In English the ‘that’ is often left out in speech, e.g.‘I think it’s good’, rather than ‘I think that it’s good’. The ‘that’ in these type of sentences cannot be omitted in Welsh.
When a clause is placed in front of a sentence, some form of ‘bod’ has to be used e.g. If two separate sentences are joined together (as in the 3 examples below) ‘mae’ has to be changed into ‘bod’
Dw i’n meddwl. Mae e’n dda. > Dw i’n meddwl fod e’n dda.
(I think) (He / it is good) (I think that he / it is good)
Dw i’n meddwl. Mae hi’n dda. > Dw i’n meddwl bod hi’n dda
|(I think) (She is good) (I think that she / it is good)
Dw i’n meddwl. Maen nhw’n dda > Dw i’n meddwl bod nhw’n dda
(I think) (They are good) (I think that they are good)
In full they would be written as ei fod e, ei bod hi, eu bod nhw, but the first element ei/eu is usually left out in speech. They cause the same mutations (e.g. his bag > ei fag e) as when used to posses things.
Beth wyt ti’n feddwl o’r rhaglen?
In full this sentence would be written as:-
Beth wyt ti’n ei feddwl o’r rhaglen?
(Lit. What do you think it of the programme)
The ‘it’ is usually left out in speech but the soft mutation caused by it is retained.
Notice that ‘mod i’, ‘fod di’ etc can mean not only – ‘that I am’, ‘that you are’ etc. but also ‘that I was’, ‘that you were’ etc. – according to the context of the sentence. e.g.
Mae e’n dost Mae’n flin ’da fi glywed fod e’n dost
(He is ill) (I’m sorry to hear that he is ill)
Roedd e’n dost Roedd hi’n flin ’da fi glywed fod e’n dost
(He was ill) (I was sorry to hear that he was ill)
The ‘that’ is often left out in English but this can’t be done with these tenses in Welsh. e.g.
(I) hope (that) she is/was Hope she is/was Gobeithio bod hi
In Welsh ‘that’ often occurs where it would not in English, e.g:
Falle bod hi’n dost > Perhaps that she is ill.
Wrth gwrs fod di > Of course that you are.
Note that the word ‘bod’ not only means ‘that’ but also ‘is/was’.
|(fy) mod i||mod i||that I am/was|
|(dy) fod *di||fod *ti||that you are/were|
|(ei) fod e||fod e||that he/it is/was|
|(ei) bod hi||bod hi||that she/it is/was|
|(ein) bod ni||bod ni||that we are/were|
|(eich) bod chi||bod chi||that you are/were|
|(eu) bod nhw||bod nhw||that they are/were|
|bod y plant||bod y plant||that the children are/were|
Below are the full written forms. The first element of the phrase is usually omitted in speech:
Note that the ‘di’ in the full written form ‘dy fod di’, is pronounced as ‘ti’ in speech.
(fy) mod i, *(dy) fod di, (ei) fod e, (ei) bod hi, (ein) bod ni, (eich) bod chi, (eu) bod nhw.
Many people don’t pronounce the mutations and the last ‘d’ of the ‘bod’ is often left out. So you may hear the following in rapid casual speech:- bo’ fi, bo’ ti, bo’ fe, bod hi, bo’ ni, bo’ chi, bo’ nhw.