaethaf na chyfieithu pethau nad ydach yn hoff ohonynt (rwyf yn cael ôl-fflachiau i wersi cyfieithu yn y brifysgol). Mae'n gwneud i'r proses yn llawer mwy hwyliog os ydach yn ymddiddan â'r testun ar fwy nag un lefel. Mae straeon byrion yn fan cychwyn da!This was a daily challenge, especially considering that I learnt without attending any classes and that I didn't have many books. So the best tip I can offer to those who want to learn like this is choosing texts you like. There's nothing worse than translating things you aren't fond of (I'm having flashbacks to translation classes at university). It makes the process way more fun if you engage with the text in more than one way. Short stories are a good place to start!
Fel soniais amdano yn gynharach; rydach yn cael allan o ddysgu ieithoedd yr hyn a roddwch mewn i'w dysgu, a dyma fy mhrif dip ichi gael manteisio ar y geiriau hyn... Defnyddiwch eich ieithoedd. Bob dydd. Trwy'r amser. Pan ewch i'r archfarchnad, newidiwch iaith y peiriannau hunanwasanaeth i Gymraeg (gellir hyd yn oed gwneud hyn mewn bwytai McDonalds yn Lloegr), neu yn well na hynny, ffeindiwch aelod o staff a sieryd eich iaith darged. Ysgrifennwch ar Facebook ynddi, darganfyddwch ffilmiau a cherddoriaeth ynddi, darllenwch nofelau yn eich iaith newydd. Manteisiwch ar eich sawl tafod!As I mentioned earlier; you get out of language learning what you put in, and this is my main tip for you to get the most out of these words... Use your languages. Every day. All the time. When you go to the supermarket, change the language of the self-service machines to Welsh (you can even do this in McDonalds restaurants in England), or even better, find a member of staff who speaks your target language. Write on Facebook in it, discover films and music in it, read novels in your new language. Make the most of you many tongues!
Gobeithio eich bod chi wedi mwynhau darllen fy narn yma ac rydach yn teimlo wedi'ch ysbrydoli! Ond mae'n fwy tebyg byddwch chi wedi blino erbyn cyrraedd y pwynt hwn, yn enwedig os ydach chi wedi darllen fy Nghymraeg academaidd (sori am honno). Felly cymerwch egwyl fechan â phanad poeth braf ac ymlaciwch.Hopefully you've enjoyed reading my piece and you are feeling inspired! But it's more than likely that you're tired having gotten to this point, especially if you have read my academic Welsh (sorry for that). So take a short break with a lovely warm cuppa and relax.

Cernywiaid ydw i, a thrwy gymdeithasu a dod i adnabod Cernywiaid eraill sydd yn byw yng Nghymru, rwyf wedi darganfod rhywbeth diddorol iawn... Mae sawl un ohonynt wedi dysgu'r Gymraeg (neu wedi dangos diddordeb mewn dysgu) er mwyn teimlo'n agosach at eu cartref, hynny yw Cernyw.

Map o enwau llefydd Cernyweg

Map o enwau llefydd Cernyweg / A map of Cornish place-names

Gwaun Bodmin

Gwaun Bodminm ger prentre Minions / Bodmin Moor, near the village of Minions

anblogkernowek.blogspot.com / sambrown1993

Merkyans rag Kernowegoryon – mar kwelowgh nebes kammgemeryansow y'n erthygel ma, po mars eus poyntys dhewgh ragov dh'aga frederi, yth esov moy es lowen dhe addya po chanjya homma grondyes war agas kampollow.

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Cyfres Amdani- Llyfrau i Ddysgwyr: Tudalen Gartref / Cyfres Amdani- Books for Learners: Homepage https://parallel.cymru/amdani/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 18:00:08 +0000 https://parallel.cymru/?p=7770

Cyfres cyffrous o lyfrau ar gyfer oedolion sy'n dysgu Cymraeg
An exciting series of books for adults who are learning Welsh

Mae'r prosiect Cyfres Amdani yn cael ei ariannu gan y Cyngor Llyfrau ac mae pedair gwasg (Atebol, CAA Cymru, Gomer & Y Lolfa) wedi cyhoeddi pump llyfr yr un. Mae cydweithio agos hefyd gyda'r Ganolfan Dysgu Cymraeg Genedlaethol, ac mae'r llyfrau'n cydymffurfio gyda'r cwricwlwm newydd. Mae lefelau llyfrau'r prosiect yn cydymffurfio â lefelau dysgu ail iaith Ewrop.

The Amdani Series project is funded by the Welsh Books Council and four presses (Atebol, CAA Cymru, Gomer & Y Lolfa) have published five books each. They are also working closely with the National Centre for Learning Welsh, and the books correlate with the new curriculum. The levels of the books align with European levels of second language learning.

Helen Prosser, Cyfarwyddwr Strategol, Y Ganolfan Dysgu Cymraeg Genedlaethol: Mae’n bwysig bod ein dysgwyr yn cael digon o gyfleoedd i ymarfer defnyddio’r Gymraeg y tu allan i’r dosbarth, er mwyn datblygu eu sgiliau a magu hyder.  Bydd y gyfres fywiog hon o lyfrau deniadol yn adnodd gwerthfawr iawn, yn enwedig gan fod y llyfrau wedi’u teilwra ar gyfer gwahanol lefelau’r sector Dysgu Cymraeg. Mae wedi bod yn bleser cydweithio â’r Cyngor Llyfrau a dy’n ni’n gobeithio bydd y fenter hon yn ffordd o ddenu dysgwyr at ddarllen llyfrau Cymraeg yn gyffredinol, ac ar hyd eu siwrnai i ddysgu’r iaith.

Meinir Wyn Edwards, Golygydd, Y Lolfa: Fel golygydd rhai o’r llyfrau yn y prosiect, mae wedi bod yn brofiad grêt cydweithio gyda gweisg eraill. Gobeithio bydd mwy o lyfrau hamdden i ddysgwyr yn cael eu cyhoeddi ar ôl i’r prosiect cychwynnol o 20 llyfr ddod i ben. Os ydy nifer y siaradwyr Cymraeg yn mynd i gyrraedd y miliwn erbyn 2050 mae angen denu mwy o bobl i ddysgu’r iaith ac mae llyfrau fel hyn yn un cam bach pwysig arall tuag at gyrraedd y nod.

More insight and opinion... Tu ôl y Llen o'r Gyfres Amdani.

Helen Prosser, Strategic Director, the National Centre for Learning Welsh: It’s important our learners have plenty of opportunities to practise using their Welsh outside the classroom, so they can develop their skills and gain confidence. This new series of entertaining books will be a fantastic resource, especially so as the books reflect the different language patterns taught on our courses. It’s been a pleasure working with the Welsh Books Council and we hope this initiative will help attract learners to reading Welsh books in general, and all along their language journey.

Meinir Wyn Edwards, Editor, Y Lolfa: As an editor for some of the books in the project, it has been a great experience to collaborate with other presses. Hopefully more leisure books for learners will be released after the first project of 20 books comes to an end. If the number of Welsh speakers is going to reach a million by 2050 then there is a need to attract more people to learn the language, and books like this are an important  extra step to help reach the goal.

More insight and opinion... Behind the Scenes of Cyfres Amdani.

Am Ddiwrnod!

Author: Margaret Johnson
Welsh adaption of Big Hair Day
Adapted by: Meinir Wyn Edwards
twitter.com/meinir_wyn

Price: £4.99

Language: Very simple Welsh, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Mynediad Level: Mynediad / Entry

Publisher: Y Lolfa

Buy: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781784615567

Darllen mwy: Am y llyfr a chwis / Read more: About the book and quiz

Ymestynnwch eich Cymraeg gyda Jo Knell / Extend your Welsh with Jo Knell

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae'r nofel yn sôn am ddiwrnod ym mywyd Sophia Reynolds, sydd ar ei ffordd i fod yn ecstra mewn ffilm, ond mae nifer o ddigwyddiadau yn ei rhwystro rhag cyrraedd y set. Mae'n gorfod ymweld â swyddfa'r heddlu sawl gwaith, ond does dim ots ganddi, oherwydd mae'n ffansïo'r plismon yno! 

Gwales description: This is a humorous romance about one memorable day in the life of Sophia Reynolds, who is on her way to be a film extra, but a number of incidents prevent her from reaching the set. She has to visit the police office several times, but she doesn't mind, as she fancies the policeman there! 

Meinir Wyn Edwards: Roedd hi’n bleser cael addasu nofel Lefel Mynediad hyd at Uned 8. Ond roedd hi’n her a hanner, gan nad o’n i’n gyfarwydd â’r eirfa a’r patrymau iaith sydd yn y cwriwlwm Dysgu Cymraeg newydd. Mae’r ymateb i’r llyfr yn y siopau wedi bod yn dda ac mae cyhoeddi llyfrau ysgafn i ddysgwyr Cymraeg yn hollbwysig.
Stori syml, gyda digon o hiwmor, am Sophia yw Am Ddiwrnod! (What a day!). Mae hi ar ei ffordd i fod yn ecstra mewn ffilm gydag un o’i hoff actorion, Fabio Facelli. Ond mae sawl peth yn digwydd iddi ar ei ffordd yno ac mae’n rhaid iddi alw yng ngorsaf yr heddlu sawl gwaith. Ond does dim ots gan Sophia, oherwydd mae llygaid neis iawn gan y plismon! Mae’n braf cael stori garu i godi calon!

Meinir Wyn Edwards: It was a pleasure to adapt an Entry level novel up to Unit 8. But it was a challenge and a half, since I was not familiar with the language patterns used in the new Learn Welsh curriculum. The response to the book in shops has been good and publishing light books for learners is vital.
Am Ddiwrnod! is a simple story about Sophia, with lots of humour. She is on her way to be an extra in a film with one of her favourite actors, Fabio Facelli. But several things happen to her on her way there and she has to call into the police station several times. But Sophia doesn't mind, because the policeman has very nice eyes! It's nice to have a love story to lift the heart!

Cyfres Amdani Am Ddiwrnod

Helen Prosser:
Elfen gyffrous bod yr awduron sy wedi ysgrifennu’r llyfrau Mynediad a Sylfaen wedi bod yn dilyn yr un patrymau iaith â’r cyrsiau cenedlaethol newydd. Mae hyn yn meddwl y bydd yn bosib darllen y llyfr cyntaf Am Ddiwrnod! ar ôl wyth uned o’r cwrs Mynediad.
An exciting element is that authors who have written the Entry and Foundation books have followed the same patterns as the new national courses. This means that it is possible to read the first book Am Ddiwrnod! after eight units of the Entry course.

Gangsters yn y Glaw

Author: Pegi Talfryn

Price: £4.99

Language: Simple Welsh, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Mynediad Level: Mynediad / Entry

Publisher: Gomer

Buy: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781785622410

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae Elsa Bowen yn gweithio fel ditectif preifat; fel arfer mae'n ymchwilio i dwyll yswiriant. Ond mae hynny'n newid ar y bore Mercher yma. Mae sylw Elsa ar siop lyfrau Cymraeg yn nhre Caernarfon lle mae pethau annisgwyl yn digwydd. Mae'r stori yn canolbwyntio ar Lilith Lewis, gangster lleol sydd yn achosi trafferth.

Gwales description: Elsa Bowen works as a private detective; usually she deals with insurance fraud. But that all changes on this Wednesday morning. Elsa's attention is drawn to the bookshop in Caernarfon where strange things are happening. The story focuses on Lilith Lewis, a local gangster who causes trouble.

Darllen mwy: Cyfweliad â Pegi Talfryn / Read more: Interview with Pegi Talfryn

 

Cyfres Amdani Gangsters yn y Glaw

Pass Y Sugnydd Llwch Darling

Authors: Lucy Owen, Rhodri Owen & Mari George

Price: £4.99

Language: Simple Welsh, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Mynediad Level: Mynediad / Entry

Publisher: Gomer

Buy: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781785622403

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae Rhodri yn gweithio fel cyflwynydd ar rhaglen i S4C. Mae Lucy yn darllen y Newyddion ar y BBC. Gabs yw eu mab. Mae'n benblwydd ar Gabs. Mae'r teulu yn penderfynu mynd am dro i Ardal Ogwr.

Gwales description: Rhodri works as a presenter on a S4C programme. Lucy reads news for the BBC. Gabs is their son. It's a birthday for Gabs. The family decides to go for a walk to Ogmore.

Pass y Sugnydd Llwch Darling

Stryd y Bont

Author: Manon Steffan Ros
twitter.com/ManonSteffanRos

Price: £4.99

Language: Simple Welsh, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Mynediad Level: Mynediad / Entry

Cyhoeddwr: Atebol

Buy: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781912261444

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae Stryd y Bont yn dilyn hanes pobl sy'n byw ar yr un stryd mewn tref yng Nghymru. Pa gyfrinachau sydd ganddyn nhw? Pwy sy'n adnabod pwy, ac a ydy cymeriadau Stryd y Bont yn adnabod eu cymdogion mewn gwirionedd?

Gwales description: We follow the stories of people living on the same street in a Welsh town. What secrets do they have and do they really know their neighbours?

Manon Steffan Ros Stryd y Bont

Wynne Evans - O Gaerfyrddin i Go Compare

Author: Wynne Evans with Elin Meek
twitter.com/wynneevans

Price: £4.99

Language: Simple Welsh, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Mynediad Level: Mynediad / Entry

Publisher: CAA Cymru

Buy: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781845216856&tsid=12

Disgrifiad Gwales: Darlun personol a gonest iawn o hanes Wynne a'i deulu, ei brofiadau fel tenor enwog, a'i ymdrech fel oedolyn i ddysgu Cymraeg.

Gwales description: A very personal and honest history of Wynne and his family, his experiences as a famous tenor, and his efforts to learn Welsh as an adult.

Darllen mwy: Blas o'r llyfr / Read more: A taste of the book

Cyfres Amdani Wynne Evans


Sylfaen / Foundation

Samsara

Awdures: Sonia Edwards

Pris: £4.99

Iaith: Cymraeg syml, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Sylfaen Safon: Sylfaen

Cyhoeddwr: Y Lolfa

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781784616151

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae Sam yn gaeth yn y corff anghywir ac mae arno awydd i newid rhyw. Wrth ymdrin â'r pwnc sensitif hwn gwelir rhwystredigaeth y cymeriad ac ymateb y bobl sydd agosaf ato.

Gwales description: Sam feels confined in the wrong body and wishes to change sex. The book deals with a sensitive subject as we follow the main character's frustration and the response of those closest to him.

Samsara - Sonia Edwards

Teithio Drwy Hanes

Awdur: Jon Gower
twitter.com/JonGower1

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg syml, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Sylfaen Safon: Sylfaen

Publisher: CAA Cymru

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781845216870

Disgrifiad Gwales: Yn y llyfr hwn mae Jon Gower yn mynd â'r darllenydd i 30 o leoliadau sy'n gysylltiedig â hanes Cymru. Mae'n esbonio pam mae'r lleoliadau yn bwysig yn hanes Cymru, ac mae e'n disgrifio eu harddwch a'u naws yn ei ffordd arbennig ei hun.

Gwales description: In this book, Jon Gower takes the reader to 30 different locations connected to Wales' history. He explains why these places are important to Welsh history and describes their beauty and atmosphere in his own special way.

Darllen mwy: Blas o'r llyfr / Read more: A taste of the book

Cyfres Amdani Teithio Drwy Hanes

Y Fawr a'r Fach - Straeon o'r Rhondda

Awdur: Siôn Tomos Owen
twitter.com/sionmun

Pris: £5.99

Iaith: Cymraeg syml, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Sylfaen Safon: Sylfaen

Cyhoeddwr: Y Lolfa

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781784615826

Disgrifiad Gwales: Cyfrol o straeon byrion yn ymwneud â hanesion pentrefi’r Rhondda.

Gwales description: A volume of short stories and anecdotes about villages in the Rhondda valley.

Darllen mwy: Blas o'r llyfr / Read more: A taste of the book

Ymestynnwch eich Cymraeg gyda Jo Knell / Extend your Welsh with Jo Knell

Cyfres Amdani Straeon o'r Rhondda

Y Stryd

Awdures: Helen Naylor
Addasiad Cymraeg o One Day
Wedi'i addasu gan Mared Lewis

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Sylfaen Safon: Sylfaen

Cyhoeddwr: Gomer

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781785622397

Exclusive author insight:
Interview with Mared Lewis
.

Disgrifiad Gwales: Un noson. Un stryd. Ac mae gan bob person ym mhob tŷ broblem. Sut mae Nina yn mynd i ddweud ei newyddion wrth Dafydd? Pam mae Magi yn gorfod ailfeddwl am Xavier? Beth mae Sam yn mynd i wneud am y broblem fawr? Sut mae bywyd Huw yn mynd i newid am byth? Bydd un nos Wener yn newid popeth.

Gwales description: One Night. One street. And everyone in every house has a problem. How will Nina tell Dafydd the news? Why does Magi have to rethink her relationship with Xavier? What will Sam do about his big problem? How will Huw's life change forever? One Friday night will change everything.

Mared Lewis: Mae'r stori yn galw i mewn ac allan o fywydau'r bobol sy'n byw drws nesa' i'w gilydd ar un stryd arbennig mewn tref yng Ngogledd Cymru. Mae pawb yn byw drws nesa, ond mae ganddyn nhw fywydau diddorol, ac mae gen pawb ei broblem ei hun. Mae'n lyfr difyr, a dyma'r tro cyntaf i mi addasu llyfr gan rhywun arall. Roedd hi'n anodd i ddechrau peidio rhedeg i ffwrdd efo'r stori fy hun, ond fe ddaeth pethau'n haws.

Mared Lewis: The story pops in and out of the lives of people living next door to one another in a particular street in a town in North Wales. Everyone lives next door, but they lead interesting lives, and all of them have their own problems. It is an entertaining book, and that’s the first time I have adapted a book by someone else. At first it was difficult to stop myself running away with the story myself, but then things became easier.

