Dyma enghraifft o ferf sy'n afreolaidd yn yr amser gorffennol - cael sy'n golygu 'to get / to have'.

Rydyn ni eisoes wedi gweld sut mae ffurfio amser gorffennol dod. Yn gyntaf, cofiwch amser gorffennol y ferf mynd (es i, est ti, aeth e/hi, aethnon ni, aethoch chi, aethon nhw). Wedyn, ychwanegwch D i ffurfio amser gorffennol dod ar lafar (des i, dest ti, daeth e/hi, daethon ni, daethoch chi, daethon nhw).

Byddwn ni'n gallu gwneud peth tebyg i ffurfio amser gorffennol cael ar lafar. Y tro hwn, ychwanegwch G at amser gorffennol 'mynd' i wneud amser gorffennol cael ar lafar (ges i, gest ti, gaeth e/hi, gaethon ni, gaethoch chi, gaethon nhw).

This is an example of an irregular verb in the past - ‘cael, meaning to get or to have.

We have already seen how to form the past tense of dod. First, remember the past tense of the verb mynd (es i, est ti, aeth e/hi, aethnon ni, aethoch chi, aethon nhw). Then add a D to make the past tense of dod in speech (des i, dest ti, daeth e/hi, daethon ni, daethoch chi, daethon nhw).

We can do a similar thing to form the spoken form of past tense of cael. This time, add a ‘G’ to the past tense of ‘mynd’ to get the past tense of ‘cael’ in speech (ges i, gest ti, gaeth e/hi, gaethon ni, gaethoch chi, gaethon nhw).

Llafar gwlad - sillafiad / Colloquial
Llafar gwlad - ynganiad / PronouncedIaith Safonol - sillafiad / Standard
Ges iGes iCes i
Gest tiGest tiCest ti
Gaeth e/hiGâth e/hiCafodd e/hi
Gaethon niGethon niCawson ni
Gaethoch chiGethoch chiCawsoch chi
Gaethon nhwGethon nhwCawson nhw

Ar lafar, mae'r sain 'c' yn amser gorffennol 'cael' yn treiglo'n feddal bob amser. Trwy hyn, bydd siarad yn llawer mwy hawdd. Byddwn ni'n gofyn cwestiwn trwy ddefnyddio tôn y llais, a byddwn ni'n gwneud brawddeg negyddol trwy ychwanegu 'ddim'. Ni fydd ddim rhaid defnyddio rhagor o dreigladau, e.e.

Ges i ginio               I had dinner.
Ges i ginio?             Did I have dinner?
Ges i ddim cinio    I did not have dinner.

Dylech chi edrych ar y ffurfiau safonol uchod, ar y dde.

Yn yr iaith safonol, neu'r iath ffurfiol, byddai rhaid treiglo'n feddal (mewn cwestiwn), neu dreiglo'n llaes (mewn brawddeg negyddol), e.e.

Ces i ginio                I had dinner
Ges i ginio?              Did I have dinner?
Ches i ddim cinio      I did not have dinner

Nid oes dim rhaid gwneud hyn gyda'r ffurfiau y byddwn ni'n eu defnyddio ar y cwrs hwn. Bydd yr atebion wastad yr un peth - Do a Naddo.

Gan mai berf afreolaidd yw 'cael' byddwch chi'n clywed amrywiadau mewn rhannau gwahanol o dde-orllewin Cymru, e.e:

th e/hi > Gâs e/hi (He/she had)
Gethon ni > Geson ni (We had)
Gethoch chi > Gesoch chi (You had)
ac yn y blaen...

Cofiwch, bydd rhaid treiglo ar ôl yr amser gorffenol 'cael':

tost                              Ges i dost (I had toast)
brechdan                    Gaeth hi frechdan (I had a sandwich)
brechdan                    Gaeth Ffred a Sandra frechdan (Ffred and Sandra had a sandwich)
Beth gethoch chi?     Ges i frechdan             What did you have? (I had) a sandwich

Yn y brawddegau uchod, gwrthrywch i ferf gryno yw 'tost' a 'brechdan'. Bydd gwrthrych i ferf cryno yn yr amser gorffennol yn treiglo'n feddal os bydd hyn yn bosibl.

Bydd y gwrthrych (e.e., ‘brechdan’) yn treiglo hyd yn oed os llawer o bobl y bydd yn ei bwyta, e.e:

The ‘c’ of cael is permanently soft mutated in the past tense in informal speech. This makes things much easier, as a question is formed by the tone of voice and the negative just by adding ‘ddim’ . No need for any more mutations e.g:

Ges i ginio               I had dinner
Ges i ginio?             Did I have dinner?
Ges i ddim cinio      I did not have dinner

See also the more standard forms above on the right.

These would have to be soft mutated for a question and an aspirate mutation used for a negative e.g:

Ces i ginio               I had dinner
Ges i ginio?            Did I have dinner?
Ches i ddim cinio   I did not have dinner

There is no need to do this for the forms which we will be using on the course. The answers are the same - Do / Naddo.

Because this is an irregular verb you will hear variations in different parts of the south west e.g.

th e/hi > Gâs e/hi
Gethon ni > Geson ni
Gethoch chi > Gesoch chi
and so on...

Remember, whatever you had mutates:

tost Ges i dost.
brechdan Gaeth hi frechdan.
brechdan Gaeth Ffred a Sandra frechdan.
What did you have? a sandwich Ges i frechdan

This is the object of the sentence and will take a soft mutation in the past tense.

The object, ‘brechdan’ , will mutate even if a lot of people have a sandwich e.g:

VerbSubjectObject (mutates)
GâthFfred, Sandra, Bryn a Siânfrechdan
Ffred, Sandra, Bryn a Siânhada sandwich

Mae hyn yn digwydd dim ond pan fyddwn ni'n sôn am rywbeth amhendant (e.e., 'a sandwich' yn Saesneg). Bydd pethau'n wahanol os byddwn ni eisiau sôn am rywbeth pendant (e.e., 'the sandwich' yn Saesneg), e.e.

Ges i dost I had toast/some toast
Ges i’r tost I had the toast
Ges i goffi I had a coffee
Ges i’r coffi I had the coffee

Berf (Verb), Goddrych (Subject), Gwrthrych (Object) > 'VSO' yw'r drefn arferol yn Gymraeg
Goddrych (Subject), Berf (Verb), Gwrthrych (Object) > 'SVO' yw'r drefn arferol yn Saesneg

Berf (Verb) = gair sy'n dynodi gweithred
Goddrych (Subject) = pwy (neu beth) sy'n gwneud y gweithred
Object (Gwrthrych) = pwy (neu beth) sy'n dioddef y gweithred

This only works when it is ‘a’ something not with ‘the’ e.g.

I had toast/some toast Ges i dost
I had the toast Ges i’r tost.
I had a coffee Ges i goffi
I had the coffee Ges i’r coffi

Verb, Subject, Object > VSO is the normal order in Welsh
Subject, Verb, Object > SVO is the normal order in English

Verb = action word
Subject = person/people doing the action (who was doing it)
Object = what was ‘had’, seen, read, drunk etc