Cyfres Amdani Y Stryd

Yn ei Gwsg

Awdures: Bethan Gwanas
twitter.com/BethanGwanas

Gydag arlunwaith y cartwnydd Huw Aaron
With illustrations by cartoonist Huw Aaron
twitter.com/huwaaron

Pris: £4.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Sylfaen Safon: Sylfaen

Cyhoeddwr: Atebol

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781912261307

Ymestynnwch eich Cymraeg gyda Jo Knell / Extend your Welsh with Jo Knell

Disgrifiad Atebol: Mae Dafydd yn cerdded yn ei gwsg, ac un bore, mae'n deffro yn waed i gyd. Mae'r llyfr yn dilyn olion traed gwaedlyd allan o'r tŷ a thrwy'r pentref ac yn darganfod Mrs Roberts a'i zimmerframe ar ochr y ffordd wedi'i tharo gan gar. Pwy sydd wedi ei tharo? A fydd yr heddlu yn arestio'r person cywir?

Atebol description: Dafydd walks in his sleep, and one morning he wakes up to see blood everywhere. The book follows the bloody footprints out of the house and through the village and discovers Mrs Roberts and her zimmerframe on the roadside hit by a car. Who hit her? Will the police arrest the right person?

Bethan Gwanas: Mi wnes i wir fwynhau sgwennu ar gyfer dysgwyr eto, a braf oedd gallu sgwennu am rywun gwahanol iawn i Blodwen Jones! Ro’n i’n hoff iawn o gymeriad Dafydd, ac roedd y broses o ddod i’w nabod o wrth sgwennu amdano yn ddiddorol. Dim ond y syniad o rywun yn cerdded yn ei gwsg ac yn deffro i weld bod gwaed dros y lle, oedd yn fy mhen i ar y dechrau. Doedd gen i ddim syniad gwaed pwy oedd o nes i mi ddechrau sgwennu, ac ro’n i’n ‘darganfod’ y stori yn union fel bod yn ddarllenydd. Gobeithio y bydd y dysgwyr yn mwynhau gymaint ag y gwnes i fwynhau!

Bethan Gwanas: I really enjoyed writing for learners again, and it was nice to be able to write about someone different different to Blodwen Jones! I liked Dafydd's character, and the process of getting to know him when writing about him was interesting. The idea of someone was walking in sleep and waking up to see that there was blood over the place was all that was in my head at the beginning. I had no idea who the blood was from before I started writing, and I just discovered the story in the same way as the reader. I hope that the learners will enjoy it as much as I enjoyed!


Canolradd / Intermediate

C'Mon Reff

Awdur: Nigel Owens
Wedi'i addasu gan: Elin Meek

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Canolradd Safon: Canolradd

Cyhoeddwr: Y Lolfa

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781784616175

Disgrifiad Gwales: Addasiad o hunangofiant poblogaidd Nigel Owens, Hanner Amser. Mae'r testun wedi ei rannu'n benodau byrion, ac yn sôn am ei blentyndod, ei yrfa fel un o reffaris rygbi gorau'r byd, ei deithiau, ei deulu, ei iselder a'i rywioldeb.

Gwales description: An adaptation of Nigel Owen's autobiography Hanner Amser. The text is arranged into short chapters, mentions his childhood, his career as one of the best referees in the in the world, his travels, his family, his depression and his sexuality.

Cyfres Amdani Nigel Owens C'Mon Reff

Croesi'r Bont

Awdur: Zoê Pettinger

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Canolradd Safon: Canolradd

Publisher: CAA Cymru

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781845216863

Disgrifiad Gwales: Straeon byrion sy’n llawn hiwmor, gan awdures sydd wedi dysgu Cymraeg ei hun.

Gwales description: Short stories with a good pinch of humour, by an author who is a Welsh learner herself.

Zoe Pettinger: Idiomau a diarhebion ydy teitlau’r straeon i gyd. Maen nhw mor bwysig a maen nhw’n cyfoethogi’r iaith. Mae pum stori yn y gyfrol ac mae pob un yn ‘genre’ gwahanol. Ro’n i eisiau apelio at bawb a ro’n i eisiau cynnwys straeon am ddysgwyr eu hunain. Dyn ni i gyd yn rhannu hiwmor am y treigladau a gramadeg, a dyn ni i gyd yn deall yr anawsterau o fod yn ddysgwr Cymraeg!

Zoe Pettinger: All the short stories have titles which are idioms or proverbs. They are so important and they enrich the language. There are five stories in the volume and each one is in a different genre. I wanted to appeal to everyone and I wanted to include stories about learners themselves. We all take part in the humour about mutations and grammar, and we all understand the difficulties of being Welsh learners!

Croesi'r Bont Zoe Pettinger
Exclusive author insight
: Croesi'r Bont gyda Zoe Pettinger

Gêm Beryglus

Awdur: Richard MacAndrew
Addasiad Cymraeg o Man Hunt
Wedi'i addasu gan: Pegi Talfryn

Pris: £4.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Canolradd Safon: Canolradd

Cyhoeddwr: Atebol

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781912261291

Ymestynnwch eich Cymraeg gyda Jo Knell / Extend your Welsh with Jo Knell

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog yn enwog am ei harddwch naturiol ac am y llwybrau cerdded. Ond mae'r lle yn cyrraedd y newyddion am reswm arall; mae pobl yn cael eu lladd yn yr ardal.

Gwales description: The Brecon Beacons National Park is famous for its natural beauty and for its walking trails. However the place reaches the news for another reason; people are being killed in the area.

Adolygiad gan Sue Ward, Dysgwraig o Say Something in Welsh: Stori dditectif gyffrous. Oedd diddordeb gyda fi yn syth o’r frawddeg gyntaf. Doeddwn i ddim eisiau stopio darllen! Mae’r iaith yn addas ar gyfer dysgwyr, ac mae’r geirfa ddefnyddiol hefyd.

Review by Sue Ward, learner from Say Something in Welsh: An exciting detective story. I had an interest straight from the first sentewnce. I didn't want to stop reading! The language is suitable to learners, and the vocabulary is very useful.

Cyfres Amdani Gêm Beryglus

Gwers Mewn Cariad

Awdures: Beca Brown

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Canolradd Safon: Canolradd

Publisher: Gomer

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781785622373

Disgrifiad Gwales: Nofel ysgafn am ddyn sy'n syrthio mewn cariad â'i diwtor. Mae Liam yn newydd i ddosbarth Liz ym mis Medi. Ar yr wyneb mae'n hollol wahanol i'w diwtor Cymraeg. Er gwaetha'r gwahaniaeth oed mae carwriaeth yn datblygu rhwng y ddau, a Liz yn wynebu creisus tipyn mwy cymhleth na sut i gyflwyno treigladau...

Gwales description: A light-hearted novel about a man who falls in love with his tutor. Liam is new to Liz's class in September. On the face of it, he is completely different from his Welsh tutor. Despite the age difference, a love affair develops between the two, and Liz faces a crisis that is a little more complex than how to introduce mutations...

Exclusive author insight:
Ysgrifennu'r nofel i ddysgwyr, Gwers Mewn Cariad

Gwers Mewn Cariad Beca Brown

Y Llythyr

Awdures: Helen Naylor
Addasiad Cymraeg o Two Lives
Wedi'i addasu gan: Dwynwen Teifi

Pris: £6.99

Iaith: Cymraeg, with vocabulary at the bottom of each page

Amdani Canolradd Safon: Canolradd

Cyhoeddwr: CAA Cymru

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781845216818

Disgrifiad Gwales: Ym mhentref bach Treddafydd yng Nghymoedd de Cymru, mae Megan a Huw yn dod yn gariadon. Ond a fydd eu cariad yn ddigon cryf i oroesi'r amgylchiadau? Mae marwolaeth, eu teuluoedd, a'r blynyddoedd ar wahân i gyd yn eu herbyn nhw.

Gwales description: In the small village of Tredafydd in the south Wales valleys, Megan and Huw become lovers. But will their love conquer the circumstances? Death, their families and years apart are all against them.

Cyfres Amdani Y Llythyr


Uwch / Higher

Cawl a Storïau Eraill

Wedi'i golygu gan Rhiannon Thomas

Pris: £5.99

Iaith: Cymraeg

Amdani Uwch Safon: Uwch

Cyhoeddwr: Y Lolfa

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781784616168

Ymestynnwch eich Cymraeg gyda Jo Knell / Extend your Welsh with Jo Knell

Disgridiad Gwales: Casgliad o straeon cyfoes gan rai o awduron gorau Cymru.

Gwales description: Contemporary short stories by some of Wales’ best authors.

Cawl a Straeon Eraill

Cofio Anghofio

Awdur: Alan Maley
Addasiad Cymraeg o Forget to Remember
Wedi'i addasu gan: Elin Meek

Pris: £8.99

Iaith: Cymraeg

Amdani Uwch Safon: Uwch

Cyhoeddwr: CAA Cymru

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781845216825

Exclusive author insight:
Elin Meek explains how she translated Roald Dahl's works into Welsh
.

Disgrifiad Gwales: Stori deimladwy am ymdrech dwy chwaer i ddod i delerau â dementia eu mam, a'i effaith ar eu bywydau.

Gwales description: The story of two sisters who try to come to terms with their mother's illness, and its effect on their own lives.

Elin Meek: Mae nifer o themâu yn y nofel hon: problem gofalu am bobl sy'n heneiddio; dementia; tensiynau rhwng dwy chwaer; tensiynau rhwng pâr priod; beth sy'n ein gwneud ni'n hapus mewn gwirionedd. Dyna ro'n i'n ei deimlo beth bynnag, wrth ddarllen ac addasu'r nofel. Dw i wedi troi'r teitl yn Gymraeg - fel ei fod yn dangos bod angen i ni gofio anghofio am rai pethau yn y gorffennol, er mwyn symud ymlaen i'r dyfodol. Dyna mae'r prif gymeriad yn ei wneud yn y diwedd, dw i'n meddwl.
Roedd y nofel Saesneg wedi ei lleoli yn Llundain, Marlow a Brighton, felly newidiais i'r rhain i: Llanelli, Y Bont-faen a'r Mwmbwls, ger Abertawe. Mae Sarah, y prif gymeriad yn y nofel Saesneg, yn canu 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', felly yn Gymraeg, mae hi'n canu 'Calon Lân'. Dw i'n mwynhau meddwl am ffyrdd o Gymreigio nofelau fel hyn fel bod y darllenydd yn credu yn y nofel fel un sydd wedi'i lleoli yng Nghymru.

Elin Meek: There are a number of themes in this novel: the problem of caring for older people; dementia; tensions between two sisters; tensions between a married pair; and what makes us truly happy. This is what I was feeling anyway, when reading and adapting the novel. I've swapped the title in Welsh- so that it shows we need to remember to forget about some things in the past, in order to move on to the future. This is what the main character does in the end, I think.
The English novel was set in London, Marlow and Brighton, so I changed these to: Llanelli, Cowbridge and Mumbles, near Swansea. Sarah, the main character in the English novel, sings 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', so in the Welsh, she sings 'Calon Lân'. I enjoy thinking about ways to Welshify novels like this so that the reader believes the novel is one that is set in Wales.

Cyfres Amdani Cofio Anghofio

Cyffesion Saesnes yng Nghymru

Awdures: Sarah Reynolds
twitter.com/sarahyngnghymru

Pris: £4.99

Iaith: Cymraeg

Amdani Uwch Safon: Uwch

Cyhoeddwr: Atebol

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781912261284

Exclusive author insight:
Mae Sarah yn cyflwyno ei llyfr cyntaf, Dysgu Byw
.

Disgridiad Gwales: Mae Katie newydd symud i Gymru gyda'i gŵr newydd, Dylan. Yn ôl Dylan roedden nhw am fyw mewn tŷ enfawr, ond mae pethau'n mynd o chwith ac mae'n rhaid i'r ddau symud i fyw gyda'i rieni ef. Sut fydd teulu Dylan yn ymdopi gyda Saesnes hollol ddi-glem yn eu plith?

Gwales description: Katie has just moved to live in Wales with new husband Dylan. She had hope to live in a large house but things don't work out as she had anticipated, and she has to live with Dylan's parents. How will Dylan's family cope with a clumsy English woman?

Cyffesion Saesnes yng Nghymru

Sarah Reynolds: Mae pob priodas yn antur, ond mae priodi rhywun ry' chi ddim ond wedi nabod ers mis yn antur a hanner! Mae Cyffesion Saesnes yng Nghymru yn dilyn hynt a helynt Katie, sydd wedi cwrdd â Dylan o dan yr haul ar ynys rhamantus Sbaenaidd… ond mae Katie yn dysgu yn go gyflym, bod ei gŵr newydd yn dod fel bargen pecyn. Os yw’r briodas i fod yn llwyddiannus, fe fydd yn rhaid i Katie hefyd dderbyn ei deulu, ei wlad a’i iaith.
Mae Katie yn glanio yng nghefn gwlad Sir Gâr heb air o Gymraeg, a dim clem am ddiwylliant Cymru. Dyw ei siwrne ddim yn hawdd ac yn y nofel gomedïaidd hon; rydw i wir yn gobeithio fe fydd dysgwyr yn chwerthin a gwingo at rhai o’r camgymeriadau mae Katie yn gwneud ar hyd ei siwrne. Mae hon yn stori gariad nid yn unig rhwng Katie a Dylan ond hefyd rhwng Katie a Chymru.

Sarah Reynolds: Every wedding is an adventure, but marrying someone that you have only known for a month is an adventure and a half! Cyffesion Saesnes yng Nghymru follows the troubles of Katie, who has met Dylan under the sun of a romantic Spanish island... but Katie learns quickly that her new husband comes as a package. If the marriage is to be successful, Katie will have to accept his family, his country and his language.
Katie lands in rural Carmarthenshire without a word of Welsh, and not a clue of Welsh culture. Her journey isn't easy and this is a comic novel; I hope that every learner laughs and winces at some of the mistakes that Katie makes on her journey. This is a love story not only between Katie and Dylan but between Katie and Wales.

Llwybrau Cul

Awdur: Mared Lewis

Pris: £8.99

Iaith: Cymraeg

Amdani Uwch Safon: Uwch

Gomer

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781785622380

Disgrifiad Gwales: Mae'r nofel yn agor ar olygfa damwain liw nos ar ffordd gul yng nghefn gwlad Cymru. Mae tri char wedi cael eu heffeithio. Ond beth sy'n plethu'r tri gyrrwr, a sut cyrhaeddon nhw'r sefyllfa hon?

Gwales description: There has been a three car crash on the back-roads of rural Wales one dark night. But what joins the driver's of these vehicles, and how did they end up here?

Exclusive author insight: Mared Lewis: Creu Fi a Mr Huws & Y Stryd.

Llwybrau Cul

Trwy'r Ffenestri

Awdur: Frank Brennan
Addasiad Cymraeg o Windows of the Mind
Wedi'i addasu gan: Manon Steffan Ros
twitter.com/ManonSteffanRos

Pris: £4.99

Iaith: Cymraeg

Amdani Uwch Safon: Uwch

Cyhoeddwr: Atebol

Prynwch: gwales.com/bibliographic/?isbn=9781912261437

Disgrifiad Gwales: Dyma gasgliad o straeon byrion difyr a fydd yn siŵr o wneud i chi feddwl. Dewch i adnabod cymeriadau cymhleth, lleoliadau pell, a straeon fydd yn aros yn eich meddwl am amser maith.

Gwales description: A collection of diverse short stories which will be sure to make you think. Get to know complex characters, remote locations, and stories that will stay in your mind for a long time.

Cyfres Amdani Trwy'r Ffenestri

Logo Cyngor Llyfrau Cymru

Amdani_Poster_A4_Ionawr_2019

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David Jandrell: Introducing The Welsh Valleys Phrasebook https://parallel.cymru/david-jandrell-welsh-valleys-phrasebook/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 17:00:11 +0000 http://parallel.cymru/?p=4224

David Jandrell's mission in life is documenting the the dialect of the South Wales Valleys (also known as Wenglish), and sharing his love of phrases such 'Tidy', 'Butt', 'Now in a minute' and 'Cwtch' with the wider world.  Here he introduces Valleys English, gives a sample of popular phrases and explanations from Welsh Valleys Phrasebook and then recounts his story of developing an interest in documenting this dialect...

Skip to: Sample Glossary / My life through Valleys English

Welsh Valleys Humour / Wenglish Dialect / Talk Tidy

Welsh Valleys PhrasebookA first visitor to Wales will almost certainly have to converse with a local at some stage, and that is where the trouble may start. Ask for directions and you will be no better off than if you’d bought a sat nav and the ‘speaker’ gave all directions in Klingon.

You will have very little idea of what has been said to you. You’ll probably assume that the person you spoke to answered you in Welsh. The reality is that that person would have actually been speaking to you in English – and it is this version of English that this piece of work is all about – that being, non-standard  English as used in Wales in everyday conversation.

This language is far removed from English that you will be used to and hopefully these pages will ease your communication problems during your stay in the country. Although, at first glance, you may wonder what language it is written in – it is actually written in English. The phonetic version of the written language, that is.

Pronunciation is the biggest hurdle to overcome and the Welsh Valleys Phrasebook is prepared with this in mind. The thing to remember here is that our non-standard words are not necessarily pronounced the Welsh way, even though those words may look like Welsh on paper!

So, if you see an English word, say it as that word is pronounced in English. That will be how it is pronounced in Wales – the difference being that word will mean something else.


Sample Dialogue and Glossary

Press the play button above to listen to David narrate a typical Valleys dialogue, and then match it to items you can read below!
Items in italics relate to a definition that can be found in the full book, which contains over 120 more phrases. Following the definition is a sample dialogue.

Big massive: Huge
“We were down the club earlier and this couple came in and you should’ve seen ‘em. She was a big massive bomper and he was a tiny little dwt.”

Boggin': Unattractive, ugly, unappealing,etc. Similarly, regional variations: Bulin’, Gompin’, Mingin’ Mulin’, Muntin’ & Scruntin’
“Have you seen the state of Ron’s new girlfriend? Boggin’ mun.
“I yeared she was bulin’. That bad is she?”
“Oh aye, gompin’.”
“His last girlfriend was no oil paintin’ mind.”
“More like an oil slick, mingin’ she was.”
“Oh aye, mulin mun.”
“Mind you, he’s muntin’, can’t expect ‘im to pull any lookers to be honest.”
“Aye, to be fair all his girlfriends ‘ave bin scruntin’.”

Butt/Butt/Butty: Informal term of affection to a mate, pal, friend, associate. The Welsh version of the English, ‘bud’ or buddy’.
“Where to are you off to butt?”
“Alright butt? I’m off to meet Bob down the park.”
“Hang on butt, here’s a stroke of luck, here he comes. Alright butt, how’s it going?”
“Aye, I’m alright butt. What about you?”
“Alright butt, aye.”
“Tidy.”

Cwtch: A very common word, now understood by most English speakers. Made even more famous when international rugby referee Nigel Owens belittled brawling players on national TV when he said: “If you want a cwtch, do it off the field, not on it”.  Commonly, cwtch has three meanings:
A cuddle: Physical show of affection.
To hide something: Example: “I was wrapping his birthday present and he walked in. I had to cwtch it a bit quick under the cushion.”
A place where you put things; akin to the English ‘cubby hole’.
“Cwtch it in the cwtch then give us a cwtch.”

Dai Twice: Contrived name allocated to anyone who’s real name is David Davies.

Dooberry: Generic name for something or someone used when the speaker either doesn’t know the name of the subject or can’t be bothered to use it. Similarly: Do-ins, Doodah, Mackonky, Oojackapivvy, Shmongah, Usser, Whatyoumcallit, Woducall, Wossnim etc.
“Have you seen the dooberry?”
“It’s over there by the oojackapivvy.”
“Who put it there?”
“Wossnim, before he went into town.”
Wossee gone to town for?”
“Gone to pick up a doodah.”
“I wish he’d said, I wanted a mackonky to go with this shmongah.”
“I think I’ve got one of them, over there by the whatyoumacallit. See it?”
“Aye, great stuff. I thought for a moment I’d have to borrow one off Woducall.”
“He ‘asn’t got one, he uses a different Do-ins.”

Drive: Generic name for the driver of a public service vehicle. Commonly heard when the contents of a double-decker exits at the bus station:
“Cheers Drive.”
“Cheers Drive.”
“Cheers Drive.”
“Cheers Drive.”
“Cheers Drive.”
“Thank you Driver.”  (Middle class passenger)

Gutsy: Greedy or gluttonous.
“Where’s all them doughnuts to?”
“I ate ‘em.”
“You gutsy bastard!”

Now, in a minute: Some time later. Certainly not soon.
Willew turn that football off? I want to watch the drama on ITV.”
“I’ll turn it off now in a minute love, when it finishes.”
“How long is left?”
“They’re three minutes into the first half.”

Tidy: A real monster. Tidy can mean just about anything positive, pleasurable, good, neat, smart, satisfying, etc.,  that the user chooses to describe as ‘tidy’. The list of possible definitions is inexhaustible, but could be represented in the abridged example:
“How’s it going butt?”
“Tidy, mun aye.”
“How did the interview go?”
“Tidy butt, I got the job. They gimme a maths test and I done it tidy by all account.”
“Tidy! Much different to what you’ve bin doin’”
“Oh aye, tidy job this is. Didn’t like my last job much to be honest. Gotta dress tidy an’all.”
“Tidy. Office job is it?”
“Aye. Gotta get some tidy shoes before I start. I’ve got a tidy suit and tidy shirts, but my shoes ‘en up to much.”
“Well you gotta ‘ave tidy shoes if you d’work in an office butt. Create a tidy impression see.”
“Well, I gotta dash. I gotta tidy my room before I get into town for them shoes.”
“All the best butt. See you in a bit I spoze. I’ll tell my missus about your new job.”
“Tidy. See you butt.”

Traaaaa: Goodbye. Farewell, ta-ta
“Ok, traaaa, see you Sunday.”
“Aye, see you Sunday, traaaa.”
“Traaaa.”
“Traaaa.”

Yer: Very versatile interchangeable word for; ear, year, here, hear. At the hospital:
“What’re you doin’ yer?”  (here)
“Got summut wrong with my yer.” (ear)
“What? You mean you can’t yer things?” (hear)
“Aye, ‘ad the problem over a yer and only now they’ve got round to seeing me.” (year)

Up by yer
If you ask a Welsh person where they are, or where something is, where they’ve been, where they’re going, you may not be fully au fait with the answer you get. We tend to like to instill a bit of mystery into the whereabouts of the subject of the question by not pinpointing its exact location, but steer you towards somewhere nearby. A form of guessing game that is played and enjoyed by all- the habit of saying, “By here” or “By there”.

So, if you ask where the Radio Times is and the response is “By there”, you may well be in the same boat as you were before you asked the question. This will mean that the responder will be making some gesture, either with his/her eyes or pointing with a finger which means that you must make a conscious effort to observe him/her when he/she responds so that you can follow the physical signs to find what you are looking for.

On the other hand, the responder may be more specific and reply with a: “By there by the coffee table.” This will enhance your success at finding the Radio Times exponentially because all you have to do is find the coffee table and hunt around in that vicinity.

The ‘by’ in this case is actually a non-descript unit of measurement. The Radio Times could actually be on the coffee table, on the floor at the side of the coffee table, a yard away from the coffee table or roughly within the same postcode that the coffee table is sitting in at the time. Quite a lot of scope there, but all perfectly acceptable.

You will see that I did not exaggerate when I made reference to within the same postcode when I tell you about a snippet gleaned from a conversation I heard a few years ago:
“Where to is Manchester?”
“It’s up north somewhere, up by Liverpool.”
In this case, the ‘by’ represented a distance in the region of 34 miles! As you can see, in this case it has actually exceeded the post-code boundary.

Asking and replying using the ‘by’ method

There are no standard protocols when questioning and answering here. There are certainly no rules covering tense, grammar, syntax – this is entirely governed by the speaker, and depending on the speaker, this can become as convoluted as he/she deems appropriate. Here are some examples of questions/answers which show the scope for the progression of bizarreness.

Questions                                                        Answers
“Where to is it?                                               “It’s up by yer.”
“Where is it to?”                                             “It’s down under by there.”
“Where’s it by?”                                             “It’s over by there.”
“Where to is it by?”                                        “I don’t know where to it’s by”
“Where by is it to?”                                        “It’s up over by yer.”
“Where by will you be to.”                              “In the bus station, by Burger King.”
“I put it by yer, and it en by yer now.”            “It was by yer. Where’s it’s to now?”


David Jandrell: My life through Valleys English

David JandrellMy immersion into the non-standard version of English spoken in the Welsh valleys began in 1955 when my mother gave birth to me on the kitchen table in a tiny house on the border of two villages, Cwmcarn and Pontywaun, in the county then known as Monmouthshire. Although I can’t remember it, the first words that I would have heard would have been along the lines of:
“Cor, flippin ‘eck mun. Inny luvly.”
“Aw bless. Jess like ‘is daar.”
“Worra luvly little dwt, he is, inny. Oooooh aye.”
“Worrew gonna call ‘im Joan?"
“Come over by yer Margaret and see your brother. Go on mun, give ‘im a kiss innit.”

And that was the language I grew up with.

In those days, Monmouthshire was a political hot potato, with regular debates of: is Monmouthshire in England or in Wales? This debate had been going on and off for over 400 years and even now in 2018 it is not clear when this area was ‘English’ or ‘Welsh’ or how long these periods of Englishness and Welshness lasted to classify those who lived there.

When I was in Cwmcarn Junior School the education authority seemed to lean towards Englishness, as I remember from my introduction to the National Anthem. It would have been sometime before St. David’s Day when the whole school were ushered into the school hall and told to sit cross-legged on the floor. The Headmaster unrolled a large printed canvas with ‘Land of Our Fathers’ in huge letters written on it. The anthem was actually written in English, and that’s how we were taught the anthem – in English.  For some reason, the educationalists throughout my primary secondary and tertiary education never deemed it compulsory to teach us the Welsh version.

My first ever contact with the Welsh language proper came about during visits to Cwmcarn post office. The postmistress, Mrs Clarke, rarely tended the counter- instead she sat at the back of the shop and shouted in Welsh at someone into one of only seven telephones that were in Cwmcarn at the time. Mrs Clarke often came up in our conversations in school:
“Dwn Mrs Clarke talk funny?”
“Aye. Can’t understand ‘er mun.”
“Our mam d’reckon it’s Welsh she’s talking.”
“Cor, flippin’ ‘eck, Welsh is it?”
“Aye, according to our mam anyhow.”
“Avew gorra shout Welsh?”
“Speckt so, Mrs Clarke’s always shouting when she d’talk it.”

So apart from Mrs Clarke, the language that I was immersed in was the south east Welsh Valleys version of English.

In 1974 the county on Monmouthshire disappeared and replaced by the county of Gwent and we were now all officially Welsh. Phew!  Having said that, Gwent was very Anglicised at the time compared with most of its surrounding areas, and still is.

My mother’s language was intermittently anglicised. This phenomenon occurred when she was on the telephone. My parents were very friendly with Charles Dickens’ great-grandson, Cedric Dickens, and he telephoned them regularly. He spoke with a very refined public school English accent (think Jacob Rees-Mogg), so when the phone rang Mother would get into ‘the zone’ to be ready just in case the caller was Cedric. If it wasn’t, she still maintained the posher stance but toned it down a bit so that she didn’t appear snobbish to whoever she was talking to.  If it was Cedric though, she went for the ‘full monty’.

When I got to the fifth form in school (aged 15) I noticed that the girls, with whom we’d shared every lesson since we entered secondary education, started to become a ‘bit posher’ and began to refine their language as they tried to sound sophisticated. Us boys didn’t really embrace this and distanced ourselves from them, as we were only interested in fighting and playing football. We didn’t need to use BBC English in order to follow these pursuits!

Before leaving for University, my group of friends decided that we would all meet up in the Beaufort pub in Newbridge over the following Christmas break to compare notes on our first term away from home. I noticed some drastic changes in the language that me ex-peers were using- I was the only person using the language that we all spoke the previous September.  Instead of picking up regional English accents, they all had the same accent- a version, or as near as they could get, to ‘BBC English’ obviously to ‘fit in’ with their newly acquired peer groups

I didn’t feel as if I ‘knew’ them any more and was quite disappointed that these people had modified their speech and, ‘bettered themselves’ in their eyes.  Even the swearing had been poshed up. I noticed that the standard valley exclamation, ‘fuckin’ ‘ell mun!’ had morphed into the more refined sounding, “Fahking Hell!”

I heard the term, ‘well spoken’ a lot in those days and those who were ‘well spoken’ deserved more respect and a better level of customer service from shopkeepers if they were ‘well spoken’. I began to hear this term more and more and my sister extended it to being ‘better spoken'. To me, ‘well spoken’ was code for ‘not using the Valleys language or accent.’

I always made sure I maintained my valleys accent throughout my 20s and 30s while living in England. When I visited shops I always asked for what I wanted in my natural Valleys accent. This meant that, mostly, I would not be understood and my request would be met with a, ‘pardon?’

When returning to work in Wales in my 40s I noticed that the bonding of different social groups centred entirely around the friendly but competitive banter about how we all spoke.  One thing this new environment taught me was that, despite the very diverse mix of accents- from the west country to Swansea, including Cardiff, Barry, Newport and the Valleys, the consensus was that the least desirable accent to have was, yes, you guessed, the Valleys accent.  

Interestingly, my Valleys accent has been ridiculed and patronised more by people from Newport and Cardiff than any other regions in the UK – including the times when I resided ‘over the bridge’. Yes, if you had a Valleys accent you were the pits. It was probably because of this that I started to take an interest in accents, idioms and language which led me to observe and report on them in the future.

I had observed how diverse the Valleys accent was in the Ebbw Valley (where I now live) and had identified vast differences in accents (five distinct) between Risca in the south to Ebbw Vale, in the north. Risca is very anglicised, but travel north towards places like Abertillery, Brynmawr, Ebbw Vale, their vowel sounds get flatter and more drawn out, changes in syntax are marked and aitches rarely sounded. So, I was well armed with thoughts of noticeable changes in ways of speaking between distances of five or six miles in the Ebbw valley, but I was not prepared for what I was about to experience when I took up a teaching post at Ystrad Mynach college in 2000.

Students at Ystrad Mynach came from the Rhymney, Rhondda, Cynon and Taff valleys. By this time you’d think I was a bit of an expert in Valley accents, dialect and idioms. Not so. It took me a good eighteen months before I was fully au fait with the language used by the students. In my early days I failed to understand many of the students because their version of the Valleys English was so far removed from the version that I used. They didn’t have any trouble understanding me though – according to them, I spoke with a refined English accent, akin to newscasters on the telly.

Even the staff regarded me as a bit posh, even aloof. I remember a brief conversation with a colleague not long after I’d started:
“Where to are you from then, butt?”
“Cwmcarn.”
“Where by is that to?”
“Near Newport.”
“English arrew?”
“Er …. no. Welsh.”
“Bugger off, Newport’s England mun.”
They believed this so strongly that amongst a small group of colleagues, I was known as, 'English Dai.'

When I wrote Welsh Valleys Phrasebook I drew on the non-standard English used in a wide spectrum of different areas gleaned from my own ability to speak fluent Ebbw valleyspeak and my recently acquired Rhymney/Rhondda/Cynon/Taff valleyspeak. Whilst very diverse, the nonstandard English used was standard within the villages that used it and was the norm – even though 10 miles away, the language could be very different.  I concluded that the language is as vibrant and colourful as it has always been.

Will the language of the Welsh valleys ever die out? I hope not.


David's books are available from Y Lolfa:

Welsh Valleys Phrasebook

Welsh Valleys Humour

Cwmtwp: Gossip From the Valleys

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Learn Welsh: Where and how? An overview of resources / Dysgu Cymraeg: Ble a sut? Trosolwg o adnoddau https://parallel.cymru/dysgu-cymraeg/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 16:00:11 +0000 https://parallel.cymru/?p=8910

Mae yna lawer o adnoddau a sefydliadau sy'n cefnogi'r iaith Gymraeg a'r rhai sy'n ei ddysgu. Mae'r dudalen hon yn casglu rhai o'r prif eitemau at ei gilydd, ynghyd â mewnwelediad perthnasol oddiw wrth gyfranwyr parallel.cymru. Cofnodwch, rhannwch a mwynhewch!

There are many resources and organisations that support the Welsh language and those learning it. This page collates some of the main items together, plus relevant insight from parallel.cymru contributors. Bookmark, share and enjoy!


Gwersi / Lessons

Y Ganolfan Dysgu Cymraeg Gendlaethol / The National Centre for Learning Welsh

Canolfan Dysgu Cymraeg Genedlaethol logo

learnwelsh.cymru

The National Centre for Learning Welsh is responsible for all aspects of the Welsh for Adults education programme - from curriculum and course development to resources for tutors, research, marketing and e-learning. Its aim is to attract new learners to the Welsh language and increase the numbers using and enjoying Welsh each day. The National Centre works with a network of  providers across Wales, which delivers Welsh courses on its behalf and are outline below.

Addysgydd ac Awdures Eiry Miles:
Creu cyrsiau newydd ar gyfer dysgu Cymraeg / Educator and Author Eiry Miles: Creating new courses for learning Welsh

Lynda Pritchard Newcombe:
WLPAN: O Israel i Gymru: Llinach cyrsiau Cymraeg i Oedolion / From Israel to Wales: The lineage of Welsh for Adults courses

Say Something In Welsh

saysomethingin.com/welsh

SaySomethingInWelsh is a course that focuses on helping people learn to speak and understand Welsh, and avoids wasting time on complicated grammar rules and reading/writing. Based on the latest research in language learning, the course provides downloadable MP3 files for free. The entire introductory course of 25 lessons, the practice sessions and vocabulary units are all entirely free of charge. Give it a go and you'll be speaking Welsh in no time!

Nicky Roberts:
Dysgu Cymraeg gyda Say Something In Welsh / Learning Welsh with Say Something In Welsh

Profiad Iaith: Pobl Sydd yn Siarad am Ddysgu a Defnyddio’r Iaith / Language Experience: People Speaking about Learning and Using Welsh

Duolingo

duolingo.com/course/cy/ en/Learn-Welsh-Online

Everyone learns in different ways. For the first time in history, we can analyze how millions of people learn at once to create the most effective educational system possible and tailor it to each student. Duolingo's ultimate goal is to give everyone access to a private tutor experience through technology. It's hard to stay motivated when learning online, so we made Duolingo so fun that people would prefer picking up new skills over playing a game.

Duolingo Welsh for English speakers:
Dathlu 1 miliwn o ddefnyddwyr / Celebrating 1 million users


Cyrsiau Lleol / Local Courses & Classes

Anglesey, Conwy & Gwynedd

Denbighshire

Wrexham & Flintshire

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/coleg-cambriapopeth-cymraeg

Canolfan Iaith Clwyd
Pwll y Grawys
Denbigh
Denbighshire
LL16 3LG

gwybod@popethcymraeg.com

01745 812287

popethcymraeg

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/coleg-cambriapopeth-cymraeg

Coleg Cambria
Grove Park Road
Wrexham
LL12 7AB

learncymraeg@cambria.ac.uk

01978 26 7596

Ceredigion, Powys & Carmathenshire

Carmarthenshire

Merthyr Tydfil, RCT & Bridgend

Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Monmouthshire, Newport & Torfaen

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/aberystwyth-university

Aberystwyth University
P5 Penglais Campus
Aberystwyth
Ceredigion SY23 3UX

learnwelsh@aber.ac.uk

0800 876 6975

learnwelshCP

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/carmarthenshire-county-council

Carmarthenshire County Council
Parc Dewi Sant
Carmarthen
Carmarthenshire
SA31 3HB

learnwelsh@carmarthenshire.gov.uk

 01267 246861

learncymraegSG

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/university-of-south-wales

University of South Wales
D Block (Dyffryn)
Trefforest
Pontypridd
CF37 1DL

learnwelsh@southwales.ac.uk

01443 483600

learncymraegMG

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/coleg-gwent

Learn Welsh Gwent
Coleg Gwent
Blaendare Road
Pontypool
NP4 5YE

welsh@coleggwent.ac.uk

01495 333710

learncymraegGWE

Pembrokeshire

Swansea, Neath & Port Talbot

Cardiff

Vale of Glamorgan

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/pembrokeshire-county-council

Preseli Community Learning Centre
Ysgol y Preseli
Crymych
Pembrokeshire
SA41 3QH

learnwelsh@pembrokeshire.gov.uk

01437 770180

LearnCymraegPem

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/swansea-university

Learn Welsh
Talbot Building
Swansea University
Singleton Park Campus
Swansea
SA2 8PP

learnwelsh@swansea.ac.uk

01792 60 20 70

learncymraegABA

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/cardiff-university

School of Welsh
Cardiff University
John Percival Building
Colum Drive
Cardiff
CF10 3EU

info@learnwelsh.co.uk

029 2087 4710

LearnCymraegCF

learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/providers/vale-of-glamorgan-council

Learn Welsh
Palmerston Learning Centre
Cadoc Crescent
Barry
CF63 2NT

learnwelsh@valeofglamorgan.gov.uk

01446 730402

LearnWelshBro


Cyrsiau Preswyl / Residential Courses

Nant Gwrtheyrn

Nant Gwrtheyrn

nantgwrtheyrn.cymru

Nant Gwrtheyrn or “the Nant” as it is often called, now home to the National Welsh Language and Heritage Centre, is a magical place located in a former quarrying village on the northern coast of the Llŷn Peninsula in north Wales. The Centre specialises in Welsh for Adults (as a second language) and offers intensive residential courses throughout the year.

Prifysgol Aberystwyth

Prifysgol Aberystwyth logo

aber.ac.uk/en/learn-welsh

A four-week intensive summer course. Over the years, hundreds of people have become fluent Welsh speakers thanks to this ground-breaking course. You will be immersed in the Welsh language from dawn to dusk, speaking the language both in the classroom and socially.

Prifysgol Caerdydd

Prifysgol Caerdydd

welshforadults. cardiff.ac.uk

Intensive courses every summer of varying lengths. Experience the capital city of Wales and enjoy great Welsh history and culture on your doorstep. Cardiff is a vibrant city which is packed full of Welsh history and opportunities to speak the Welsh language.

Prifysgol Cymru Y Drindod Dewi Sant

University of Wales Trinity Saint David logo

uwtsd.ac.uk/ courses/welsh-learners

One-week intense courses at Easter and in July in Lampter. The University is located in the heart of Welsh speaking Wales, providing learners with ample opportunity to practise the language. Where better to learn Welsh? Come to the University of Wales Trinity Saint David on the Lampeter campus to learn Welsh quickly, in a relaxed atmosphere with the help of experienced Welsh language tutors.


Gwrando a Gwylio / Listen and Watch

Apton

Apton Logo

apton.cymru

A streaming service specifically for music by Welsh labels- over 10,000 tracks with no advertising.. Compatible with iOS and Android smartphones and web based platforms.

Cymru FM

Cymru FM logo

cymru.fm

Cymru FM is a 24/7 online radio platform which allows users to contribute and broadcast their very own radio shows. It’s mainly aimed at Welsh speakers, Welsh learners and those with a keen interest in anything Welsh. It allows local communities to create and broadcast their own shows.

Radio Cymru

Radio Cymru logo

bbc.co.uk/radiocymru

The main source for listening to Welsh-language talk shows and music; the new Radio Cymru 2 station offers even more choice of broadcasts, and you can catch up online for free.

Radio 1 DJ Huw Stephens:
Hyrwyddo cerddoriaeth Gymreig ar draws y DU / Promoting Welsh music across the UK

S4C

S4C Logo

s4c.cymru

s4c.cymru/clic

s4c.cymru/en/ entertainment/dal-ati

Welsh language TV channel. Shows are available online for 30 days on catch up, and each Sunday morning a show for learners is broadcast: Dal Ati (keep at it).

Cyflwynydd S4C Alun Williams:
Straeon am fy ngyrfa ym myd teledu / Stories from my TV career


Darllen / Read

Cyfres Amdani

Cyfres Amdani

parallel.cymru/amdani

An exciting series of 20 books for adults who are learning Welsh, arranged by level (Mynediad, Sylfaen, Canolradd and Uwch) and aligned with national Welsh for Adults curriculum. A wide range of authors have contributed, including some of Wales' best-known and some who have learnt Welsh themselves. The range contains 14 new works and 6 adaptions of Cambridge Readers for new English speakers.

BBC Cymru Fyw

BBC Cymru Fyw

bbc.co.uk/cymrufyw

The main source of online written news and analysis for Welsh-language speakers.

Gwales

GWales logo

gwales.com

The retail arm of the Welsh Books Council, allowing you to buy from one place any of the vast range of Welsh-language books and publications. International shipping is available at reasonable rates.

Llyfr y Mis:
Monthly selections from the Welsh Books Council


Cyhoeddwyr / Publishers

Atebol

Atebol logo

atebol.com

CAA Cymru

CAA Logo

aber.ac.uk/en/caa

Gomer

Gomer logo

gomer.co.uk

Y Lolfa

Y Lolfa logo

ylolfa.com


Defnyddio'r Iaith / Using the Language

Yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol

Eisteddfod logo

eisteddfod.wales

Held during the first week of August every year, the National Eisteddfod is a celebration of the culture and language in Wales. The festival travels from place to place, alternating between north and south Wales, attracting around 150,000 visitors and over 250 tradestands and stalls. The history of the Eisteddfod in Wales can be traced back to 1176, with the modern history of the organisation dating back to 1861.  Traditionally a competition-based festival, attracting over 6,000 competitors every year, the festival has developed and evolved over recent years, and whilst the competitions form the central focus for the week, the Maes (site) itself has grown and developed into a vibrant festival with hundreds of events and activities for the whole family.

Gareth Thomas:
Iolo Morganwg a’r Eisteddfod Genedlaethol / Iolo Morganwg and the National Eisteddfod

Mentrau Iaith

Mentrau Iaith logo

mentrauiaith.cymru

The Mentrau Iaith are the way in which local communities work together for the benefit of the Welsh language.  They have proven to be an effective community development model whose work makes a real difference to local communities. Today, there are 22 Mentrau Iaith which serve each and every part of Wales, such as providing events for learners, activities for children and organising music gigs.

Marged Rhys & Heledd ap Gwynfor:
Chwe mis ym Mentrau Iaith Cymru / Six months in Mentrau Iaith Cymru

Cymdeithas yr Iaith

Cymdeithas yr Iaith logo

cymdeithas.cymru

A group of people campaigning on behalf for the Welsh language and the communities of Wales as part of the international revolution over rights and freedoms.

Cymdeithas yr Iaith:
Blog dwyieithog / Bilingual blog


Gwyliau / Festivals

Tafwyl

Tafwyl logo

tafwyl.org

Tafwyl is Cardiff’s annual Welsh arts and culture festival – a huge Welsh party! It's a family friendly festival, and is a lively mix of music, literature, drama, comedy, art, sports, food and drink. The event is nine days in total: a fringe event held all around the city for 7 days, ending with the main weekend event at Cardiff Castle at the start of July. Entry to Tafwyl is free and open to all – Welsh speaker or not. It’s a great event for families, Welsh learners and people experiencing Welsh language and culture for the first time.

Eisteddfod yr Urdd

Eisteddfod Urdd

urdd.cymru/en/eisteddfod

The Urdd National Eisteddfod is one of Europe’s largest youth touring festivals that attracts around 90,000 visitors over a week at the end of May and is held in a different location in Wales each year.  The Eisteddfod is a competitive festival with over 15,000 children and young people under the age of 25 competing during the Eisteddfod week in various competitions such as singing, dancing and performing. They have won their place following local and regional rounds held in the spring months leading up to the Eisteddfod.

Gŵyl Arall

Gŵyl Arall logo

gwylarall.com

A jam-packed weekend of literature, music, art and film in Caernarfon each July.

Dani Schlick:
Gŵyl Ddewi Arall yng Nghaernarfon / Gŵyl Ddewi Arall in Caernarfon

Eisteddfod Rhyngwladol Llangollen

Llangollen International Eisteddfod logo

international-eisteddfod.co.uk/cy

The Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod is a music festival which takes place every year during the second week of July in Llangollen, North Wales. Singers and dancers from around the world are invited to take part in over 20 competitions followed each evening by concerts on the main stage. Over five thousand singers, dancers and instrumentalists from around 50 countries perform to audiences of more than 50,000 over the 6 days of the event.


Rhyngweithio / Interact

Map of places to speak Welsh

parallel.cymru/siarad

A crowd-sourced interactive map of over 300 shops, cafes, pubs and more where there is likelihood of staff speaking Welsh.

Say Something In Welsh Forum

forum.saysomethingin.com

A large community of learners from all over the world; a warm welcome is offered to all. To encourage accessibility, the language of the forum is English or bilingual.

Welsh speaking practice on Slack

welshspeakingpractice
.slack.com

A community of volunteers offering facilitated video/spoken practice sessions on Slack- all are welcome, including to sessions aimed at very new learners.

Yr Iaith Gymraeg ar Twitter

parallel.cymru/twitter

An dashboard of the main accounts on Twitter that use Welsh; a chance to read and participate in conversations.


Lloegr / England

London Welsh Centre

londonwelsh.org

The home of the Welsh language community in the South-East, the Centre has a bar, classes, choirs and organises social events from its base in Kings Cross.

Derby

derbywelshlearnerscircle. blogspot.co.uk

A keen group of learners and speakers in Derby, who also caretake resources and contacts for communities around England.

Jonathan Simcock:
Dysgu a defnyddio Cymraeg yn Derby / Learning and using Welsh in Derby

Wales Week in London

walesweek.london

Wales Week in London is an annual series of activities and events that celebrate and promote everything that's great about Wales. Through a calendar of events around St David's Day, which galvanises existing Welsh communities in London, Wales Week in London builds a positive momentum across the capital that is distinctly about Wales.


Golgedd America / North America

AmeriCymru

AmeriCymru logo

americymru.net

Offers magazine stories, classes and an online shop for the Amercian Welsh-interest community.

Ninnau & Y Drych

Ninnau logo

ninnau.com

The North American Welsh Newspaper, dedicated to preserving and enhancing the vitality of the North American Welsh community.

Cymry Efrog Newydd / New York Welsh

New Work Welsh

newyorkwelsh.com

A network to support Welsh people and those that have an affinity for Wales, with a monthly meet-up, as well as a number of cultural and professional events.

Cymdeithas Madog

Cymdeithas Madog

madog.org

Cymdeithas Madog, the Welsh Studies Institute in North America, Inc. is a non-profit that sponsors Cwrs Cymraeg, a week-long Welsh language course at a different North American campus every July.

North American Festival of Wales

North American Festival of Wales

thewnaa.org

The festival is held in a different location each year, in either the U.S. or Canada, and celebrated over the shared Labor Day holiday weekend. It celebrates the life, heritage, and culture of Wales over four full days of song, merriment, and camaraderie with old and new friends.


Adnoddau / Resources

Ask Dr Gramadeg

Ask Dr Gramadeg

parallel.cymru/ask-dr-gramadeg

A bilingual online grammar guide, presenting bite-sized topics in the order that Welsh for Adults classes are taught, with a search facility.

BBC Bitesize

BBC Bitesize

bbc.com/bitesize/levels/z8w76sg

Welsh language revision and study resources for GCSE pupils, but great for adult learners as well.

Cysill Ar-Lein: Gwirydd Sillafu a Gramadeg Cymraeg / Spellchecker and Grammar checker on-line

Cysill Ar-lein logo

cysgliad.com/cysill/arlein

An online spealling and grammar checker, from Bangor University's Language Technologies Unit.

Cyfeiriadur Cymreig / Welsh Directory

Y Lolfa logo

ylolfa.com/directory

A comprehensive list of services, companies and resources that operate through the Welsh language.


Mwy o fideos a sŵn / More videos and sound

S4C's Hwb

Hwb S4C

youtube.com...

Between 2012 and 2014 S4C broadcast a series for new learners called Hwb (boost), presented by an experienced tutor, Nia Parry, and a learner, Matt Johnson. Archives are available on S4C.

Yn Chwarae 

Yn Chwarae

youtube.com/c/YnChwarae

Sianel Youtube Gemau Fideo i Oedolion 18+ / A YouTube channel for gamers aged over 18

Y Pod

Y Pod

ypod.cymru

A collection of Welsh-language podcasts.

Learn Welsh with Nicky

Learn Welsh with Nicky

youtube.com

Nicky started learning Welsh at the end of 2016 and made very rapid progress; his YouTube channel captures his infectious approach to the language.


Crewyd gwaith celf y prif lun gan Rhiannon Roberts, rhiannonart.co.uk
The artwork in the main image was created by Rhiannon Roberts, rhiannonart.co.uk
Rhiannon Roberts: Peintio Cymru mewn lliwiau newydd / Painting Wales in new colours


 

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Tarddiad ac Ystyr Enwau Cymraeg / Origin and Meaning of Welsh Names https://parallel.cymru/enwau/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 14:00:06 +0000 http://parallel.cymru/?p=6751
Enwau Cymraeg i blant/bechgyn/merched: adnodd unigryw - Welsh names for children/boys/girls: a unique resource

Drwy gydol yr oesoedd a ledled y byd mae rhoi enwau ar bobl wedi bod yn beth bwysig. Wrth gwrs, mae i'r Gymraeg, fel i bob iaith arall, draddodiad hynafol o greu a defnyddio ffurfiau cynhenid ar enwau. Felly ceir Aeronwen (teg), Eiluned (hi a ddymunir yn fawr), Tirion (tyner, hapus), Awstin (hybarchus), Emlyn (gweithgar), a Terrwyn (dewr). Isod mae rhestr o enwau Cymraeg ar gyfer gwragedd a dynion fel y gellwch fwynhau harddwch a hanes yr iaith, a darganfod rhyw wybodaeth ddefnyddiol, efallai, fydd yn eich helpu i benderfynnu ar enw ar gyfer eich baban newydd (neu'ch cath neu gi, pwy a ŵyr?), neu ar ffugenw i'w ddefnyddio wrth gystadlu mewn Eisteddfod!

Throughout the ages and across the world, giving people names has been an important practice. Of course, Welsh, like every other language, has an ancient tradition of creating and using native forms for names. Thus we have Aeronwen (fair), Eiluned (greatly desired), Tirion (mild, happy), Awstin (venerable), Emlyn (hard-working), a Terrwyn (brave). Below is a list of Welsh names for women and men so that you can enjoy the beauty and history of the language, and discover some useful information, perhaps, which will help you to decide on a name for your new baby (or your cat or dog, who knows?), or on a pen-name to use to compete in an Eisteddfod!

Noder: Mae llawer iawn o wybodaeth eirdarddol ar y we o ran enwau cyntaf Cymraeg, ond yn anffodus, dyw ychydig o'r syniadau ddim yn hollol ddibynadwy! Hoffwn i gydnabod y ddyled fawr sydd arnaf i  'The Oxford Dictionary of First Names'. David Sutton, davidsuttonpoetry.com.

Note: There is a good deal of etymological information about Welsh forenames on the web, but unfortunately some of it is not very reliable! In carrying out these amendments, I would like to acknowledge the considerable debt I owe to the 'Oxford Dictionary of First Names'. David Sutton, davidsuttonpoetry.com.

Neidiwch i enwau bechgyn / Jump to boys names

Enwau Merched Cymraeg / Welsh Girls names

The most popular given Welsh-language female names (based on new birth registrations in Wales) in 2017 were, from first to tenth: Erin, Ffion, Seren, Megan, Mali, Alys, Nia, Cadi, Eira, Martha.

Enw / Name Tarddiad ac Ystyr / Origin and Meaning
Aberfa Aber (estuary) + fa (place)
Abertha Aberth, aberthiad (sacrifice)
Adain Adain (wing)
Adara Adar (birds)
Addfwyn Addfwyn (mild, gentle)
Aderyn Aderyn (bird)
Aelwen Ael (brow) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Aelwyd Aelwyd (hearth)
Aeres Aeres (= etifeddes, heiress)
Aeron From the Celtic goddess of battle and slaughter, Agrona. This name probably derives from an Old Celtic element represented in modern Welsh by aer (battle), but its modern use may be due to its association with aeron (berries, fruit)
Aerona A variant of Aeron
Aeronwen From Aeron + (g)wen (white, fair)
Aeronwy From Aeron + an ancient name suffix of uncertain derivation
Afanen Afanen (= mafonen, raspberry)
Alaw Alaw (lily, water lily; also air, melody)
Alis / Alys A Welsh form of Alice
Alwen The feminine form of alwyn (very white, beautiful)
Alwena A variant of Alwen
Amser Amser (time)
Aneira A feminine form of Aneirin (modern Aneurin), of uncertain origin. Aneirin was a famous Old Welsh poet, author of Y Gododdin
Angharad An (intensive prefix) + car (root of a verb meaning to love) + the nounal suffix -ad. An ancient name that figures in Welsh mythology: in the Mabinogi Angharad Golden Hand first rejects Peredur's suit, then falls in love with him when he returns as the unknown Mute Knight
Angwen An (intensive prefix) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Anna A Latinate form of Anne. The name of one of King Arthur's sisters.
Annwyl Annwyl (dear, beloved)
Anwen A variant of Angwen
Anwyl A variant of Annwyl
Anwyn A variant of Angwen
Aranrhod Aran (great, huge) + rhod (wheel). The name of the ancient Celtic goddess of the moon, and in the Fouth Branch of the Mabinogi, the mother of the hero Lleu Llaw Gyffes
Argel Argel (refuge, sanctuary)
Arglwyddes Arglwyddes (lady, female equivalent of a lord)
Argoel Argoel (= rhagarwydd, sign, portent)
Arial Arial (= llawn ynni, full of energy, vigorous)
Arianell Arianell = Ariannaidd (silver)
Arianrhod A modern version of Aranrhod, reintepreting the name as arian (silver) + rhod (wheel)
Arianwen Arian (silver) + (g)wen (white, fair). The name of a daughter of Brychan, a semi-legendary 5th century chieftain
Arlais Arlais (temple of the head, brow)
Armes Armes (= proffwydes, prophetess)
Arthes Arthes (= arth fenyw, she-bear)
Arwen A female form of Arwyn, from arwyn (very bright, splendid)
Arwydd Arwydd (sign)
Asgre Asgre (breast, bosom)
Aures Aur (gold)
Awel Awel (= gwynt ysgafn, breeze)
Aylwen Ael (brow) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Banon Banon (= brenhines, queen)
Beca From the biblical name Rebecca
Begw A short form of Megan
Berth Berth (= hardd, beautiful)
Berthog Berthog (= cyfoethog, rich)
Bethan A form of Elisabeth
Betrys A Welsh form of Beatrice
Blodeuwedd Blodau (flowers) + (g)wedd (appearance). In the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi, Blodeuwedd is the wife of Llew Llaw Gyffes, who betrays him and ends up being turned into an owl (tylluan)
Blodeuyn Blodyn (flower)
Blodwen Blodyn (flower) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Branwen Bran (raven) or bron (breast) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Bregus Bregus (= brau, frail, delicate)
Briallen Briallen (primrose)
Brin Bryn (hill)
Bron Short for Bronwen
Bronwen Bron (breast) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Bronwyn A variant of Bronwen
Buddug Buddug (= llwyddiannus, victorious)
Cadwyn Cadwyn (chain)
Caethes Caethes (= caethferch, female slave)
Cadi Short for Catrin, a Welsh form of Katherine
Cafell Cafell (oracle)
Caitrin / Catrin A Welsh form of Katherine
Cari A diminutive form of Angharad or Carys, meaning beloved
Carryl A Welsh form of Carol
Carys / Cerys Car (love = cariad) + -ys ending; a very popular name
Ceinwen Cain (fiar, lovely) + (g)wen (white, fair). The name was borne by a fifth century saint, daughter of the chieftain Brychan
Celyn Celyn (holly)
Ceri Of uncertin origin, probably a shortening of Ceridwen
Ceridwen Cerdd (song) + teg (fair). In Celtic mythology, Ceridwen is the goddess of poetic inspiration, and also said to be the name of the mother of the poet Taliesin
Corsen Corsen (= cawnen, reed)
Cragen Cragen (shell)
Cranogwen The name taken as bardic title by Sarah Jane Rees of Llangrannog, who in 1865 became the first woman to gain the coveted chair of the Royal National Eisteddfod in Aberystwyth
Creirwy The name given to the daughter of the goddess Ceridwen
Crisiant Crisiant (crystal)
Cristyn A Welsh version of Christine
Cymreiges Cymreiges (= menyw o Gymru, a Welsh woman)
Dafina A Welsh form of Davina, a Latinate feminine form of David
Del Del (= pert, pretty)
Delia A classical Greek epithet of the goddess Artemis, who lived on the island of Delos
Delwyn A modern name composed of the elements del (neat, pretty) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Delyth A modern name composed of the elements del (neat, pretty) + the suffix –yth, formed on analogy with such names as Gwenyth
Derren Aderyn (bird)
Derwen Derwen (oak tree)
Deryn Aderyn (bird)
Dicra Dicra (delicate)
Difyr Difyr (pleasant, amusing)
Dilwen The female form of Dilwyn
Dilys Dilys (genuine, sincere)
Druantia From Druantia, a hypothetical Celtic tree-goddess postulated by Robert Graves in his study 'The White Goddess'. The name would be connected with the Celtic element drus (= derw, oak)
Drysi Drysi (briers, brambles)
Dwyn Dwyn (pleasant, agreeable)
Dwynwen Dwynwen was nawddsant cariadon yng Nghymru, (the Welsh patron saint of lovers)
Dylis A variant of Dilys
Ebrill Ebrill (April)
Efa A Welsh form of Eve
Eiddwen A modern Welsh coinage, apparently from eiddun (desirable) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Eiluned A variant of Eluned. In the Mabinogi, a collection of tales from Welsh myth, she is a servant of the Lady of the Fountain who rescues the knight Owain
Eilwen A variant of Aelwen
Eira Eira (snow). A modern Welsh coinage
Eirian Eirian (fair, beautiful)
Eirianwen Eirian (fair, beautiful) + (g)wen (white)
Eiriol Eiriol (snowdrop)
Eirlys Eirlys (snowdrop)
Elen / Elin Probably a Welsh form of Helen, being used in early Welsh texts as the name of the mother of the emperor Constantine
Eleri Of uncertain origin, the name borne in the 5th century by the daughter of the sem-legendary chieftain Brychan. Also the name of a river in Ceredigion, but the river-name has a different origin
Eluned Apparently formed from an earlier Luned or Lunet; in the Arthurain romances of Chretien de Troyes, the form is Lunete.
Enfys Enfys (rainbow)
Enid Of uncertain origin; in Arthurian legend the name of the long-suffering wife of Geraint
Enrhydreg In the Welsh tale 'Culhwch and Olwen', the name given to the daughter of Tuduathar
Epona From a Gaulish word meaning ‘great mare’. In Celtic mythology Epona was a goddess associated with horses
Erdudvyl The name of a legendary daughter of Tryffin in Welsh tales
Eres Eres (= rhagorol, strange, wonderful)
Erin / Eryn From Gaelic Eirinn, the dative case of Eire (Ireland)
Esyllt Of obscure origin but probably meaning ‘of fair aspect’. Esyllt was the tragic mistress of Tristram in Arthurian romance
Eurneid The name of a daughter of Clydno in Welsh tales
Eurolwyn Aur (gold) + olwyn (wheel). Eurolwyn was a daughter of Gwydolwyn in Welsh tales
Ffansi Ffansi = dychymyg (fancy, imagination)
Ffion Ffion = bysedd y cŵn (foxglove)
Fflur Fflur (flowers, beauty)
Ffraid A Welsh form of Brigid, an Irish saint
Filomena Filomena was an early Italian saint; her name comes via Latin from the Greek Philomenos, from philein (to love) + menos (strength)
Gaenor A Welsh spelling of Gaynor, which is itself an anglicised variant of Gwenhyvar
Garan Garan (crane, heron)
Garwen The name of a mistress of King Arthur, daughter of Ogyrvan Gawr, mentioned in Triads of Britain
Gaynor An anglicised variant of Gwenhyvar
Gladys An anglicised form of the Welsh name Gwladus, of uncertain derivation
Glain Glain (gem, precious stone)
Glenda Glen (clean, pure) + da (good)
Glenys A modern Welsh coinage, probably from glen (pure, clean) + -ys ending
Glesni Glesni (blueness, paleness) from glas
Glynis A variant of Glenys
Goewyn The name of a woman who appears in the Mabinogion tale 'Math fab Mathonwy'
Goleuddydd Goleu (bright) + dydd (day)
Gorawen Gorawen (= llawenydd, joy, joyfulness)
Grug Grug (heather)
Gwanwyn Gwanwyn (spring, the season)
Gwawr Gwawr (dawn)
Gwen Gwen, the feminine form of gwyn (white, fair)
Gwenant Gwen (white, fiar) + nant (stream)
Gwenda Gwen (white, fair) + da (good)
Gwendolen A variant of Gwendolyn
Gwendolyn Gwen (white, fair) + dolen (ring, bow). In Geoffrey of Monmouth, the name of the wife of the mythical Welsh king Locrine
Gwener A Welsh version of Venus, goddess of love
Gweneth A variant of Gwenith
Gwenfrewi Gwen (white, fair) + frewi (reconciliation). The name of a famous Welsh saint, anglicised as Winifred
Gwenhwyfar Gwen (white, fair) + hwyfar (smooth, soft); famous as the name of King Arthur’s wife
Gwenith Gwenith (wheat, used in poetic expressions to mean the pick of the bunch)
Gwenyth A variant of Gwenith
Gwenllian Gwen (white, fair) + lliant (flood, flow, probably in the transferred sense of foamy, referring to a pale complexion)
Gwennan The name of a daughter of Brychan, a 5th century king
Gwenno A llysenw (nickname) for Gwen
Gwerful A Welsh traditional name composed of elements gwair (bend, ring, circle) + the lenited form of mul (shy, modest)
Gwladus Of uncertain origin; probably no connection with gwlad (country). Anglicised as Gladys
Gwlithen Gwlithyn ( = diferyn o wlith, dewdrop)
Gwylan Gwylan (seagull; used figuratively of a fair maiden)
Gwyneira Gwyn (white) + eira (snow)
Gwyneth An altered form of Gwynedd, used as a female name
Gwynne Gwyn (white, fair)
Haf Haf (summer)
Hafgan Haf (summer) + can (song)
Hafren Hafren was a legendary British princess who was drowned in the river Severn. The name shares its origin with Severn (Latin Sabrina), which is one of Britain’s most ancient river names
Heledd Of uncertain origin. The name of a semi-legendary 7th century princess in whose name a lament for her brother's death was composed in the 9th century
Heuldys Heuldes (sunshine, warmth of the sun) from haul (sun) + tes (warmth)
Heulwen Heulwen (sunshine)
Heulyn Heulyn (diminutive of haul, sun = pelydr yr haul, ray of sunshine)
Hyledd A variant of Heledd
Hywela Hywel (visible, easily seen, prominent)
Idelle A Welsh form of Ida
Ifanna A female form of Ifan
Ina A short form of various names ending in –ina, such as Christina
Iola A female form of Iolo, which is itself a diminutive of Iorwerth
Iona From the name of the Scottish island
Irwen The female form of Irwyn
Iseult / Isolde Variant forms of Esyllt, the name of the tragic mistress of Tristram in Arthurian romance
Jenna A fanciful alteration of English Jenny, with the Latinate ending a
Leri A short form of names ending in –leri, such as Meleri, Eleri and Teleri
Lili Lili (lily)
Liliwen Lili (lily) + (g)wen (white)
Llian A short form of Gwenllian
Llinos llinos (linnet)
Llio / Llion A short form of Gwenllian
Lois A biblical name of unknown origin, borne by the grandmother of a certain Timothy in the New Testament, recipient of two epistles from St Paul
Lowri A Welsh form of Laura. The mother of William Morgan, who translated the Bible into Welsh, was called Lowri
Luned A traditional name, an earlier form of Eluned
Mabli A Welsh form of Mabel, which derives from Old French amabel, meaning lovable
Madlen A Welsh form of Magdalene
Maelona A feminine form of Maelon, from mael (prince)
Mai Mai (the month of May)
Mair A Welsh form of Mary
Mairwen Mair (Mary) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Mali A Welsh form of Molly
Mallt A Welsh form of Matilda
Manon Manon (queen, maiden)
Mari A Welsh form of Mary
Mared / Marged A Welsh form of Margaret
Martha A biblical name from an Aramaic word meaning 'lady'. It was borne in the New Testament by the sister of Lazarus and Mary of Bethan, see Luke 10.18
Meagan A Welsh pet form of Meg, which is a diminutive of Margaret
Medi Medi (September)
Megan / Megann A Welsh pet form of Meg, which is a diminutive of Margaret
Meinir Meinir (tall and slender, or as a noun, beautiful young woman, sweetheart)
Melangell The name of the Welsh patron saint of animals, possibly deriving from mel (honey) + angell (angel). The Latin form of her name is Monacella
Meleri The name of St. David's grandmother
Meredith From an Old Welsh personal name Meredudd, of uncertain origin; the second element probably means ‘lord’
Mererid A Welsh form of Margaret
Meri / Meridith / Merry Variant forms of Meredith
Meriel A Welsh form of Muriel, which in turn derives from the Gaelic Muireall, apparently composed of Old Celtic elements meaning 'sea' + 'bright'
Morfudd Morfydd ferch Urien is a figure of Welsh Arthurian legend. She is the daughter of Urien Rheged by Modron, and twin sister to Owain.
Morgan / Morgana / Morganica A traditional Welsh name derived from Old Celtic morcant; the meaning of the first element is uncertain, the 'cant' means 'circle, completion'
Morwen Morwyn (young unmarried woman, maiden)
Myfanwy My (an affectionate prefix) + banwy (= benyw, woman); used in a famous Welsh song
Myfi A short form of Myfanwy
Nerys An old Welsh name of uncertain origin, perhaps from ner (lord) + ys suffix
Nest / Nesta A Welsh form of Agnes
Nia A name of Irish origin, meaning radiance, made popular by a poem by T. Gwynn Jones, ‘Tir na n- Og’, published in 1916. The poem is based on the story of the Irish hero Ossian, who falls in love with Nia Ben Aur
Non / Nona Latin nona (ninth). Nona was the name of the mother of St. David, patron saint of Wales
Olwen / Olwenna / Olwin / Olwyn Ol (track, footpring) + (g)wen (white, fair). Olwen was the giant’s daughter whose hand was sought by Culhwch, a key character in the Mabinogion; where she wallked, flowers would spring up in the track of her white feet
Paderau Paderau, the plural of pader (rosary)
Petra A Welsh feminine form of Peter
Philomen Filomena was an early Italian saint; her name comes via Latin from the Greek Philomenos, from philein (to love) + menos (strength)
Rhedyn Rhedyn (fern)
Rhiain / Rhian Rhiain (young woman, maiden)
Rhiannon / Rhianon / Rianne From old Celtic Rigantona (great queen); in Celtic mythology Rhiannon was a goddess associated with the moon
Rhianwen Rhian (maiden) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Rhonda Of English origin, probably a blend of Rhona and Rhoda, though now sometimes taken to be composed of the Welsh elements rhon (pike, lance) + da (good). Nothing to do with the Rhondda valley, which derives from a river name of completely different etymology.
Rhonwen A traditional Welsh name deriving either from the elements rhon (pike, lance) + (g)wen (white, fair) or rhawn (hair) (g)wen (white, fair)
Rhosyn Rhosyn (rose)
Rowena A Latinised form of a Saxon name of uncertain origin, perhaps from two elements meaning fame and joy
Saffir Saffir (sapphire)
Sara A Welsh form of Sarah
Seren Seren (star)
Siân A Welsh form of Jane
Siani A pet form of Siân
Sioned A form of Siân, corresponding to English Janet
Siwan A Welsh form of Joan. A famous historical Siwan was the wife of Llewelyn Fawr, and the eponymous heroine of a play by Saunders Lewis.
Tanwen Tân (fire) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Tegan / Tegwen / Tegwyn Teg (fair) + (g)wen (white, fair)
Tegeirian Tegeirian (orchid) from teg (fair) + eirian (beautiful)
Teleri An extension of the Welsh name Eleri, with the addition of an honorific prefix ty (your). Teleri, daughter of Peul, is mentioned in the Mabinogi
Telyn Telyn (harp)
Tesni Tesni (heat of the sun)
Tirion Tirion (gentle, mild)
Tiwlip Tiwlip (tulip)
Una A name of Irish origin, of uncertain derivation, possibly meaning 'lamb'
Wenda A short form of Gwendolyn
Yseult A medieval French form of Isolde, the name of the tragic mistress of Tristram in Arthurian romance

Analysis of female given names in Wales, 1997-2017

This table shows the Welsh-origined given female names in Wales, sorted by year, from 2017 through to 1997, based on new birth registrations. Use Show 10 entries to select 50, and you can then sort by year or name. Use Next and Previous to see more years.

Name201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000199919981997
Total151314161420161618191818151619181819192019
Erin911141011139892114136133142157179146103871129480575347
Ffion8888105103116128177157182208221201208249253227223215232248205
Seren78112119142159198221214256252222185166118113988386623137
Megan778491131140153184204233268258261268329331342391452430358350
Mali716464628254535453424237463039
Alys5770475359343230292931
Nia4838483845575751598997937688938010197768799
Eira444433
Cadi44383742473644373735
Martha43395344484249373945
Lowri41343434486064605361846969851009411098101104105
Efa40433539354134
Elin3732424248514658476156625172595255675041
Eleri3432363932
Gwen3431
Cerys333635387869109116961331611631701271491621619758
Carys324440456669779189110114130142107698893929079
Lois4134514551504943384240353736475843
Bethan 35394963627991108103123126173200212244275
Tegan344936505364586051464929
Celyn3333
Catrin3440565766816474728591636877
Lili42374134
Mari313235
Rhiannon353934443057575263949088
Sara31303531484654
Angharad322935555358
Rhian30313248325248
Siân3550505155
Ceri31293336
Sioned284143


Enwau Bechgyn Cymraeg / Welsh Boys Names

The most popular given Welsh-language male names (based on new birth registrations in Wales) in 2017 were, from first to tenth: Dylan, Harri, Osian, Evan, Elis, Jac, Rhys, Cai, Morgan.

Enw / Name Tarddiad ac Ystyr / Origin and Meaning
Aeddan A Welsh form of Aidan
Afan Probably a loan from the Latin Amandus. The name of an early Celtic saint, a grandson of Cunedda Wledig, king of Gwynedd, in the early 6th century. He is said to have been martyred by pirates on the bank of the River Chwefru
Aled Aled (= epil, offspring)
Alun Probably a Welsh cognate of Alan, a name borne by a character in the Mabinogi, Alun of Dyfed, and made popular in the 19th century through its use as a bardic name by John Blackwell (1797-1840)
Alwyn A version of Alvin, which derives from Old English elements aelf (elf) + wine (friend)
Anarawd Anarawd was a legendary father of Iddig. The name may mean undisgraced, free of shame
Andras A Welsh variant of Andrew
Aneirin Of uncertain origin, possibly meaning modest; Aneirin was a famous Old Welsh poet, author of 'Y Gododdin', which tells the story of an unsuccessful raid on Catraeth (Catterick) by three hundred chosen warriors of the Old North
Aneurin A modern spelling of Aneirin
Angwyn An (intensifying prefix) + gwyn (fair)
Arawn In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the king of the otherworld realm of Annwn, appearing prominently in the first branch, and alluded to in the fourth.
Arfon From the placename, which means 'facing Anglesey': Arfon refers to the southern shore of the Menai Strait, the part of mainland Wales closest to the island of Anglesey.
Arthfael Arth (bear) + mael (prince). This was the name of a 6th-century Welsh saint who founded abbeys in Brittany
Arthus A variant of Arthur, which is itself of uncertain derivation, appearing first in the Latin form Artorius
Arwel An Old Welsh name of unknown meaning
Arwyn Arwyn (very bright, splendid)
Awstin A Welsh form of Austin, which is a contraction of the Latin Augustinus, which in turn derives from Augustus, meaning great, magnificent
Bedwyr The name of one of King Arthur's knights, anglicised as Bedivere. He plays a prominent part in the early Welsh tale 'Culhwch and Olwen'
Berwyn An ancient Welsh personal name comprising the elements barr (head) + (g)wyn (white, fair)
Bleddyn / Bledig Wolflike, from blaidd (wolf) + the diminutive suffix –yn. Blaidd was often used in early Welsh poetry to mean hero
Bowen From ap Owen; son of Owen
Brith Brith (= brych, speckled)
Brân Bran (crow, raven)
Brenin Brenin (king)
Brychan Brychan (a brindled covering)
Bryn Bryn (hill)
Brynmor Bryn mawr (great hill)
Cadell Cad (battle) + diminutive suffix -ell
Cadfael Cad (battle) + mael (prince)
Cadfan Cad (battle) + man (place)
Cadoc The name of a Welsh saint, born around AD 497, who was famed for his wisdom and became Abbot of Llancarfan in Glamorganshire
Cadogan An anglicised form of Cadwgawn
Cadwalader An anglicised form of Cadwaladr
Cadwaladr Cad (battle) + gwaladwr (leader). St Cadwaladr was a 6th century British chieftain who died fighting the pagan Saxon invaders
Cadwgan / Cadwgawn Cad (battle) + gwgawn (= gogoniant, glory). The name occurs in the Mabinogi as the son of Iddon
Caerwyn A variant of Carwyn, reinterpreted as caer (fortress) + (g)wyn (white, fair)
Cai / Cei A Celticised form of Latin Gaius, the Welsh form of Kay, one of King Arthur's knights, who along with Bedwyr plays a prominent part in the early Welsh tale 'Culhwch and Olwen'
Caradoc An ancient Celtic name apparently derived from a root car- (to love). In Geoffrey of Monmouth, Caradoc Vreichvras (Caradoc Strongarm) is one of King Arthur's knights
Carwyn A modern Welsh coinage comprising the elements car (love) + (g)wyn (white, fair)
Cefin A Welsh form of Kevin, which comes from the Gaelic Caoimhin, a diminutive of caomh (comely), hence 'little comely one'
Celyn Celyn (holly)
Cledwyn A traditional Welsh name, apparently from caled (hard, rough) + (g)wyn (white, fair)
Cynddelw A traditional Welsh name, of uncertain origin but possibly from an Old Celtic element meaning 'high, exalted' + delw (image)
Cynwrig From Welsh cyn (chief) +  ('hero, man) + the suffix -ig indicating 'has the quality of'
Dafydd A Welsh form of David
Dai Now used as a short form of Dafydd, but originally a separate name deriving from an Old Celtic element tei (shining)
Deiniol Apparently a Welsh form of Daniel. The name was borne by a 6th century saint
Derfel The name of a 6th century Welsh saint, reputed to have been a follower of King Arthur. Recently fictionalized as the hero of a trio of Arthurian novels by Bernard Cornwell
Deri / Derwyn = Derwen (oak)
Dewi A Welsh form of David, the usual form in the Middle Ages; Patron saint of Wales
Dewydd A Welsh form of David
Dilwyn A modern Welsh name, from dilys (genuine, steadfast) + (g)wyn (white, fair)
Drystan A Welsh form of Tristram
Dyfan A Welsh form of Damon. St Dyfan was a rather obscure early Christian saint and martyr in Roman times, and possibly Wales's first martyr
Dyfed From the Welsh county name, which anciently referred to what is now Pembrokeshire. In the First Branch of the Mabinogi, the hero Pwyll is Lord of Dyfed
Dylan A name of uncertain origin, probably connected with an element meaning ‘sea’. In the Mabinogi, Dylan is the miraculously born son of Aranrhod
Eifion An Old Welsh name; the name of a son of Cunedda
Eilian From Latin Aelianus. A noted bearer is St. Eilian (Elian), a Catholic saint who founded a church in North Wales around the year 450. The Parish of Llanelian is named after him.
Einion Einion (anvil)
Einwys A pet form of Einion
Elidyr Elydyr (brass, bronze)
Elis A Welsh form of Ellis, which is derived from Elias, the Greek name of the prophet Elijah, meaning ‘Yahweh is God’
Elisud An old Welsh name, deriving from elus (kind, benevolent)
Emlin / Emlyn Of uncertain origin, possibly from the Latin Aemilianus, which may itself come from a lost Celtic name
Emrick / Emris / Emrys A Welsh form of Ambrose, which derives via Latin from the Greek ambrosios (immortal)
Emyr Emyr (emperor, king, lord). The name was borne by a 6th century Breton saint who settled in Cornwall
Eurig Eurog (golden, gilded)
Evan / Ewan / Ewen Anglicised forms of Ieuan
Ffrancis A Welsh form of Francis, which derives ultimately from Italian Francesco (Frenchman)
Folant A Welsh form of Valentine, from the Latin name Valentinus, from Latin valens (strong, healthy)
Gareth Of uncertain derivation, this name first occurs in Malory’s ‘Morte d’Arthur’
Gavan / Gavin A modern form of Gawain
Gawain / Gawen Of uncertain derivation, but possibly deriving from Gwalchmai; the name of one of King Arthur’s knights
Geraint Of uncertain derivation, possibly from an old British name that appears in a Greek inscription as Gerontios, and maybe influenced by a Greek word for ‘old man’. Geraint was one of King Arthur’s knights.
Gerallt A Welsh form of Gerald, which is of Germanic origin, comprising the elements ger (spear) + wald (rule)
Gethen / Gethin A lenited form of cethin (= tywyll ei groen, dusky, swarthy)
Glaw Glaw (rain). A modern Welsh name
Glendower An anglicised form of Glyndwr
Glendower / Glyndwr Glyn (= cwm, valley) + dŵr (water). This name is often given in honour of the 14th century Welsh patriot Owain Glyndwr
Glyn Glyn (= cwm, valley)
Glynn A variant of Glyn
Gofannon / Govannon From a Latin form Gobannus, one of the deities worshipped by the ancient Celts, which is related to the Irish gobae (smith). Gofannon was a great worker in metal, and appears in the early tale 'Culhwch and Olwen', where one of the tasks given to Culhwch by Olwen's father is to get Gofannon to sharpen his brother's plough
Goronwy A name of uncertain origin. It occurs in the Mabinogi, where Goronwy Pebyr becomnes the lover of Blodeuwedd and kills Llew Llaw Gyffes. Also the name of a steward under Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, king of Gwynedd
Grigor A Welsh form of Gregory, from Greek Grigorios (meaning gwyliadwrus, watchful)
Griff / Griffin / Griffith / Gruff / Gruffin / Gruffud / Gruffudd / Gruffydd The second element means lord; the meaning of the first is uncertain. The Griff variants are anglicised forms of Gruffudd
Grwn Grwn (= trum, crib, ridge, piece of ploughed land between two furrows)
Guto A pet form of Gruffudd
Gwalchgwyn Gwalch (hawk) + gwyn (white)
Gwalchmai / Gwalchmei Gwalch (hawk) + an element of uncertain meaning, possibly meaning 'plain' and probably unrelated to Mai, the name of the month
Gwallter A Welsh form of Walter, which is of Germanic origin, deriving from wald (rule) + her (army)
Gwatycn a Welsh form of Watkin, which is a diminutive of the name Watt (also Wat), a popular Middle English given name itself derived as a pet form of the name Walter
Gwilim / Gwilym / Gwillym A Welsh form of William
Gwyn / Gwynn Gwyn (white, fair)
Gwynedd The name of a region of mediaeval North Wales, now resurrected as the name of a county
Gwynfor A modern coinage, apparently from gwyn (white, fair) + the mutated form of mawr (great)
Gwydyr / Gwythyr A Welsh form of Victor
Hari / Harri A Welsh form of Harry, itself a form of Henry, from Latin Henricus, which itself derives from two Germanic words, haim (home) + ric (ruler)
Heddwyn hHedd (peace) + (g)wyn (fair, blessed). Popularised by the fame of the young poet Ellis Humphrey Evans, killed in the First World War, who took Hedd Wyn as his bardic name
Hefin Haf (summer)
Heilyn Heilyn (= arolygwr, steward). A traditional Welsh name, originally a byname for a steward or wine-pourer, from heilio (to pour out, dispense)
Heulog Heulog (sunny)
Howell An anglicised form of Hywel
Huw A Welsh form of Hugh, which comes from a Germanic word hug (mind, spirit)
Hywel Hywel (visible, prominent, eminent). A name borne by Hywel Dda, 10th century founder of Welsh laws
Iago A Welsh form of Jacob. This was the name of two early Welsh kings of Gwynedd. It is also the name of the villain in Shakespeare's 'Othello'
Ianto A diminutive of Ifan
Idris Iud (lord) + ris (ardent, impulsive)
Idwal Iud (lord, master) + (g)wal (wall, rampart)
Iefan / Ieuan / Ifan A Welsh form of John
Iestin / Iestyn A Welsh form of Justin
Ifor A traditional Welsh name of uncertain origin, sometimes anglicised as Ivor, but Ivor has an entirely different origin, coming from Scandinavian words yr (yew) + herr (army, warrior)
Ilar A Welsh form of Hilary, which comes from the Latin Hilarius, from hilaris (cheerful)
Illtud / Illtyd From il, el (multitude) + tud (land, people). The name was borne by a famous 5th century saint. Illtyd is the modern spelling.
Ioan A Welsh form of John
Iolo / Iolyn Pet forms of Iorwerth
Iorwerth A traditional Welsh name formed from the elements ior (ord) + a mutated form of berth (handsome)
Islwyn Taken from the name of a mountain in Gwent, which is formed from is (below) + llwyn (grove)
Iwan A Welsh form of John
Jac A Welsh form of Jack
Lewys A Welsh form of Louis or Lewis
Llew / Llewelyn / Llywellyn An ancient name of uncertain origin, going back to an Old Celtic form Lugobelinos, where the first element seems to be the name of the god Lugh. It became altered by association with llew (lion)
Lloyd / Loyd An anglicised form of llwyd (grey, grey-haired)
Llywarch A traditional Welsh name, formed from the god's name Lugo + Old Celtic marcos (horse). Llywarch Hen (534-608) was a prince and poet of the kingdom of Rheged, and accounted one of the four great bards of early Welsh poetry, along with Aneirin, Taliesin and Myrddin. A number of early poems are attributed to him, though whether he actually had any hand in them is unknown
Lyn A short form of Llewellyn
Mabon / Mabyn From mab (son); Mabon seems to have been the name of a divinity; it is also borne by a character in the Mabinogion tale ‘Culhwch ac Olwen’
Macsen / Maxen A Welsh form of Maximus, a 4th century Roman ruler who according to legend married a Welsh princess. Maximus means 'greatest'
Madoc / Madog A Welsh form of the Irish Maedoc, which derives from an Irish root 'aed' meaning 'fire'. The name of a Welsh prince who allegedly discovered America in 1170
Maldwyn A Welsh variant of Baldwin, derived from the Germanic elements bald (bold, brave) + win (friend)
March March = ceffyl (horse, stallion)
Maredudd A Welsh form of Meredith
Martyn A Welsh form of Martin, which comes from Latin Martinus, from mars, the god of war
Medwyn The name of a Welsh saint whose feast day falls on January 1st.
Meic / Meical A Welsh form of Michael
Merfyn A traditional name, composed of two Old Celtic elements mer (probably meaning marrow) + myn (eminent). Anglicised as Mervyn
Meurig A Welsh form of Maurice, derived from Latin Mauricius via Old Welsh Mouric
Mihangel A Welsh form of Michael
Morcan / Morgan A traditional Welsh name derived from Old Celtic morcant; the meaning of the first element is uncertain, the 'cant' means 'circle, completion'
Mostyn From the name of a place in Clwyd, on the Dee estuary. The placename itself is Old English rather than Welsh in origin, from mos (moss) + tun (settlement, enclosure)
Myrddin / Myrddyn An ancient Welsh name, famous as the name of the wizard in Arthurian romance. It seems to have been composed of Old Celtic words meaning 'sea' and 'hill, fort'
Nye A pet form of Aneurin
Osian This derives from the traditional Irish Gaelic name Oisin, a name borne by the son of great Irish Hero Fionn mac Cumhaill. Oisin was lured away by a fairy woman to Tir na'n Og, the Land of the Young, and when he grew homesick and came back to see his kin, found that centuries had passed and all the Fianna were long dead
Owain An ancient Welsh name of uncertain origin, possibly derived from Latin Eugenius. Owain appears as a character in the Mabinogi, where he is a knight rescued by the Lady of the Fountain.
Owen An anglicised form of Owain
Pedr A Welsh form of Peter
Pryderi Pryderi (anxiety, care). The name borne by the hero of the First Branch of the Mabinogi
Prys From ap Rhys (son of Rhys)
Rees An anglicised form of Rhys
Rhisiart A Welsh form of Richard
Rhodd Rhodd (= anrheg, gift)
Rhodri From an Old Welsh personal name formed from the elements rhod (wheel) + rhi (ruler). Rhodri the Great was a 9th century king of Gwynedd
Rhydderch A traditional Welsh name, originally a byname meaning 'reddish-brown', and the origin of the surname Protheroe, from ap Rhydderch, son of Rhydderch. Anglicised as Roderick
Rhys A traditional Welsh name meaning 'ardour', borne by several rulers of south-west Wales in the early Middel Ages, such as Rhys ap Tewdur and Rhys ap Gruffudd
Robat A Welsh form of Robert
Sawyl A Welsh form of Samuel
Seimon A Welsh form of Simon
Selwyn An English name, transferred from a surname, probably deriving from sele (hall) = wine (friend)
Siarl A Welsh form of Charles
Siôn A Welsh form of John
Sionym A pet form of Siôn
Siriol Siriol (cheerful, joyful)
Steffan A Welsh form of Stephen, which derives from a Greek word for crown
Talfryn A modern Welsh name, deriving from tal (high, end of) + a mutated form of bryn (hill)
Taliesin An Old Welsh name composed of the elements tal (brow) + iesin (shining). Taliesin was a renowned 6th century Welsh poet
Tarian Tarian (shield)
Teilo The name of a 6th century Welsh saint, reputed to be a cousin and disciple of St David. He became bishop of Llandaff. The name derives form an Old Welsh form Eliau or Eilliau
Terrwyn Terrwyn (= dewr, strong, steadfast)
Tomas / Tomos / Twm / Tŵm A Welsh form of Thomas
Trefor Tre (town) + mawr (great). Originally a surname, which in turn derives from a common placename. Anglicised as Trevor
Tristan / Trystan A Welsh form of Tristram, a hero of mediaeval romance. The name is of unknown origin, but may be connected with the Pictish Drostan
Tudur A traditional Welsh name, derived from the Old Celtic form Teutorix, composed of elements meaning 'people, tribe' + 'ruler, king'. Sometimes believed to be a form of Theodore, but in fact there is no connection
Urien An ancient name, possibly deriving from Old Celtic elements meaning 'privileged' + 'birth'. The name of a historical king of Rheged who fought against the Northumbrians in the 6th century, who also makes an appearance in the Mabinogi
Ynyr A traditional Welsh name of uncertain origin, possibly from Latin Honorius. There is a reference in the Mabinogi to a battle between two Ynyrs
Wil A short form of Gwilym
Wyn / Wynne A short form of Gwyn

Analysis of male given names in Wales, 1997-2017

This table shows the Welsh-origined male given names in Wales, sorted by year, from 2017 through to 1997, based on new birth registrations. Use Show 10 entries to select 50, and you can then sort by year or name. Use Next and Previous to see more years.

Name201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000199919981997
Total151418181719181920212022222426252325262521
Dylan150149163215209230261258342353348355322333332328310203163184145
Harri12713712012012310610195759576874552494651563738
Osian1151161271171221191011431059884102835669464440443537
Evan816792103107139136166195175193174140134117697863544135
Elis7056545352443739404128
Rhys647395104117152193190232302298305275302298300333326293334300
Jac6472979610210495969997101101818992847162604444
Tomos618376809010193891111011079499947611199114114113109
Cai59587059656685871101031061331058293595854414744
Ellis525276746568586970708486777669664868505063
Ioan525268545966727681921006984686969687147
Macsen52503745
Owen4857565366659391123120125121150134161146143131161158107
Hari384137
Gruffydd36
Gethin47394979819091951097766644940414245
Iestyn393650756952697181781228284583141
Owain373838545159857772918187718080707165
Ifan36403631
Cian444547466459646968697045494032
Ieuan3840475170867794105102116978910511510894114
Iwan424348535064686662758470101837341
Steffan3740393744634646535262546965
Lloyd613838525875525576
Siôn4745624957565882718477
Ewan404745514957444936
Dafydd3742629081909799998492
Aled3645373735525872
Tomas40413639384634333840
Lewys373633
Carwyn3338
Dewi3233
Rhodri344146
Gareth415674
Geraint37
Huw41

Tudalen a luniwyd gan David Sutton, gyda chymorth gan Neil Rowlands and Patrick Jemmer
Page compiled by David Sutton with support by Neil Rowlands and Patrick Jemmer


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Geirfaoedd Thematig: ar gyfer Cyfeirio ac Astudio / Themed Glossaries: for Reference and Studying https://parallel.cymru/geirfa-thematig/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 13:00:53 +0000 http://parallel.cymru/?p=2722

Dyma gyfres o eirfaoedd/rhestrau chwilio, a drefnir yn ôl lefel eich iaith. Gellir ei defnyddio fel canllaw cyfeirio, neu gallwch ei hastudio trwy ddefnyddio'r teclyn Quizlet sydd wedi'i fewnosod yng ngwaelod pob erthygl. Gallwch hefyd fynd yn uniongyrchol at yr eitemau Quizlet: quizlet.com/parallelcymru.

This knowledge base provides a series of glossaries/lookup lists, arranged by the level of your language. It can be used as a reference guide, or you can study it using the Quizlet widget embedded in the base of each article. You can also go directly to the Quizlet items: quizlet.com/parallelcymru.

 

Termau Rhagarweiniol / Introductory Terms

Termau Canolradd / Intermediate Terms

Rhestrau llawn o Gramadeg Cymraeg / Full lists of Welsh Grammar

Enwau Lleodd / Placenames

Termau Themaidd / Themed Terminology

Cymraeg yn y Gweithle / Workplace Welsh


More about studying with Quizlet

What is Quizlet and how can I use it?  -> A quick guide to Quizlet.

There are different ways to study or test yourself: Quizlet Study Tools.


 

Idiomatic Expressions in Welsh

Enwau Cymraeg- Tarddiad ac Ystyr

Ask Dr Gramadeg

Geiriadur i Dysgwyr

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Gwreiddiau Geiriau Cymraeg / Etymology of Welsh Words https://parallel.cymru/geiriau/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 13:00:27 +0000 https://parallel.cymru/?p=14989

Pam rydyn ni'n dweud 'Cymru'? O ble mae geiriau'n dod? Ydy'r iaith Gymraeg yn gwbl unigryw? Mae deall etymoleg a gwreiddiau iaith yn rhan bwysig o ieithyddiaeth a dysgu iaith. Yma, rydyn ni'n edrych ar etymoleg yr iaith Gymraeg gan ddangos bod ei gwreiddiau ar hyd a lled y byd. 

Gan: Madison Keeping

Why do we say 'Cymru'? Where do words come from? Is the Welsh language completely unique? Understanding the etymology and origins of a language is an important part of linguistics and language learning. Here, we look at the etymology of the Welsh language, showing that its roots spread far and wide across the world.

By: Madison Keeping

Mae Madison Keeping yn fyfyrwraig PhD ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe sy'n ymchwilio defnydd salwch meddwl mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg ddiweddar. Ers 2018, mae hi wedi bod yn gweithio yn Adran y Gymraeg ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe fel tiwtor.

Madison Keeping is a PhD student in Swansea University researching the use of mental illness in recent Welsh literature. Since 2018, she has been working in the Welsh Department in Swansea University as a tutor.

Awdur ac ymgyrchydd Heini Gruffudd: “Mae’r dudalen yma’n rhoi cyfle i ddysgwyr a siaradwyr Cymraeg roi eu traed i mewn i ddyfroedd diddorol etymoleg. Mae tarddiad geiriau Cymraeg yn amrywiol- nid mor amrywiol â’r Saesneg wrth gwrs- ac mae deall o ble y daeth geiriau’r iaith yn gymorth mawr i ni i ddeall sut mae’r iaith yn gweithio. Dyma’r ymdrech ddwyieithog ar-lein gyntaf i nodi tarddiad geiriau, ac rwy’n edrych ymlaen at weld y rhestr yn cynyddu.”

Author and campaigner Heini Gruffudd: "This page gives learners and Welsh speakers the chance to put their feet into interesting etymology waters. The origins of Welsh words are varied- not as diverse as English, of course- and understanding where the words of the language came to us is a great help to us to understand how the language works. This is the first online bilingual effort to identify the origin of words, and I'm looking forward to seeing the list increasing."

Yr Athro Steve Morris: “Dyma adnodd hynod werthfawr i bawb sy’n ymddiddori yn yr iaith Gymraeg. Mae gwybod o ble mae geiriau wedi dod yn ein helpu, nid yn unig i ddeall mwy am hanes ein gwlad a sut mae’r iaith yn adlewyrchu’r hanes yna, ond hefyd cyfoeth a chryfder y Gymraeg fel iaith sydd wedi benthyca, ymgyfoethogi ac addasu o ieithoedd eraill ar hyd ei hoes.”

 

Associate Professor Steve Morris: "This is an invaluable resource for all those interested in the Welsh language. Knowing where words have come from help us to not only understand more about the history of our country and how the language reflects that history, but also the wealth and strength of Welsh as a language that has lent, enriched and adapted from other languages throughout its life."

 

Gwreiddiau’r Iaith Gymraeg

Mae gan yr iaith Gymraeg hanes cyfoethog iawn sy'n rhychwantu'r canrifoedd. Cyn y Gymraeg, Brythoneg oedd prif iaith Cymru, Lloegr a de’r Alban, pan ddaeth y Rhufeiniaid yn 43 AD. Daeth y Gymraeg o’r Frythoneg, rywbryd rhwng 400 a 700 AD. Mae barddoniaeth Gymraeg gynnar yn dod o’r cyfnod hwn.

Am fwy o wybodaeth, gweler dysgucymraeg.cymru/amdanom-ni/hanes-y-gymraeg ac erthygl parallel.cymru parallel.cymru/hanes-a-datblygiad-yr-iaith

Origin of the Welsh Language

Welsh has an extremely rich history which spans centuries. It evolved from Brythonic, the main language spoken in Wales, England and Southern Scotland when the Romans invaded in 43AD. Welsh began to emerge as a distinctive language sometime between 400 and 700 AD – early Welsh poetry survives from this period.

For more information, see learnwelsh.cymru/about-us/welsh-language-fast-facts and parallel.cymru’s article parallel.cymru/hanes-a-datblygiad-yr-iaith/?lang=en

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation Iaith Benthyg / Borrowed Language Tarddiad ac Ystyr / Etymology and Meaning
Cymru / Cymry Wales / Welsh people Brythoneg / Brythoniccombrogi = com (rhagddodiad sy’n golygu cydwladwr) + brogi (gŵr o’r un wlad)

combrogi = com (prefix which means compatriot) + brogi (fellow countryman)

ll. combrogos
Wales / Welsh Wales / Welsh Germaneg / Germanic


Eingl-Sacsonaidd / Anglo- Saxon (Hen Saesneg / Old English)
Walh (ll. Walha) = (rhywun o dramor / rhywun estron / siaradwr iaith Geltaidd)
(foreigner / stranger / Celtic speaker)


Waelisc = ([pobl] Brythoniaid / Britons)
Wēalas = (tir y Brythoniaid / the Britons’ land)


Yr Elfen Lladin- The Latin Element

Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg

Fel rydyn ni’n gwybod, mae’r Gymraeg wedi benthyg nifer o eiriau o’r Lladin dros y canrifoedd.

Y dosbarth gyntaf o eiriau benthyg oedd geiriau a berthynai i fywyd / arferion milwrol megis: castell, ffos, llafn, mur, pebyll, saeth.

Yn sgil y rheiny, daeth geiriau a oedd yn ymwneud â masnach a llafur megis : aur, hestawr, mesur, plwm, pwys.

Ond wrth i’r Ymerodraeth Rhufeinig ddod yn fwy cryf, manteisiwyd hefyd ar eu dull o fyw a gwelwyd, cegin, ystafell a ffenestr, gwisgwyd maneg a torch, bwytodd y bobl torth ac yfon nhw, gwin.

Diolch i'r llyfrau Henry Lewis, Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1943) a Geiriadur Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru  am yr wybodaeth hon.

The Latin Element in Welsh

As we know, Welsh has borrowed many words from Latin over the centuries.

The first group of words were those which belonged to military life and customs such as: castell (castle), ffos (ditch/trench/moat), llafn (blade), mur (wall), pebyll (tents), saeth (arrow).

In the wake of those came words that were related to trade and labour such as: aur (gold), hestawr (=hestor a measure of quantity, two bushels), mesur (measure/quantify), plwm (lead), pwys (pound).

But as the Roman Empire grew in strength, their lifestyle was adopted and things such as cegin (kitchen), ystafell (room) and ffenestr (window) were seen, things such as maneg (glove) and torch (chain/collar) were worn, people ate torth (loaf) and drunk gwin (wine).

Many thanks to Henry Lewis, Yr Elfen Ladin yn yr Iaith Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1943) a Geiriadur Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru  for this information.

Etymoleg allwedd

Lladin / Latin

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation Tarddiad / OriginDefnydd mewn ieithoedd eraill / Use in other languages
abadabbot (eg)abbatem / abbāt abat = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
abbas = Llydaweg Canol (Middle/Medieval Breton)
achoscause / reason (eg)occāsiō
addolito adore / worship / idolise (be)adōrāre
*ansicr / uncertain
addurn ornament / decoration / adornment (eg)adorno adorn = Catalaneg (Catalan)
adorno = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
amlnumerous / many (ans)amplus
angel angel (eg)angelus ángel = Catalaneg (Catalan)
angel = Slofeniad (Slovenian)
ángel = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
angel = Swedeg (Swedish)
angoranchor (eg/b)anchoraingor = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
anifail animal (eg)animaliumaneval = Llydaweg Canol a Diwedd (Middle and End of Century Breton)
arfarm / weapon (eg/b)armaarvov = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
arm = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
asendonkey / female donkey (eb)asinaasen = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
asen = Llydaweg Canol (Medieval Breton)
astud attentive / concentrated (ans)astutus > sy’n dod, o bosib, o’r ffurf Ffrangeg (which possibly comes from the French word) astut astut = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
aur golden (ans)aurum
barf beard (eb)barbabarf = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
barv = Llydaweg Canol (Medieval Breton)
basshallow / shaol (ans)basusbas = Hen Ffrangeg (Old French)
bas = Saesneg Canol (Medieval English)
bendith blessing (eb)benedictio / benedictum
braich arm (eb/g)bracchiumbrech = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
braç = Catalaneg (Catalan)
braccio = Eidaleg (Italian)
bresych cabbages (ll)brassica braisech = Gwyddelig (Irish)
cadair chair (eb)cathedra cadar = Llydaweg (Breton)
cathair = Gwyddelig Canol (Medieval Irish)
cathaoir = Gwyddelig
cadira = Catalaneg (Catalan)
cadeira = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
cadwynchain (eb)catēna
campfeat / achievement (eb)campus [maes brwydr / battlefield]
canghellorchancellor (eg)cancellāriuscanceller = Catalaneg (Catalan)
kancelár = Slofaciad (Slovakian)
capelchapel (eg)capellacapella = Catalaneg (Catalan)
kapela = Croation
kapell = Swedeg (Swedish)
kapell = Norwyeg (Norwegian)
carchar prison (eg)carcerem carhar = Cernyweg (Cornish)
castell castle (eg)castellum kastell = Llydaweg (Breton)
cau hollow / empty / sunken (ans)cauus
cawscheese (eg)cāseuscáis = Gwyddelig (Irish)
kaas = Iseldireg (Dutch)
cell cell (eb)cella
clochbell (eb)clocca cloch = Cernyweg (Cornish)
cloche = Ffrangeg (French)
glocke = Almaeneg (German)
klocka = Swedeg (Swedish)
cochred (ans)coccum
corffbody (g)corpus corf = Cernyweg (Cornish)
corp = Gwyddelig (Irish)
creadur creature (eg)creātūra
cwmwlcloud (eg)cumulus
cyfftrunk [of tree] (eg)cippusqueff = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
cyllell knife (eb)cultellus
cysonconsistent (ans)consonuscoson = Hen Lydaweg (Old Breton)
dewinwizard / sorcerer (eg)divinus
diafol Devil (eg) diabolusdiabhal = Gwyddelig
duivel = Iseldireg (Dutch)
diavol = Rwmaneg (Romanian)
diablo = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
disgybllearner / pupil (eg)disciplusdiscebel = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
draigdragon (eb)dracōdrage = Norweaidd (Norwegian)
dysgu to learn (be)discō
effaitheffect / consequence (eg/b)effectus
eglwys church (eb)ecclesiaeglos = Cernyweg (Cornish)
eclais = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
église = Ffrangeg (French)
eisiau to want (be)exisgŭus (to demand)
estronforeign / alien / stranger (ans + eg)extrāneusestren = Cernyweg (Cornish)
estrangeiro = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
etranger = Ffrangeg (French)
estranger = Catalaneg (Catalan)
ffa beans (ll)faba fav / fao = Llydaweg (Breton)
faf / fa = Cernyweg (Cornish)
ffenestr window (eb)fenestra fenêtre = Ffrangeg (French)
venster = Iseldireg (Dutch)
ffrwythfruit (eb/g)fructus
gramadeggrammar (eg)grammătĭca
lleidr / lladrad thief (eg) / theft (eg)llatrōlladre = Catalaneg (Catalan)
ladrón = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
llyfr book (eg)libr(um)liuer = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
llythrletter (eg)littera
MaiMay (eg)Mensis / MaiiusMai = Ffrangeg (French), Estoneg (Estonian), Rwmaneg (Romanian)
Maj = Swedeg (Swedish)
meddygdoctor (eg)medicusmethek = Cerynyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
milthousand (rhif / number)mīliamila = Basgeg (Basque)
mil = Catalaneg (Catalan), Sbaeneg (Spanish)
moddway / mode / means (eg)modus
nerfus nervous (ans)nervōsus
nifernumber (eg/b)numerusnyver = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
orgrafforthography (eb/g)orthographia
pabpope (eg)pāba
pabelltent (eb/g)papilōpuball = Gwyddelig (Irish)
padellpan / dish / bowl / skillet (eb)patellapadel = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
pechod sin (eg)peccātumpechet = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
peccad = Hen Wyddelig (Old Irish)
pêrpears (ll)pira
perygldanger / peril (eg)perīculumperigo = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
periklu = Maltese
pericolo = Eidaleg (Italian)
plantchildren (ll)planta
plufeathers (ll)plūmaplume = Ffrangeg (French)
piuma = Eidaleg (Italian)
pluma = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
plyguto bend / bow (be)plicōplygye = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
poblpeople (eb)populus pobyl, pobel = Cernyweg Canol (Middle Cornish)
pobl = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
pont bridge (eb)pons pons = Hen Gernyweg (Old Cornish)
pont = Ffrangeg (French)
porfforpurple (ans)purpuraporpra = Catalaneg (Catalan)
postpost (eg)postis
* Gw. hefyd (see also)
post Saesneg Canol (Middle English) & Hen Ffrangeg (Old French)
prifprincipal / prime / main (ans)prīmus
priodproper / right / approriate (ans)prīvātus
pysgodfish (ll)piscātuspesce = Eidaleg (Italian)
pescado = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
sach sack / bag (eb/g)saccussach = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
sac = Catalaneg (Catalan)
sac = Ffrangeg (French)
säck = Swedeg (Swedish)
santsaint (eg)santussant = Catalaneg (Catalan)
santo = Eidaleg (Italian)
santo = Portiwgaleg (Portuguese)
sarffserpent (eb/g)sarpans *ffurf llafar (spoken term)
sebonsoapsāpōnsabó = Catalaneg (Catalan)
savon = Ffrangeg (French)
jabón = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
seguridle / lazy (ans)sĕcūrus
selsigsausage (ll)salsīciasilsicq = Llydaweg Canol (Middle Breton)
salsitxa = Catalaneg (Catalan)
seneddparliament *cymharer (compare)
senātus
a Hen Ffrangeg (Old French) = sened
sillafsyllable (eb)syllaba
sychdry (ans)siccussuho = Croatian
suchy = Pwyleg (Polish)
sucho = Slovak
seco = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
synnwyrsense / wisdom (eg/b)sentīre
tafarnpub / tavern (eb/g)taberna*mae nifer o'r ieithoedd Ewropeaidd yn defnyddio'r cystrawen hwn / A number of European Languages use this form:
taverna = Catalaneg (Catalan) a Croatian
taberna = Sbaeneg (Spanish)
tavernă = Rwmaneg (Romanian)
taverna = Eidaleg (Italian)
terfynboundary (eg)terminus
tonwave (eb)tonntonn = Gwyddelig (Irish)
trist sad (ans)trīstis tristis = Llydaweg (Breton)
tríst = Gwyddeleg (Irish)
triste = Ffrangeg (French)
ysbrydghost / spirit (eg)spīritus
ysgolschool (eb)schola
ysgrifena writing (eb)scrībendum
ystafellroom (eb)stabellum
ystyrmeaning (eg/b)historia


Ffrangeg / French

Gair Cymraeg Cyfieithiad Tarddiad Defnydd mewn ieithoedd eraill / Use in other languages
tŵr tower tour túr = Gwyddelig


Beth yw ‘gair cyfansawdd’?

Gair sydd yn cynnwys o leiaf dwy forffem yw gair cyfansawdd e.e. ‘prifathro’, lle mae’r morffemau unigol, ‘prif’ ac ‘athro’ yn gallu sefyll fel geiriau unigol ar eu pennau eu hunain.

Gweler wici.porth.ac.uk/index.php/Gair_cyfansawdd am fwy o wybodaeth.

What is a compound word?

A compound word is a word which contains at least two morphemes ( a unit of a language that cannot be further divided). For example, ‘prifathro’ (headteacher) where the morphemes ‘prif’ (main) ac ‘athro’ (teacher) can stand on their own as individual words.

See wici.porth.ac.uk/index.php/Gair_cyfansawdd for more information.

Geiriau Cyfansawdd / Compound Words

Gair Gymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / TranslationCyfansoddiad y gair / Word Formation
AbertaweSwansea (eb)Aber (estuary / mouth) + Tawe (the river Tawe > mouth of the river Tawe
amcangyfrifto estimate (be) /
estimate/estimation (eg)
amcan (target / aim / purpose) + cyfrif (to count)
ansoddair adjective (eg)ansawdd (quality / characteristic) + gair (word)
atalnodpunctuation mark (eg)atal (impediment / hindrance) + nod (mark)
bochdewhamster (eg)boch (cheek) + tew (fat)
bwytyrestaurant (eg)bwyd (food) + (house)
campwaithmasterpiece (eg)camp (accomplishment / achievement) + gwaith (work)
canhwyllbrencandlestick (eg)cannwyll (candle) + pren (wood [piece of])
canmlwyddiantcentenary (eg)cant (hundred) + blwydd (year) + iant
canolbarthmidland (eg)canol (middle) + parth (domain/zone)
canolbwyntfocus (eg)canol (middle) + pwynt (point)
cigfranraven (eb)cig (meat) + brân (crow)
cildroireverse (be)cil (to retreat) + troi (turn)
coedwigforest (eb)coed (trees / wood / lumber) + gwig (wood / forest / grove)
cofnodrecord / entry (eg)cof (memory / recollection) + nod (mark / object)
cofrestrregister (eb)cof (memory) + rhestr (list)
collnodapostrophe (eg) coll (loss) + nod (mark / object)
crefftwaithcraftsmanship (eg)crefft (craft / handicraft) + gwaith (work)
croesairparadox / a crossword (eg)croes (cross) + gair (word)
croesfforddcrossroads (eb)croes (cross) + ffordd (way / road)
cyfeirlyfrdirectory (eg)cyfeirio (to refer) + llyfr (book)
cyfrinairpassword (eg)cyfrin (secret) + gair (word)
cylchgrawnmagazine / periodical (eg)cylch (circle) + grawn (store / accumulation / treasure)
cysylltairconjunction (eg)cyswllt (contact / link) + gair (word)
delfrydideal (eb)delw (image / icon / idol) + bryd (dear one / intent / desire)
doethairapophthegm / aphorism (eg) doeth (wise) + gair (word)
dwyieithogbilingual (ans)dwy (two) + iaith (language) + og
dwylo hands (ll) dwy (two) + llaw (hand)
dyddlyfrdiary / journal (eg)dydd (day) + llyfr (book)
dyffrynvalley (eg) dwfr (water) + hynt (path / course)
ebychnodexclamation mark (eg)ebychu (to exclaim) + nod (mark / object)
eisteddleseat / pew (eg/b)eistedd (to sit) + lle (place)
ffermdyfarmhouse (eg)fferm (farm) + (house)
ffurflenform (eb)ffurf (format) + llen (sheet/curtain)
gemwaithjewellery (eg) gem (jewel) + gwaith (work)
glasgwelltgrass (ll)glas (blue / green in Welsh) + gwellt (grass)
gliniadurlaptop (eg)glin (lap) + cyfrif[iadur] (computer)
grawnwingrapes (ll)grawn (grain / seed) + gwin (wine)
gwaedlifhaemorrhage (eg) gwaed (blood) + llif (flow)
gwefanwebsite (eb/g)gwe (web / internet) + man (site)
gwerslyfrtextbook (eg)gwers (lesson) + llyfr (book)
gwerthfawrvaluable / precious (ans)gwerth (worth) + mawr (big)
gwestyhotel (eg)gwest (lodging) + (house)
gwladgarwrpatriot (eg)gwlad (country) + carwr (lover)
hawlfraintcopyright (eb)hawl (right / permission) + braint (privilege)
heddlupolice (eg)hedd (peace) + llu (throng / host / large number of people / army)
heddwas policeman (eg)hedd (peace) + gwas (servant / attendant)
hwylbrenmast / flagpole (eg)hwyl (sail) + pren (wood / tree)
iachuslawnwholesome (ans)iachus (healthy) + llawn (full)
llawysgrifhandwriting / manuscript (eb/g)llaw (hand) + ysgrif (a writing)
llofruddmurderer (eg)llaw (hand) + rhudd (crimson)
llwydnostwilight (eb)llwyd (grey) + nos (night)
llyfrgell library (eb)llyfr (book) + cell (cell)
maestrefsuburb (eb)maes (field) + tref (town)
mamiaithmother tounge (eb)mam (mum / mother) + iaith (language)
mislifmenses / period (eg)mis (month) + llif (flow)
môr-leidrpirate (eg)môr (sea) +lleidr (thief)
ofergoelsuperstition (eb)ofer (fruitless / vain / unavailing) + coel (belief / credit)
peirianwaithmechanism / machinery (eg/b)peiriant (machine) + gwaith
pêl-droedfootball (eb) pêl (ball) + troed (foot)
penelinelbow (eg/b)pen (head / end) + elin (forearm)
pennodchapter (eb)pen (hhead / end) + nod (note)
pentrefvillage (eg)pen (head / end) + tref (town)
pentwrpile / stack / cluster (eg)pen (head / end) + twr (batch / heap)
penwythnosweekend (eg/b)pen (head / end) + wythnos(week)
plentyndodchildhood (eg)plentyn (child) + dod (to become / arrive)
poptyoven (eg)pobi (to bake) + (house)
prifathrohead teacher (eg)prif (master / principal) + athro (teacher)
prifddinascapital city (b)prif (main / principal) + dinas (city)
prifforddhighway (eb)prif (main / principal) + ffordd (way/road)
prifysgol university (eb) prif (master / principal) + ysgol (school)
priodfabbridegroom [groom] (eg) priod (rightful) + mab (son)
prydferthbeautiful (ans)pryd (sight / appearance) + berth (fair / beautiful)
prynhawnafternoon (eg)pryd (time / occasion / period) + nawn (the ninth hour of the day)
pythefnosfortnight (eg)pymtheg (fifteen) + nos (wythnos or night)
rhagenwpronoun (eg)rhag (before / in front of) + enw (name)
rhithweledigaethhallucination (eb)rhith (shape / form) + gweledigaeth (vision / dream)
rhwydwaithnetwork (eg)rhwyd (net) + gwaith (work)
rhywbethsomething (eg)rhyw (some) + peth (thing)
rhywle somewhere (adf)rhyw (some) + lle (place)
rhywsutsomehow (adf)rhyw (some) + sut (how)
rhywunsomebody (eg)rhyw (some) +un (one)
safbwynt standpoint / point of view (eg)sefyll (to stand) + pwynt (point)
safleposition / location (eb/g)sefyll (to stand) + lle (place)
symudliwiridescent (ans)symud (to move) + lliw (colour)
tafodiaithdialect (eb)tafod (tongue) + iaith (language)
tanwyddfuel / firewood (eg)tân (fire) + gwŷdd (tree)
teirgwaiththrice (adf)tair (three) + gwaith (time / occasion)
triphlygtreble (ans)tri (three) + plyg (fold)
truenimisery / wretchedness (eg)truan (wretch / poor fellow) + i (1st person)
tueddfryddisposition (eg)tuedd (tendency) + (appearance)
tylwythtribe / kinsfolk (eg) (house) + llwyth (tribe / clan)
uchelwraristocrat (eg)uchel (high) + gŵr (man)
uncornunicorn (eg)un (one) + corn (horn)
unionstraight / direct ans)un (one) + iawn (right /okay)
unwaithonce (adf)un (one) + gwaith (time / occasion)
ymhlithamong(st) (ardd) yn (in) + plith (midst)
ymysgin the midst of yn (in) + mysg (mixture)
ysbytyhospital (eg/b)ysbryd (spirit) + (house)
*ansicr yw union ffurf yr enghraifft yn ôl GPC (the exact example is uncertain according to DWL (Dictionary of the Welsh Language)

Dylanwad y Saesneg

Wrth ystyried hanes cythryblus yr iaith Gymraeg, hawdd yw gweld dylanwad y Saesneg a'r Normaniaid arni. O ganlyniad i statws israddol y Gymraeg yn y gorffennol a grym eithriadol Saesneg dros y blynyddoedd, nid yw’n syndod bod bach o debygrwydd rhwng rhai elfennau o’r Gymraeg a’r Saesneg. Ond ers twf dwyieithrwydd yng Nghymru a datblygiad y byd modern, technolegol, mae dylanwad y Saesneg wedi dwysáu. Oherwydd hyn, erbyn heddiw, mae llu o eiriau a phriod-ddulliau Saesneg wedi ymddangos yn y Gymraeg 

Am fwy o wybodaeth, gweler:

  • Morris, Steve a Rottet, Kevin, Comparative Stylistics of Welsh and English, Arddulleg y Gymraeg, (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 2018)
  • Parry-Williams, T.H. The English Element in Welsh – A Study of English Loan Words in Welsh, (Llundain: Hon Society of Cymmrodorion, 1923)

The English Influence

As we consider the turbulent history of the Welsh Language, it is easy to see the influence of English and the Normans on Welsh. Due to the inferior status of Welsh in the past and the exceptional strength of English over the years, it is not surprising that there is an element of similarity between certain elements in Welsh and English. However, since the growth of bilingualism in Wales and the development of the modern, technological word, the influence of English has only intensified. Today, as a result, we see a whole variety of English words and idioms which have an influence on the way we speak Welsh.

For more information, see:

  • Morris, Steve a Rottet, Kevin, Comparative Stylistics of Welsh and English, Arddulleg y Gymraeg, (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2018)
  • Parry-Williams, T.H. The English Element in Welsh – A Study of English Loan Words in Welsh, (London: Hon Society of Cymmrodorion, 1923)

Saesneg / English

Gair Cymraeg / Welsh Word Cyfieithiad / Translation
abacwsabacus
ambiwlans ambulance
bacwn bacoun Saesneg Canol / Medieval English
blanced blanket
bws bus
cacen cake
carcar
catalogcatalogue
cerdyn card (+yn)
cofficoffee
craccrack
criced cricket
cwpan cuppe Hen Saesneg (Old English)
dawnsio to dance (verb)
desg desk
dramadrama
e-boste-mail
ffôn phone (telephone)
garej garage
incink
lico to like (verb)
losinsweets (lozenge)
modernmodern
mwg mug
naturnature
neis nice
papur paper
portreadportrait
potelbottle
pŵr power
rygbi rugby
seiclo to cycle
sianelchannel
sigloto shake (shiggen) Medieval English / Saesneg Canol
siocled chocolate
sioe show
siop shop
siwgrsugar
siŵr sure
smwddio to iron (to smooth)
syrffio to surf
tetea
teledutelevision
tost toast

Dylanwad Cymraeg ar Saesneg / The influence of Welsh on English

Gair / Word Diffiniad / Definition Tarddiad / Origin
corgi Ci bach sy’n frodorol o Gymru (Sir Benfro a Sir Aberteifi)

A small dog which originates from Wales (Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire)
cor (dwarf) + ci (dog)
penguin Gair Cymraeg = pengwin

pen + gwyn = white head * tarddiad ansicr (uncertain origin)


Diolchiadau

Hoffwn ddiolch yn fawr iawn i Geraint Lewis, Heini Gruffudd, David Sutton, Rhian Jones a Phrifysgol Abertawe am eu hawgrymiadau a'u cymorth.

Thanks

I would like to deeply thank Geraint Lewis, Heini Gruffudd, David Sutton, Rhian Jones and Swansea University for their suggestions and advice.


Mae'r eitem hon ar gael i'w lawrlwytho: / This item is available to download:

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Geiriadur i Ddysgwyr: Ar-lein / Dictionary for Learners: Online https://parallel.cymru/geiriadur-i-ddysgwyr/?lang=en Fri, 01 Nov 2019 12:00:27 +0000 http://parallel.cymru/?p=2099 This reference guide contains over 1600 common words. To support those new to the language, the most common words also have a pronunciation guide. Under the English word is the Welsh word on the left, with the approximate pronunciation using English sounds to the right. The stressed sound is underlined. For a fuller explanation, click the ‘How to Use This Guide’ button below. Full credit for the content goes to Mark Stonelake.

How to Use This Guide

All | A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y
There are 106 names in this directory beginning with the letter a.
a considerable number
cryn nifer

a danger to life
peryg bywyd

abbey
abaty

above
uwchben, ee-oochben

abroad/overseas
tramor, trah-more

absurd
hurt

accelerator
sbardun

accept (to)
derbyn, dehrbin

accident
damwain (b), damwen

accompanist
cyfeilydd

accompany (to)
cyfeilio

accusation
cyhuddiad

acknowledge (to)
arddel

acknowledge/recognise (to)
cydnabod

act (to)
gweithredu

action/deed
gweithred (b)

activity (activities)
gweithgaredd(au), gw-eye-thgaredd (eh)

add (to)
ychwanegu, uchwanegee / adio, adyoh

addicted to
caeth (yn gaeth i)

admit (to)
cyfadde(f), kuh-vaddeh

adopt (to)
mabwysiadu, maboo-eessyadee

adult(s)
oedolyn (oedolion), oy-dolin

adventurer
anturiaethwr, an-tir-ee-eye-thoor

advertise (to)
hysbysebu, hussbussebee

advertisement(s)
hysbyseb(ion) (b)

advice
cyngor, kungor

advise (to)
cynghori

after
ar ôl, ar ôl

after all
wedi'r cyfan, wedeer kuvan

after/afterwards/then
wedyn, wedin

again/once more
drachefn

age (to)
heneiddio

agree entirely (to)
cytuno'n llwyr, kuh-teeno'n lloo-eer

agricultural
amaethyddol

aid
cymorth

aim
nod

aim (to)
anelu

air conditioning
aerdymheru, eye-r dum-heree

alarm
larwm, laroom

alive and well
yn fyw ac yn iach, un fee-oo ac un yah-ch

all being well
os byw ac iach

all over the world
ar hyd y byd

all the time
drwy'r amser, droor amsser

allege (to)
honni

almost/nearly
bron, bron

almost/nearly (as a phrase on its own)
bron â bod, bron ah bôd

almost/nearly (with a verb)
bron â, bron ah

almost/nearly (with an adjective)
bron yn, bron un

already
eisioes

although/despite
er, ehr

always
wastad yn, wah-stad un

amiable/loveable
serchus, seh-r-chiss

Ammanford
Rhydaman, Rheedaman

ancient
hynafol

ancient monument
heneb

and him
ac yntau

angry
crac

animal(s)
anifail (anifeiliaid), anee-vile (anee-vile-yed)

announce (to)
cyhoeddi

announcement
cyhoeddiad

answer machine
peiriant ateb, pie-ree-ant ah-teb

anthem
anthem (b), anthem

antiques
hen bethau

any more
bellach, beh-llach

anyone/no one
neb, nêb

anyway
ta beth, tah bêth / beth bynnag, beth bynnag

apart from
heblaw am, heblah-w am

apologise (to)
ymddiheuro, umddee-high-roh

apology
ymddiheuriad

appeal (to)
apelio, apel-yoh

appropriate
priodol

archdruid
archdderwydd

area
ardal (b), ardal

Argentina
Ariannin (Yr), Uhr Ar-yan-in

argue (to)
ffraeo, ffry-oh

argument
dadl (b)

army
byddin (b), buddin

around here
ffordd hyn

arrest (to)
arestio, aresstoh

arrive (to)
cyrraedd, kuh-rrâdd

art
celf (b)

article
erthygl (b)

arts (the)
celfyddydau (y)

as (e.g. as I arrived  wrth i fi gyrraedd)
wrth, oorth

as bad as
cynddrwg â, kunddroog

as good as
cystal â (t.ll.), kusstal ah

as if
fel petai...

as...as
mor…â (t.ll.), mohr…ah

ashes (burnt to ashes/to a crisp)
ulw (llosgi'n ulw), iloo

astray
ar gyfeiliorn, ahr guv-eye-l-yorn

at a time
ar adeg

at one time
ar un adeg, ahr een ah-deg

at the foot of
wrth droed

at the time
ar y pryd

at times
ar adegau

atmosphere
awyrgylch

attentive (adj.) (attentively (adv.)
astud (yn astud (adf.), un asstid

attic
atig, ah-tig

attitude (towards)
agwedd (at) (b), ag-weh-dd

audience
cynulleidfa (b), kunee-llied-vah

aunt
modryb/anti (b), modrib

author
awdur, ah-w-dir

avoid (to)
osgoi, ossgoy

awake
ar ddihun, ahr ddee-heen

away from home
oddi cartre

awkwardness
chwithdod


Pronunciation Guide

In Welsh words the stress usually falls on the last but one syllable (a syllable is a unit of sound). Putting stress on a syllable means lengthening the sound with more emphasis in the voice.

For example, people with a Welsh accent would pronounce the surname Meredith as Mer-ed-ith, with the last sound but one ‘ed’ stressed. People with an English accent would tend to put equal weight on all three syllables – Mer-ed-ith.

If the stress falls on the last syllable of a Welsh word it is usually marked by an accent e.g. carafán. There are very few words like this in Welsh.

Try saying these words: – canol – canolfan. The stress moves on each time a unit of sound or syllable is added.

Abbreviations used

(adj) adjective- a describing word
(b) benywaidd – feminine (noun)
(col) colloquial– a word used in one area of Wales
(au) ….(s) plurals e.g. shop(s) – siop(au)
adre(f) (f) not pronounced
{rhed} root/stem of the verb e.g. rhedeg {rhed-}
(t.ll.) treiglad llaes – the word causes an aspirate mutation
(t.t.) treiglad trwynol – the word causes a nasal mutation
(t.m.) treiglad meddal – the word causes a soft mutation
(adj.) adjective
….(to) verb e.g. talk (to) – to talk
(tag) tags are short questions that we put on the end of sentences such as ‘…isn’t it?’
N.W. a word used in North Wales
S.W. a word used in South Wales

Further resources

For a complete learner’s dictionary I recommend Heini Gruffudd’s Welsh Learner’s Dictionary, and for a comprehensive online dictionary go to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru.

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